Lifespan Development week 7 notes
Lifespan Development week 7 notes PSY 2603
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Lara Mayeux in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Chapter 6: Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: Principles of Piaget’s Theory: Scheme actions or mental representations that organize knowledge Infancy physical schemes—things like grasping, sucking Older kids problem solving, classification Cognitive processes Organization: combining simple schemes into more complex schemes Equilibrium: period of changing from one stage of thought to the next Adaptation: the tendency to adjust our schemes to environmental demands, new experiences Assimilation using existing schemes to incorporate new information Accommodation Changing existing schemes to fit new information and experiences Four stages of cognitive development: Sensorimotor (birth 2 years) 6 stages infants construct an understanding of the world Stage 1: reflex activity (01 months) grasping and sucking Stage 2: primary circular reactions (14 months) Stage 3: secondary circular reactions(48 months) Stage 4: coordination of secondary schemes (812 months) intentionality: infant plans goaldirected behavior Stage 5: tertiary circular reactions (1218 months) experimentation that leads to knowledge about objects Stage 6: internalization of schemes (1824 months) beginnings of symbolic thought Object permanence Knowing an object or person still exists even though we can’t see, hear, or touch it AnotBerror: infants will select the familiar hiding place (A) of an object rather than the new hiding place (B) of an object. Preoperational Stage (27 years) children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings Operations reversible mental actions that allow children to act mentally rather than physically Symbolic function substage ability to mentally represent an object that is not present Egocentrism distinguishing between one’s own and someone else’s perspectives Animism believing inanimate objects to have lifelike qualities and being capable of actions Intuitive thought substage using primitive reasoning and asking many questions Centration focusing on just one characteristic and ignoring others Conservation knowing that altering appearance does not change its properties Concrete Operational Stage (711 years) children can reason logically and perform concrete operations o Seriation ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension o Transitivity combining certain criteria to reach certain conclusions Formal Operational Stage (11+ years) thinking in more abstract and logical ways o Adolescent egocentrism belief that others are as interested in them as they are in themselves o Imaginary audience feeling that one is the center of attention o Personal fable adolescent’s sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility Piaget and Education: 1. Take a constructivist approach 2. Facilitate rather than direct learning 3. Consider the child’s knowledge and level of thinking 4. Promote the student’s intellectual health 5. Turn the classroom into a setting of discovery and exploration Criticisms of Piaget: Cognitive abilities emerge earlier than Piaget thought Development is not as stagelike Children can be trained to reason at higher stages Culture and education have stronger influences on development Vygotsky’s Theory: Zone of proximal development (ZPD) range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master alone, but can be accomplished with help from others. Scaffolding the changing level of guidance while teaching, in order to fit the child’s performance level Vygotsky’s teaching strategies: 1. Use the child’s ZPD in teaching 2. Use moreskilled peers as teachers 3. Monitor and encourage use of private speech 4. Place instruction in a meaningful context 5. Implement Tools of the Mind, a set of curriculum that emphasizes selfregulation and foundation of literacy Cognitive changes in adulthood Postformal thought Reflective, relativistic, contextual Provisional Realistic Recognized as being influenced by emotion Fluid intelligence ability to reason abstractly Crystalline intelligence accumulated information Cognitive mechanics linked to biological foundations and brain development Cognitive pragmatics associated with experience and culture
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