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by: Marco Wolf


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Psychlogy > PSY 301 > INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
Marco Wolf
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Juan Salinas

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Juan Salinas
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This 57 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marco Wolf on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Juan Salinas in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see /class/181781/psy-301-university-of-texas-at-austin in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/07/15
What is psychology The study of the mind how its processes guide our thoughts and actions There are two broad fields and two subfields that are closely tied with psychology AWhich two science fields BWhich two subfields Psychology is most related to Philosophy ABiology and philosophy BPhysiology the study of living things and epistemology the study of how we know what we know Who were the first to become aware of the signs of brain damage What part of the body did this group believe was the seat of consciousness The Egyptians Aristotle believed it was the heart hearing our heart pounding in our heads In contrast the philosopher and physician Hippocrates the father of Western medicine proposed that the brain was the seat of the sensations What part of the brain is involved with sensations and memories Location The cerebrum Front What part is involved with making movement Location Cerebellum Near the back Who used electric charge to view frogs limbs twitch Luigi Galvani and Von Helmholtz in order to measure nerve impulse 90ftsec What is psychophysics Who began this study Study of the relationship between physical stimulus and perception Johannes Muller What are the seven foci of research Define each Developmental social experimental physiological cognitive psychometrics and personality Developmental changes in childhood language movement mathmusical abilities the formation of self identity moralityiuyt Social Interpersonal behavior how people behave in social and isolated situations Experimental human and animal research concerned with sensation memory learning etc Physiological concerned with underlying biological and chemical mechanisms Cognitive complexities such as reasoning problem solving and creativity Psychometrics the theorytechniquestools of psychological measurements Ensures the validityreliability of tests Personality individual beliefsbehaviors across a variety of times places conditions etc Research Perspectives Psychoanalysis says people function on what principle Pleasure principle Avoid pain pursue pleasure People inherently evil Freud What does the Cognitive perspective study It studies how people perceive decide think and the attitudes they hold to find the causes of behaviors Example If a person was depressed the cognitive perspective would be to see iftheir personal viewsideas were triggering the depression What does the Evolutionary perspective study Mental traits as a result of human evolution NOTE It is a majordominant perspective The behavioral perspective The repetition of behaviors are the foundation of learningpsychological states doing leads to beingquot The biological perspective Physiological activity of the brain are the source of psychological traits like anxiety aggression mental illness Twins if one was born with schizophrenia the second has a 50 chance of having it too C A timeline 1860 Gustav Fechner publishes Elements ofPsychophysics The book described techniques which the first psychologists used for the first experiments 1879 V lhelm Wundt founds first psychology lab at University of Leipzig Germany Known for structuralism breaking down the mind s experience into very basic structural components Functionalism challenged this with the study of what the mind does rather than conscious experience and structure 1900 Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation ofDreams which argued for the study of the role of the unconscious mind Finds Psychoanalysis perspective He was influenced by the writings of Charles Darwin and Fechner 1905 First IQ test created by Alfred BinetTheodore Simon Field of psychometrics founded 1912 Max Wertheimer founds the Gestalt school opposes structuralism Thinks the mind didn t built experiences from simple components we see complex sensory events as a whole rather than a collection of simple elements 1913 John Watson publishes Behaviorism to oppose structuralism Highly influenced by functionalism Objective observation of overt behaviors only fit subject for psychological study 1932 EC Tolman publishes Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men Said some things can not be explained by rewardstimulus circumstances NeobehaviorismSkinner 1951 Carl Rogers says humans a have a conscious ability to control their behavior One of the founders of phenomenological perspective 1957 Noam Chomsky says language is innate not learned by behavioral habit Philosophical Views What is Determinism Every event is determined by prior events Cause and effect Predictability of the future if we observe the events of today What is Positivism ls valid knowledge objective or subjective Objective knowledge is based on the observation of the world through experience Sub39ectivim is invalid What is Materialism What is the only basis of reality Everything is caused by physical materials of the universe Physical matter is the only basis of reality What is Reductionism All complexities can be understood by breaking them down to simpler components The whole is just the sum of parts What is Rationalism Logic is a valid source of knowledge Empiricism states that valid knowledge can only be gained through what kind of experience Valid knowledge can only be gained through sensory experience It is superior to reason or logic alone Gene Observable heritable trait A DNA sequence Genotype The DNA content of a cell nucleus Clones have identical genotypes Phenotype The patterndegree of expression of the genotype Polypeptide a long chain of amino acids Monozygotic MZ twins twins from the division of a single egg Identical twins Dizygotic DZ twins Twins derived from simultaneous fertilization of two eggs Fraternal twins Most traits consist of multiple genes The environmenthistory determine which genes exert influence Structuralism Determining the structure of the conscious mind Person Mind Ideas Beliefs Locke SimpleComplex Ideas are learned so early Empiricism Simple comes from so it seems like they were Tabula Rasa sensation cannot be broken always there down Complex ideas are made up of many simple ideas Descartes Mind and body interact Ideas are innate derived Rationalism through the Pineal Gland from experience Von Sensation and perception 1 of3 Founders Behaviorism Helmholtz especially colors first to of