Psych 361, Week 7
Psych 361, Week 7 Psych 361
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
2.22.16 Clicker Q: During what stage did Piaget suggest infants develop object permanence? Stage 4 (8-‐12 months) ClickerQ: During what stage did Piaget suggest infants first show signs of imitating? Stage 4 (8-‐12 months) • Challenges to Piaget o Infants from 2-‐5 months will demonstrate surprise when an object seems to disappear § This shows that object permanence might occur sooner o Newborns will imitate some facial gestures and other studies suggest that deferred (minutes, hours, days before) imitation can occur as early as 6 months • Memory o Infants as young as 3 months appear to be able to remember specific objects and their own actions over periods as long as one week § 2 month olds can remember for 1 to 2 days § 6 month olds can remember for 2 weeks o 18 month olds could remember to press a lever to make a toy train move around a track after 13 weeks • Language o Infants start to learn language in the womb § Newborns show a preference for the language their mother speaks o Cooing (1-‐2 months old) – repetitive vowel sounds o Babbling (6-‐9 months) – extended repetition of certain syllabus (constant sounds frequently combined with vowel sounds) “bababa,” “mamama,” “dahdahdah” § Makes up about half of a baby’s non-‐crying sounds o First words (1 year) – infant begins to utter single words (sometimes only the parent can understand) and holographic speech (use one word to mean many different things § They might use one words like bottle to show that they see their bottle, they want their bottle, something is the same color as their bottle, etc. § Expressive language: ability to express and produce words § Receptive language: ability to comprehend words o Naming explosion (18 months) – acquisition of 50 to 100 words per month! § Child rapidly gains language skills, there is a lot of variability but this is an average § Mostly nouns; 8.5% are verbs o Two word sentences (21 months) § “Good job,” “Out car” o Multiword sentences (24 months) § “I saw a bus!” There is a lot of variation in development of language *Deficit in expressing but not receptive language, the child is good and may just be shy. *Deficit in both may be hard to catch up later on. ClickerQ: What is receptive language? The ability to comprehend spoken language • Methods to Support Language Acquisition o Child-‐Directed Speech (Infant-‐Directed Speech) § Higher pitch, simpler words, repetition and exaggerated emotional tones (technical terms for baby talk) o Recasting – repeating the child’s sentences but in longer, more grammatically correct forms § Child: “Doggy bark!” Mother: “Yes, the dog is barking” § Children exposed to this are more likely to learn proper grammar, have larger vocabulary, and have better speech o Talking and Reading § Ask questions that require dialog (Dialogic Reading), not just pointing at a picture § “What happened to Winnie the Pooh?” instead of “Where is Winnie the Pooh?” § It increases vocabulary • Theoretical Approaches to Language Acquisition o 1. Behaviorism (Skinner) – infants learn language by being taught and reinforced o 2. Social Learning – infants are driven to communication for social reasons § for social reasons; they require an adult actively involved in their language development (not through television) o 3. Nativist (Chomsky) – infants are born prepared for language § suggests that language is innate § language triggers innate language acquisition device § suggests that they don’t need direct teaching to learn (against theories like Behaviorism because he doesn’t think that they learn through observation) o 4. Hybrid model – a variety of different factors combine to make language learning possible § adults need to encourage child to talk, encourage social aspect and nurture innate will to speak 2
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