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Psych 361, Week 7

by: BoseAmosun

Psych 361, Week 7 Psych 361

GPA 3.12

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About this Document

Chapter 3 & 4: The First Two Years Part II: The Mind (Cognitive Development)
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Carrie Cuttler
Class Notes
Psych 361, Cuttler, chapter 3, chapter 4, developmental psych
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
2.22.16   Clicker  Q:  During  what  stage  did  Piaget  suggest  infants  develop  object  permanence?   Stage  4  (8-­‐12  months)   ClickerQ:  During  what  stage  did  Piaget  suggest  infants  first  show  signs  of  imitating?   Stage  4  (8-­‐12  months)   •   Challenges  to  Piaget   o   Infants  from  2-­‐5  months  will  demonstrate  surprise  when  an  object  seems  to   disappear   §   This  shows  that  object  permanence  might  occur  sooner   o   Newborns  will  imitate  some  facial  gestures  and  other  studies  suggest  that   deferred  (minutes,  hours,  days  before)  imitation  can  occur  as  early  as  6  months     •   Memory   o   Infants  as  young  as  3  months  appear  to  be  able  to  remember  specific  objects  and   their  own  actions  over  periods  as  long  as  one  week   §   2  month  olds  can  remember  for  1  to  2  days     §   6  month  olds  can  remember  for  2  weeks   o   18  month  olds  could  remember  to  press  a  lever  to  make  a  toy  train  move  around   a  track  after  13  weeks     •   Language     o   Infants  start  to  learn  language  in  the  womb   §   Newborns  show  a  preference  for  the  language  their  mother  speaks   o   Cooing  (1-­‐2  months  old)  –  repetitive  vowel  sounds   o   Babbling  (6-­‐9  months)  –  extended  repetition  of  certain  syllabus  (constant  sounds   frequently  combined  with  vowel  sounds)  “bababa,”  “mamama,”  “dahdahdah”   §   Makes  up  about  half  of  a  baby’s  non-­‐crying  sounds   o   First  words  (1  year)  –  infant  begins  to  utter  single  words  (sometimes  only  the   parent  can  understand)  and  holographic  speech  (use  one  word  to  mean  many   different  things     §   They  might  use  one  words  like  bottle  to  show  that  they  see  their  bottle,   they  want  their  bottle,  something  is  the  same  color  as  their  bottle,  etc.   §   Expressive  language:  ability  to  express  and  produce  words   §   Receptive  language:  ability  to  comprehend  words   o   Naming  explosion  (18  months)  –  acquisition  of  50  to  100  words  per  month!   §   Child  rapidly  gains  language  skills,  there  is  a  lot  of  variability  but  this  is  an   average   §   Mostly  nouns;  8.5%  are  verbs   o   Two  word  sentences  (21  months)     §   “Good  job,”  “Out  car”   o   Multiword  sentences  (24  months)   §   “I  saw  a  bus!”   There  is  a  lot  of  variation  in  development  of  language     *Deficit  in  expressing  but  not  receptive  language,  the  child  is  good  and  may  just  be  shy.   *Deficit  in  both  may  be  hard  to  catch  up  later  on.     ClickerQ:  What  is  receptive  language?  The  ability  to  comprehend  spoken  language     •   Methods  to  Support  Language  Acquisition   o   Child-­‐Directed  Speech  (Infant-­‐Directed  Speech)   §   Higher  pitch,  simpler  words,  repetition  and  exaggerated  emotional  tones   (technical  terms  for  baby  talk)   o   Recasting  –  repeating  the  child’s  sentences  but  in  longer,  more  grammatically   correct  forms   §   Child:  “Doggy  bark!”  Mother:  “Yes,  the  dog  is  barking”   §   Children  exposed  to  this  are  more  likely  to  learn  proper  grammar,  have   larger  vocabulary,  and  have  better  speech   o   Talking  and  Reading   §   Ask  questions  that  require  dialog  (Dialogic  Reading),  not  just  pointing  at  a   picture   §   “What  happened  to  Winnie  the  Pooh?”  instead  of  “Where  is  Winnie  the   Pooh?”   §   It  increases  vocabulary   •   Theoretical  Approaches  to  Language  Acquisition     o   1.  Behaviorism  (Skinner)  –  infants  learn  language  by  being  taught  and  reinforced   o   2.  Social  Learning  –  infants  are  driven  to  communication  for  social  reasons   §   for  social  reasons;  they  require  an  adult  actively  involved  in  their   language  development  (not  through  television)   o   3.  Nativist  (Chomsky)  –  infants  are  born  prepared  for  language   §   suggests  that  language  is  innate   §   language  triggers  innate  language  acquisition  device   §   suggests  that  they  don’t  need  direct  teaching  to  learn  (against  theories   like  Behaviorism  because  he  doesn’t  think  that  they  learn  through   observation)   o   4.  Hybrid  model  –  a  variety  of  different  factors  combine  to  make  language   learning  possible     §   adults  need  to  encourage  child  to  talk,  encourage  social  aspect  and   nurture  innate  will  to  speak     2  


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