Psychophysics measure the speed of a Modern Psychologyquot nerve impulse Fechner fechners law magnitude of 1 of 3 Founders sensation of Psychophysics Modern Psychologyquot Wundt first lab of psychology 1 of3 Founders Structuralist mind built up conscious of Psychophysics experience from the Modern Psychologyquot immediate to the mediate the color red to thinking about a rose Stumpf main competitor of Wundt Structuralist because Stumpf got the professorship over him Freud influenced by Fechner Pleasure principle Avoid Hedonism unconscious processes can pain pursue pleasure affect your conscious state psychoanalysis Wertheimer The opposite of The whole is greater than Gestalt structuralism You see the the sum of its parts Revolution rose first then break it down to red round etc Watson The idea of having 12 Behaviorism babies and turning them into whatever he wanted Skinner Put rats in a box with root Neobehaviorism beer machines that released the root beer after the rats pulled the lever a certain number of times V lliam Father of functionalism Functionalist James Influenced by Darwin Titchener Structuralist wilhelm van osten had the clever hans Clever Hans was the horse that apparently understood German and followed commands it german Later proved that he was only following unconscious clues from his owner Clever Hans also did simple math and would tap his foot once until his owner s face lit up and that s how he was actually doing the math Five working assumptions of science R D R C R Reality The world always exists even when we aren t aware When you go to sleep the world keeps existing Rationality Everything can be understood with logic Regularity everything is uniformed throughout the universe Gravity is gravity no matter where you are Causality nothing just happens for no reason Every effect has a cause Discoverablility Everything is solvable even if it seems difficult everything in life is like a puzzle because it is solvable no matter how difficult it seems Empiricists Locke tabula rasa blank slate Rationalists Descartes Behaviorists John Watson founded and published Behaviorism to challenge structuralism This was based off of functionalism Structuralists Titchener Stumpf Wundt Hedonists Freud Functionalists V lliam James founder of Functionalism Purposive Behaviorism EC Tolman challenges behaviorism He cited instances of learning which could not be explained by simple rewarded stimulusresponse habits but suggested that even rats formed mental maps of their environment when in search of food Neobehaviorists Skinner Gestalt Revolutionists Wertheimer I Language amp Communication Language is a uniquely human trait and even among human traits it occupies a special place Language uses symbols and rules to communicate information In humans those symbols are seemingly arbitrary atterns of sound As we will discuss animals have not been demonstrated to possess language despite attitudes and claims to the contrary in the popular press Animals can and do communicate with each other but the exibility and complexity of their powers of communication fall short of language An amazing thing about human language is that among other uniquely human skills is its universality For instance reading ability is not language but an acquired skill of processing visual andor spatial information and recognizing that speci c visual and or spatial patterns correspond to a word Not everyone can read either because of a reading disability or a lack of education but they can speak a language Some people are very good at mathematics but others never seem to be able to master it Some people may have exceptional musical talent but others have no musical ability Some peo le have excellent strate ic t 39 39 abilit and can master a ame like chess while others cannot 39 r u A Aspects of Language Lan a is structured and roductive U v But those utterances would still be meaningless without comprehension by the receiver of the message Therefore not only language requires not only the capacity to accurately generate and broadcast a message that uses arbitrary symbols to represent information but also the capacity to quickly and accurately detect and interpret those symbols sent by others as well B Levels of Language Units amp Processes For instance the simlest unit of inoken lan a e is the a w 1 u n For example the pre x quotun reverses the meaning of quotdonequot when they are combined to form quotundonequot The suffix quotorquot changes the meaning of quotactquot when they are combined to form quotactorquot These mo hemes form words which we combine to make hrases and sentences n l I V m w L 1 However people in some jobs and careers may acquire vocabularies of up to 100000 if we take into account their career or jobspeci c terminology that the average person may not understand For instance as a neuroscientistI am familiar with words like quotpolysialylationquot and quotR Zamino5phosphonopentanoate while a plumber will be familiar with terms like quotsumpquot and quothose bibbquot while a chef may be at ease talking about a quotrouxquot and quotcaramelizationquot Limitless amount of combinations sentences C Effects of Context Context for our purposes refers to the circumstances and conditions of the roduction or comprehension of that message l quot 39 I ll a messae that are im n ortant for 17 mw 3mmquot MILL in mm ml 5 LC V For example consider this vague bit of text quotT he procedure is actually quite simple First you arrange things into di erent groups Of course one pile may be su icient depending on how much there is to do If you have to go somewhere else due to a lack of facilities that is the next step otherwise you are pretty well set It is important not to overdo things That is it is better to do too few things at once than too many In the short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise A mistake can be expensive as well At first the whole procedure will seem complicated Soon however it will become just another facet of li equot What does that rambling bunch of phonemes morphemes and sentences mean exactly Is it someone trying to describe how to make homemade candles How to make a batch of illegal street drugs using common household chemicals Or are they simply trying to talk a freshman through how to do laundry See Context can change a lot of meanings II Development of Language Language development in children follows a pattern that strongly suggests that humans have a biologicallybased predisposition to acquire language However they need the presence of other people to acquire and fully develop their capacity Therefore their experience and environment determines how their language skills develop though they do not require formal educational instruction to do so A What is Acuired However this babbling is thought to be purposeful that v Working out their mouth However durin latter art infant starts to focus on the phonemes of their native language W quot year and a half