Introduction to International Relations
Introduction to International Relations 32124
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellie Gluhosky on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 32124 at University of Montana taught by Karen Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see PSCI 230X-01 in Public Relations at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Week 4 Notes (International Relations) Critical/ Revolutionary Theories Remember- realism focuses on dominance, liberalism focuses on reciprocity, critical/revolutionary focuses on identity. Marxism o Karl Marx started out as an economic liberal (1848), and had similar views to Adam Smith. Feudalism as an economic system leads to poverty and oppression, given the technology of the era. Technology leads to a division of labor, resulting in capitalism, because more goods are being produced. Marx realized that capitalism leads to a class system, divided between laborers and capitalists. Laborers are paid just enough to survive, similar to the feudalism system. Within the capitalist system, capitalists exploited the laborers, weaving exploitation into the system. Marx argued that this system could not last forever because once technology increases, there will be no need for laborers. Only when everyone has a good standard of living can a revolution happen, the revolution could lead to communism. o Communism to Marx was an economic system where everyone has the individual ability to achieve a good standard of living through shared goods. Lenin though that you could skip the step of exploitation, communist Russia- a state owns all land and capital but does not have much technology, because there was not a capitalist step. Government made prices. Not associated with Marxist communism. o Marxism- socialist states lead to international peace and cooperation. All laborers are the same, they are all exploited however labor revolution did not work because of government handing out what the people apparently put value in; food, right to vote etc. (if we make it seem like the system is nice, the people will not overthrow it) Thus comes the political liberal reform, Marx said that it will not work, comes up with the idea of the middle class and that the reform appealed to the middle class. Middle-class- creates a sense of movement within the system that wasn’t present in the feudalist system, you could now aspire to move up: bourgeoisie. Proletariat- the worker who only has labor to live for. Financial crashes will become more and more frequent until the whole thing falls apart. When capitalists are wiped out and the world falls to laborers. Internationally- core states that have trade and finance relations with periphery states. Core states are capitalist and sometimes offer assistance to periphery states (middle-class states) to give the illusion that they could eventually move up. Peripheral countries become dependent on core states, when financial crisis hits, peripheral countries are wiped out because of exploitation, which according to Marxists leads to revolution. Feminism- group of theories, many feminists are liberals. Any group that has inexperienced inequality deserves to be treated equally. o Essentialist- men and women are biologically distinct (male and female nature). Male nature wants aggression, female nature is more nurturing, caring etc. More women calling for mutual interests, fundamentally changes the nature of the state. o Radical/Critical- successful leaders in a male-dominated world have to have masculine tendencies, which leads to the need to socialize gender. Constructivism- comes from feminism, trying to understand how to socialize children. Realism and Idealism are theories that are ingrained in us from authority, propaganda, education, etc.- in other words, it is the idea that ideas are constructed. o If we believe that wealth is what we need to achieve a better world, then we can achieve that. Changing ideas change the ways that states interact internationally. – “Imagine Peace” Post- Modernism- everyone has their own ideas, no way to judge who is right, a relativism ideology. “What is the world?”- observation based. Constructivism and feminism try to figure out the problems of the world and decide how we can make the world a better place- positive, progressive idealism. o Within Idealism- Materialists and Idealists Marx- materialist aspirations Constructivism- vision of peace is what matters, we could live in peace, even if we were in poverty.
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