the child typically has a vocabulary of about 15 words In part because of the limitations of vocabulary the child will overextend concepts They re making all 15 words describe everything in the world For instance a child ma refer to dos cats cows and horses indeed an and all four1e ed animas as quotuies i i u 1 despite no formal academic instruction y d 39 F 18 months With 15 words to 6 years with 15000 words is a rate of ever taking a formal language class B Learning Processes There is some contribution of processes such as imitation and conditioning to the acquisition of language However it is generally accepted that these processes alone cannot account for the scope and rate of langua e acquisition in children In fact it was the biologically and co gnitivelybased arguments 39 39 against the behaviorist positions championed by BF Skinner in the eld of language acqu1s1tion that are widely credited for countering the in uence of behaviorism and beginning the rise of cognitive approaches in psycholo For exam le clearl children can and do sometimes I ua MW 39lnc 3H V LL 7 r d likely not have to hear for eks o dren use double negatives like quotNobody don t like mequot or quotI made the wrong mistakequot Dan Slobin has suggested a kind of a middle ground between a purely hardwired biologicallybased inborn language acquisition device that Chomsk ro n osed and a urel behavioristic a roach rooted l in leamin and environmental exerienc 7 39 quotJ Based on is cross mguis 1c study of language development aut how children develop their grammar which he called Slobin develo ed som l M gum ml 39 These include on t worry too much about these details for the exam I T he phonological forms of words can be systematically modified This principle states the generalization that children often engage in a great deal of planul modification of the pronunciation of words Children will add syllables to words reduplication and will add diminutive ending dog dad blanket to doggie daddy blankie T he principle helps children pay attention to the ends of words 5m Underlying semantic relations should be marked overtly and clearly In English word order expresses the functional semantic relations and one can see that children are aware of the meaningful significance of word order Avoid exceptions There are hundreds of examples of children overregularizing grammatical morphemes such as the past tense quotdquot Pay attention to the ends of words Evidence from a number of languages suggests that grammatical markers that are su ixes are learned before those that are pre xes or prepositions Pay attention to the order of words and morphemes As evidence Slobin points to the tendency worldwide for children to adopt one of the word orders they hear in the language around them although they are capable and occasionally do create their own word order Word order helps children encode the functional relations discussed earlier Avoid interruptions or rearrangements of linguistic units Slobin hypothesized that interrupted or rearranged units would be more di icult since they would demand a greater burden on the child 39s short term memory As evidence for the principle he mentions that early complex and coordinated sentences are expanded at the end of the sentence and points to the child39s early yesno question which are produced with rising intonation alone rather than a di erent word r er M A P g C Innate Factors The evidence for innate inborn processes at work in the development of language includes a variety of factors One piece of evidence is the richness of knowledge required and the speed at which it is acquired Remember that between 18 months and 6 years of age children acquire new words at the average rate of about 10 a da each and eve a without an formal instruction s n oin whatever it is that kids naturall quot 39 the leami w H p L m in 4 M Ma pi 1 As we have said before during the rst year the babbling infant goes from being capable of producing all possible phonemes to focusing on the phonemes of their native language Therefore if a second or third or more lan a is to be learned the earlier the additional lan a s are be 11 the W in For example two mdiv1duals speak English from biith One is ten years old and also learned French from biith and the other is twenty years old and also learned French from the age ten Both then have 10 years experience from French The ten year old will be better able to speak understand and translate French than the 20 year old also with 10 years experience with French The difference will be especially evident in a challenging environment such as trying to paiticipate speaking and listening in a French conversation in a noisy and distractin environment such as in a crowded restaurant at lunch The ten year old will exhibit greater pro ciency in the French la l g as h Granted animals can and do communicate For instance animal courtship rituals territory claiming alarm calls are examples of communication in animals However the messages communicated involve very limited acts images or sound limited to very speci c meanings The exibility and symbolic nature of human language is not approached to any degree There have been attempts to teach piimates such as chimpanzees and gorillas human sign language or other novel symbol based languages While they do seem to be able to communicate some ideas they combine the symbols very very differently than a human would For instance the gorilla Koko can and does appropriate form the sign for banana when she wants to eat a banana but she may repeat it over and over Also she apparently uses unusual signs to stand for common words Like the sign for quotnipplequot to stand for people the sign for quotlipsquot to stand for women and the sign for quotfootquot to stand for men according to her handler and chamion Dr Penn Patterson Onl one rimate the n y chimpanzee also called Bonobos 39 for quotKanzi bitequot and quotbite Kanziquot to appropriately distinguish when she hit a playmate or was bitten by her playmate So the answer to the question quotDo animals have languagequot is a quotnoquot but with a quotmaybequot in the case of Kanzi As Chomsky said quotIf an animal had a capacity as biologically advantageous as language but somehow hadn 39t used it until now itwould be an evolutionary miracle like finding an island of humans who could be taught toflyquot READING 2 I What is Intelligence Long story short There is no universally accepted de nition of intelligence In our own intuitive understanding of it we might say that someone who is intelligent is able to make logical reasonable decisions to size up situations quickly and well has read extensively comes up with good ideas and is an expert on a particular subject But how do we measure intelligence objectively There is controversy over how well tests capture intelligence how closely those penandpaper measurements of intelligence apply to success in everyday life and how much genetics and experience contribute to intelligence Given just those questions you can see why it39s not a simple thing to come up with a de nition of intelligence that w39ll satis ever one For our oses tho h we39ll use ver basi 39 1e and I neral de nition II The Tests Individually Administered One thing to keep in mind is that not that many of us have actually ever taken a formal intelligence test Sure we may have taken a test in a magazine or online or the SAT and perhaps gotten some sort of feedback about how smart we are maybe even with a number attached But those really weren t formal intelligence tests Formal intelligence tests are individually administered never in groups by a trained professional Why and how did these formal tests arise Well rst let39s look at the history of intelligence testing and why it was even begun in the rst place A Binet 7 261me w a developed by French psychologists Alfred B inet and Theodore Simon who together developed the test and BinetSimon intelligence scale first published in 1905 The created it at the commission of the French Ministry of Education to identify students who needed special help in coping with the school curriculum and place them in the appropriate grade level with the proper instructional help in the aftermath of laws requiring mandatory public education for all children under the age of 15 in 1882 Before this most schoolchildren came from upperclass families With the requirement of education for all children schools had to educate a much more diverse group of children some with little to no prior education regardless of age and some who appeared retarded or otherwise incapable of bene ting from education Teachers had no way of knowing which of the students experiencing had true retardation and which simply had behavioral problems or poor prior education The BinetSimon test was to help assign children to the appropriate class Binet did not coin the term 39 Binet and Simon noted that children follow the same course of intellectual development but develop at different rates They then employed the concept of ram 39 independent of chronological age If a 9 year old and a 12 year old both displayed mastery of knowledge problem solving and other skills that were ageappropriate for a 10 year old then they both would be assigned a mental age of 10 However though this test was a breakthrough in psychometrics at the time Binet cautioned these scores should not be taken too literally and relied upon too heavily because of the plastic nature of intelligence and the inherent margin of error in the test S E o 3 S 3 m B Stanford Binet 7 D 391 w m 46 hence StanfordBinet by the American psychologist Lewis T erman It use the Binet test as its basis but was substantially revised E was not a mere translation with some items dropped and new items added The result was an Americanized version of the test with questions that were culturally relevant to American children It intelli ence I uotient which was 211 1quot 39 7 m Lha c x rn v 1 w n 1 21153 Mental AgeChronological Age x 100 IQ However this original de nition led to potent1al problems of interpretation For instance since the original versions of the BinetSimon test and intelligence scale were only intended to be administered to French school children for scholastic purposes one could in theory be 30 years of age and take the test and score a perfect maximum mental age of 15 Then according to Terman s new formula 1530 X 100 50 which would be the IQ of a person with severe mental retardation Eventually the IQ de nition was changed to re ect the comparison of the person s test score with the mean score of other people his or her own age Over the years the test became less favored to other tests The last version of 4 had 15 subtests r i vwm 1 01 subpopulations such as the WechslerAdultIntelligence Scale WAIS39 ages 16 and above the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC39 for ages 616 and the Wec ary Scale of I v quot The assignment of IQ scores as mentioned earlier are calculated from the comparison of an individual39s test score with the mean score of the cohort of other people his or her own age The test 39 39 39 see Chater Two section VI for a refresher 2w 1 J r 5 One standard deviation is subdivided into 15 units so that plus one standard deviation is an IQ of 115 and minus one standard deviation is an IQ of 85 This range 85115 is considered the normal range if you remember from the section on statistics this would include 23Qs of all subjects taking the test with 8599 being low average and 101115 being high average Scores that are plus or minus 2 standard deviations from the mean are considered exce tional for obviousl different reasons Scores from 116 to 129 are considered superior with 5 39 39 39 V I l 39 39 V Scores from 84 to 71 are considered borderlJne and scores 5 E g 37 5 o a o H r a o o r o 1 a a r a a 7 5 a 0 7 5 s 3 a a m 37 E 5 0 7 x mfwm III The Tests Group Aptitude The tests that most of us are actually familiar taking are not as we mentioned previously intelligence tests The large group administered tests are aptitude tests They are more restricted than IQ tests in the range of skills and abilities that they attempt to psychometrically assess A US Arm Al ha amp Beta Tests quot 39 c h l Jul Yerkes for u They were inspired by the success of the uick la I e scale assessment of US Army recruits 1 for those that could not read The tests were successful within their limited intended goal of improving selection placement and training for speci c occupations within the army and proved the viability of large group psychometric testing to measure certain task or endeavorspeci c skills B All The Rest The Al ha and Beta tests therefore were the forerunners of all the a titude tests we see today from the l l A 1 i The first vers1ons of the SAT that had started 1n 1901 were nothing like an aptitude test administered by a small number elite colleges to keep out undesirable students minorities and foreigners by testing general knowledge It was never a widely taken test in those days But in 1926 a new version based on the Army Alpha test was developed by Carl Brigham a former assistant of Robert Yerkes who taught at Princeton Brigham adapted the Alpha test mainly by making it more difficult with intentions for widespread use as a college admissions test It was rst administered on a trial basis to a few thousand college applicants in 1926 This was the beginning of the popularity of aptitude testing but the SAT did not begin to gain wide acceptance and popularity until the 1950s SAT scores by themselves are better correlated with high school performance than college performance However when SAT scores high school grades and extracurricular activities are combined there is a better correlation with college performance There is some uestion as to how effective aid test rearation services a m IV What Goes Into A Test In order to make any sense of a test we have to look at the construction of the test are the results consistent does it seem to measure what it s su n osed to and a statistical rationale and framework A great deal of work by psychologists specializing in psychometr1cs goes 1nto the des1gn and development of an intelligence or aptitude test A Standardization The rst thing we39ll cover is standardization and norms To understand norms and statistical assessment one first needs to understand standardization Standardization is the systematic process of developing administrating and scoring tests This consists of testing a group of people determine the range of scores that are typically attained Then where an individual participant s score falls can be compared to the group39s performance With standardization the group must be a representative sample and therefore re ect the population for which the test was designed These procedures are supposed to ensure that all participants are tested under the same conditions that they are all given equal opportunity to determine the correct answer and that all scores are established and interpreted using appropriate criteria The group39s performance is the basis for the tests norms which are the scores and statistical values themselves from the representative group Y I w or different score raters of the same performance question To understand the importance of reliability To understand the basics of test reliability think of a bathroom scale that gave you drastically different readings every time you stepped on it regardless of whether your had gained or lost weight That scale would be unreliable and therefore useless Test vahdrty 1s a necessary precondrtron to test reliability If a test is invalid then there is no point in discussing reliability because test validity is required before reliability can be 39 39 39 in any 39 J 39 wav the bathroom scale Let39s say that the reason for taking a weight measurement is to assess your cardiovascular health But both skinny and fat people can be in poor cardiovascular shape so that rationale is invalid as a measure of your cardiovascular health Therefore the issue of whether or not the scale is reliable becomes pointless n I However if a test is not reliable it is also not valid We can change the example to weighing yourself to predict if you can fit into an old pair of jeans Now the basic concept may be valid but if the scale is unreliable then the rationale behind just that specific instance of weighing yourself to predict whether you can t into the old pair of jeans would become invalid since your weighing yourself wouldn39t predict if you could fit into your jeans But as soon as you get a reliable scale the test would become valid again V Theories Of Intelligence Three Examples There are several different theories of intelligence We ll highlight three that have clear differences in how they view intelligence and the numbers or types of intelligence Cultural Bias Slide Goddard Uses IQApptitude tests to immigrants literally just off the boat Shows that European jews itallians Russians and Hungarians are far less intelligent than the average American Finding were used to set immigration laws THEY COULDN T EVEN SPEAK ENGLISH Genetics play role quality of environment Enrichedby the top of your potential deprived near the bottom of your potentia A Spearman39s 1927 General Intelligence Charles S earman was an early psychometric ps chologist who believed that there was a single basic Hecameto that position because he found that the grades of schoolchildren across a wide variety of seemingly unrelated subjects were strongly positively correlated associated He believed that G interacted with a factor speci c to each individual mental task S which was the individual ability that would make a person more or less skilled at a given mental task In other words Spearman s idea was based on the observation that if a person has a good vocabulary there is a better than 5050 chance that they have a good memory and that they are also good at math Likewise if a person is good at math they are also probably likely to have a good vocabulary or memory These associations aren39t perfect but they are usually true General intelligence G was the conceptual explanation for why people39s scores generally tend to correlate across subjects and the specific abilities or skills S explained the differences in the individual scores So there s one S for math a different S for vocabulary a different S for memory and so forth for each type of cognitive task Skill sets interact with natural intelligence to allow you to perform well on a test u h B Gardner39s Frames ofMind Howard Gardner 1983 proposed a theory of independent them com rehend and produce verbal material 2 w understanding and expressing oneself through music and rhythmic movements or dance or composing playing or conducting music 3 I l r involves numbers and computing skills recognizing patterns and relationshis timelines ability to solve di erent kinds of problems through logic 4 2m h 2 involves visual perception of the environment ability to create and manipulate m ntal imaes and the orientation of the body in space 5 physical coordination and dexterity using fine and gross motor skills and exressin oneself or learning through physical activities 6 u understanding how to communicate with and understand other people and how to ork collabratively understanding one39s inner world of emotions and thoughts and growing in the dbl ity to control them and work with them consciously Gardner came to his point of View because he had come to consider standard tests or other assessments used to measure IQ to be inconclusive He argued the IQ number did not predict or re ect school outcomes or success in life Gardner holds each individual has varying levels of these different intelligences and this accounts fro each persoan unique cognitive profile In a sense comparing his point of view to Spearman s Gardener would say there is no G only SS and those S39s are more than just a skill or ability but an independent form of intelligence unto themselves C Sternberg39s Triarchic Theory Robert Stember 1985 roosed in his T ridrchic theory that there mi mg i k as In Sternberg s views current intelligence testing does not test all three at current psychometric tests only appreciably tap In fo rms of intelligence He holds th M fl is l 39IL 1 This form of intelligence also cons1sted of numerous subcomponents which enabled this analytical ability but the key is that they all serve the process of analyzing problems While people high in this form of intelligence can break down problems they do so from the basis of their acuired knowlede e may v i Often individuals with the highest conventionally measured IQs are not good at this form of thinking And people with high levels of creative intelligence such as artists are often unidenti ed by conventional IQ tests because there are not currently any tests that can suf cientl measure the attri utes invo ve in creatin new ideas and solving new problems In 39 11 39 1w It involves the ability to apply creative and analytical intelligence to everyday situations Those high in practical intelligence are superb in their ability to succeed in any setting Even if they are limited in their creative and analytical intelligence they are able to use these skills to their best advantage In the end Stemberg reminds us that an individual is not necessarily restricted to having excellence in only one of these three intelligences Many people may have integrated all three very well and even have high levels of all three intelligences Motivation and Emotion I Reward amp Incentive Motivation From a biological perspective the early study of motivation relied on the concept of homeostasis a term coined by Walter Cannon based on the work the French physiologist Claude Bernard which describes the tendency for physiological systems to remain within relatively narrow ranges especially in regard to body temperature mammals but also with regard to food and water intake in other animals Bernard had written on the dynamic equilibrium which maintained the constancy of the animal body39s internal milieu From this concept early in the last century a motivational model based on drive reduction developed that proposed when levels of a critical physiological parameter such as warmth food water drifted outside the narrow ran e the or anism required a state of gm 0 39 M wgw l w a h Jr 13 which ener392ed behavior to satisf that need and h siolo ical parameters within the required range m p l V L9 When a drive was reduced the consequence was considered to be rewarding or reinforcing This basic drive reduction process was also proposed to be augmented by learning to yield a state called m am J39l c J U m JLL JJ l assoc1ated With the reduction of the drive and its rewarding consequences result in incentive motivation which is the basis of such things as preferences among different means for satisfying a need as well as for larger magnitude rewards over smaller ones These preferences based on experience can also trigger attraction pleasure or desires even in the absence of the preferred stimuli which reduce drive and lead to behaviors to seek those stimuli even in situations without an underlying drive 39 l ents have used on the 11 ldren when they refuse to eat their l m39 39 en you are so hungry that you39ll eat something that you39d s routs that s eatin on the basis of drive reductlon i h v n Brussels sprouts to the pomt where you can39t eat anymore and then your mom pops out of the kitchen and says quotWho39s got room for pie and you reply quotI39ll make roomquot Well that s because of the incentive motivation generated desires and pleasures that exist in the absence of a drive leasant conseuences to drive reduction rr my 2wquot cm 17 m u we mull l U m w m For example member of my family was in the hospital for several months being t eated for cancer During that time because of the radiation therapy and chemotherapy the only meal they could keep down was JellO So for months despite the nausea and discomfort associated with the cancer treatment JellO was the only solid food that passed through their mouth It satis ed their hunger drive repeatedly That was in the fall of 1978 To this day that person has never been able to eat JellO again II Mesolimbic Dopamine System From the standpoint of behavioral neuroscience the old drive reduction and incentive motivation accounts first proposed by the behaviorist camp of psychology in the first half of the 190039s can be understood to some de ee b the action of the limbic s stem and the 39 quot 39 lt H ml l espe1ally th prefrontal c1tex an cleus lobes including the hippocampus and amygdala 39 It is often referred J 39 quot j 39 i V 114 v s Rats with electrodes implanted in the nucleus accumbens or the VT bers leading into the nucleus accumbens will easily learn to leverpress for electrical stimulation of the electrode leading to dopamine release in the accumbens The experience can be so rewarding that the rats will continue to relentlessly press the lever to the exclusion of food water and sex even to the point of death if the electrical current is strong enough Now if we review the roles of the structures that receive dopamine from the VTA we can understand how the mesolimbic dopamine system participates in the reduction of drives and incentive motivation The prefrontal cortex is involv d in lannin and workin memor and selectin the a n ro riate behavior in a ven situation mm 1 H l j 39 7 quot y x ml A 7 And the nucleus accumbens is involved in the experience of the sensation of reward So hypothetically if we came across a rewarding situation the dopamine would be released simultaneously by the VTA in the nucleus accumbens prefrontal cortex hippocampus and amygdala The dopamine then affects each structure by facilitating their jobs during the rewarding event In coordinated cooperative unison the accumbens generates the pleasure of the reward the hippocampus transfers the factual information about the event from shortterm to longterm memory as the amygdala attaches the emotional significance of the pleasure to the facts while the prefrontal cortex processes those facts and their emotional content as part of the consequences of the actions that led to them Through the execution of their roles coordinated by the simultaneous release of dopamine triggered by the rewarding event we can have some insight into the development of incentive motivation preferences and attraction or repulsion desires and pleasure to rewarding drivereducing stimuli So for example the next time I eat at a new restaurant and have one of the best meals I ve had in along time the pleasure I experienced the memory of where when and whatI ate and the increased frequency of my visits to that restaurant for that meal can all be understood from the concepts of incentive motivation as well as the mesolimbic dopaminergic activation of the limbic system 139 H Everything is regulated through homeostas1s levels of oxygen carbon diox1de salt ac1d1ty alkalinity water glucose fats proteins waste products body temperature and others You can think of it as the individual having a setpoint for every physiological and even psychological trait When there is a deviation from the set point the compensatory mechanisms that underlie homeostasis are engaged to restore the setpoint The opponentprocess theory of Richard Solomon suggests that even in psychological terms the experience of one strong emotion will elicit the opposite emotion in order to reset the person39s psychological state towards its norm For instance an event may trigger intense fear in us but when that event terminates we are often very happy the negative of the fear is compensated for by the positive feeling of happiness As we face or endure a fearful situation our fear often subsides From an opponent process point of view what is occurring is that a balancing homeostatic anticipatory mechanism engages the changes that lead to happiness earlier so that there is a kind of calming or minimization of the fear during the fearful event When the event is over we are still happy but often not as elated as we were when we were the most fearful because the changes that underlie the happiness are also reduced to minimize the changes they would make from our normal relatively neutral state These anticipatory changes are mediated by learning just as incentive motivation was The stimuli that in this example predict the start of the fearful event also predict and engage the opposing emotional response just as the stimuli which predict the termination of the fearful event start to reduce the magnitude of the opposing emotional response This theory may also be used as an explanation for how a longterm couple who care for each other very much no longer shows the excitement commonly present in a new relationship The excitement eventually came to be opposed by an opposite emotion to restore the emotional setpoint Should they be suddenly be separated due to situational circumstances or even death the opposing emotion to the excitement would be the only remaining emotion and might be manifested as grief sadness or d ression V 0 d39Hle a 0 5 l 1 extends to the emotional and psychological effects of the addicting drug If the drug produced a euphoric high early in the administration eventually that response is dulled due to the learned anticipatory engagement of the emotional opponent process From this point of view the unpleasant and sometimes lifethreatening effects of withdrawal can be seen as the unmasked compensatory opponent processes physiological and psychological being expressed unopposed in the absence of the drug m m Wm M f U g I um wquot39l h Ufw i w MUquot For instance our need for maintaining a stable body temperature is governed by the preoptic area which is involved in both helping to set our circadian 39 39 to be our drowsiest at the same time we ature is lowest and viceversa 39 quot u at For example in animals wit probes implanted in the preoptic area arti cially cooling the preoptic area alone independent of the body s true body temperature can lead to drowsiness as well as shivering behavior in an effort to generate more body heat Arti cially heating the area can lead to panting behavior in an effort reduce body temperature In contrast thirst is also under neural control b the h n othalamus But there are i y z r q UJJJ m UTquot twot es ofthirst Li Luv 7 Mi HM 39 l Ltl v I Even an imbalance of 12 from optimum can trigger this form of thirst by causing a loss of water from inside these hypothalamic neurons into the extracellular space As the result of osmosis the salt sucks the water out of the cells These osmotically sensitive cells in the hypothalamus trigger thirst but also can trigger hormonallybased responses from the n ituitar that will slow down the roduction of urine b the kidne s to conserve water li m 39 A L e 39 39 This s1gnal relayed to the hypothalamus triggers thirst This can be due dehydration but hypovolemic thirst can also be triggered from a sudden blood volume loss such as from heavy bleeding Hunger is triggered by drops in blood levels of nutrients primarily glu LA i1 again primarily via the vagus nerve These include the physical sensations of stretching of the stomach signals from the liver that it has absorbed nutrients as well as hormones released during digestion and the storing of nutrients such as cholecystokinin CCK and leptin These signals once received by the hypothalamus inhibit hunger W m i vquot 1 V A 39v lIlJ 39 i l w I ot as satisfying or motivating if it is passed directly into the stomach through feeding tubes The case is the same with the administration of nutrients via intravenous tubes Even when an equivalently nutritious and calorically dense intake is consumed either in solid form or in liquid form the solid form which must be chewed is more satisfying than the liquid form This one of the problems with drinkin sweet beveraes whether 39uice or soft drinks with a substantial caloric content l liv M r in nl EMLM 9L1 m ii i id iiliw l in mm L H i JLL mmi tquot ll wt ciie39fiuiiim quot W Le The hypothalamic center 39nvolved in feedin are the lateral h othalamu LH and ventromedial l L 1 If a rat has 1ts LH damaged 1ttyp1cally wrll not eat without forcefeedmg and may starve itself to death If a rat s VMH is damaged it will not stop eating even when it is full and will become grossly and morbidly obese However they may also be involved in setting the body weight set point If a rat is intentionally overfed to the point of obesity and the LH is damaged the rat will not eat but will begin to eventually eat once it has lost a great deal of weight Similarly if a rat is placed on a very restricted diet and become thin and the VMH is damaged the rat will eat constantly but will eventually stop once it has become fat but before it becomes as morbidly obese as fullweight rats with VMH damage Alliesthesia Food tastes better when hungry LH and VMH may not necessarily be involved in eating per se but involved in setting new homeostatic body weight set points IV Emotion Emotions havel39 39 39 39 39 a d 39 39 39 39 These of emotion can be 1 re ected as arousal or activation tasks both mental and n sical n r 1 of behavior This arousal can have an in uence on the n erformance on 397 V l a M m lt H Li s in p For exam task is studying Too low a level of arousal boredom fro instance and you39ll do avery poor job learning the information Too high a level of arousal jittery or anxious and you39ll also do a very poor job learning the information Your best studying and learning effort occurs at a moderate level of arousal Similarly when taking the test regardless of how well you studied if your arousal level is low fatigue or high worried or pressured you39ll do more poorly than if your arousal level was at some moderate level Different tasks may also have different levels of optimal arousal The more difficult or mentally demanding a task the lower the level of arousal needed for best erformance while sim er tasks are erformed best at h39 h l 139 39 u 39l J l n 39 l 5 J 3 cups of coffee could be too much for putting computers together but not enough for loading trucks in a warehouse There are several theories for understanding emotion and its effect on our mental states However we ll focus on the two oldest the JamesLange formulated by William James and Carl Lange in 1884 and the CannoniBard formulated by Walter Cannon and William Bard in 1927 because the more recent theories extend and elaborate on their basic views and their 7 inci es still in uence current tho t In movements autonomic responses such as heart rate blood pressure respiration rate and hormonal responses These responses help us deal with the event or situation After dealing with the situation the feedback from the responses is then interpreted by the brain and the experience is labeled with a given emotion based on the presumably unique pattern of physiological responses And today it39s known that people with nerve damage that interferes with such feedback have difficulty estimating the intensity their emotional reactions For example you re in the woods you see a bear you have the appropriate physical responses and afterwards label it as fear We can appreciate this to some degree Often when we39re startled we simply react and then afterwards are shaken or exhilarated by the experience Howeve V u For example you re walking 1n the woods you see a bear you brie y assess the situatron oops not a good thing then separate systems simultaneously and in parallel generate both the physical reactions and the emotion of fear m v 2161 H n mg CONSCIOUSNESS Slide 1 Brain takes a series of visually still shots and runs them together it doesn t feel like you re in a club with strobe lights because your brain smoothes it out Your vision takes the world in 6070 millisecond long frames anything shorter and everything would blend together Example ash of red light and green light in less than 60milliseconds and the person will see yellow Live in a world of 6070millisecond frames Slide 2 Nose side for each eyeball there is a blind spot We don t notice it because whatever is missing from the blind spot on one eye is lled in from the other eye Basically the brain lls in the blind spot by way of context clues The brain lls in missing contours Close one eye and slide the paper Top when the blue dot hits the blind spot you see a vertical yellow bar Bottom you see a full horizontal red bar Slide 34 Smell something Know its cheese is it blue cheese or moldy cheddar oh yeah its moldy cheddar Categories in memory SECTION 4 EXAM Be most concerned about language slide everybody can master a language although it can be complicated unlimited sentences etc Sound structure meaning productive Limited number of sounds English 40 mouth can only make about 100 sounds Good vocab40000 words out of just 40 sounds Structured productive Baby makes all sounds End of rst year you focus on the ones of your native language Initially have over extension of concepts use 15 words to describe anything puupy when there is a horse Six years 15000 words argument for predisposed language explosion in acquisition Imitation and conditioning cant explain that Innate factors all kids go through same explosion of vocab even sign language 1st year best year to master phonems Apes really don t have language AOL chat They use the signs and symbols in a much different way than humansno human like language Intelligence test individ ministered aptitude test group Int test binet helped gure out grade levels for kidsused metal age Stanfordbinet mental age chron age 100 had limitations wechler 2 scaleverbal performance All aptitude tests owe existence to army alpha written and beta oral tests SATMCATLSAT Reliability consistency of test over time Validitydoes the test measure what it needs to measure or predict what it needs to predict 3 major theories Spearman one major general intelligence Gardener multiple intelligences that are all independent that do different jobs and functions example family and marriage therapist know general categories Sternberg there are 3 intelligences analytical int creative practical Satisfy a drivedrive reduction Learned over time that certain things satisfy a drive better than othersincentive motivation All of it is driven by dopamine from VTA moving simultaneously from different areas see slide Opponent processes rst time on drugbig high If you do it repeatedly the opponent process creates tolerance Long term junkies always trying to avoid the withdrawal OUTLINE 1 Ways of Knowing About the World A Authority 0 Quick and easy 0 Taking somebodv39s word for it 0 O B Logic Often disa ee amon themselves Are often wron o It requires that the bases for logical reasoning be true 0 Not necessarily superior to direct observation C Intuitive Methods 1 Common Sense 0 The sort of practical everyday intelligence 0 It chan es in different times and laces o Is unable to predict what will happen in some situations 2 Mysticism O D Science Rely on an altered state of consciousness whether that state is attained by prayer meditation ingesting a substance or perhaps through some sort of quotgiftquot Asks us to rely on people with special skills talents or gifts like psychics or mediums or shamans for guidance o Relies on objective and repeatable observations 0 Anyone can do science 0 Only those observations or results that are consistent and repeatable and can be agreed upon by more than one person even those or especially those who may have been skeptical can be called scientific o It is not a good tool for understanding the subjective the rare and the unique 11 Working Assumptions of Science A Reality 0 The existence of the universe and ourselves is not a cosmic illusion nor is it some sort of dream we all share 0 Reality is real B Rationality 0 Can be understood through logical reasoning o The universe is rationally assembled and is potentially comprehensible even if we cannot understand it presently 0 Through persistent effort and progress over time it can be eventually be understood C Regularity o The rules and laws and properties of the universe are the same at every point in the universe 0 Everything is stable and consistent D Causality 0 Things don39tjust happen 0 All things or events occur because a previous thing or event caused them E Discoverability 0 Science assumes that the universe hold no secrets that cannot be ultimately known and understood 111 Research Strategies A Research Design 1 Experiment 0 Preferred method for conducting research 0 Only method which allow for cause and effect determinations to be drawn 0 Since conclusions are drawn from aggregate group behavior very little if anything can be inferred about what may in uence the behavior of single individuals 2 Correlation 0 Finding associations and relationships between factors or variables 0 N 0 determination of cause and effect relationships with any correlational study 3 Descriptive 0 Intensive detailed collection of information about single individuals or specific small groups of individuals 0 There is no control over the conditions or the accuracy of the information collected I People can lie B Data Collection 1 Self Report 0 Questionnaires surveys and interviews I Relatively quick and easy to collect or administer I Questions can be poorly written or asked introducing some bias or confusion to the data 0 People will lie to please the researcher 2 Observation 0 As minimally intrusive as possible which minimizes any changes in behavior that might be unintentionally elicited by the researcher C Research Setting 1 Laboratory 0 Any sort of uniform and controlled environment 1 artificial 1 0 Can t act naturally 0 Hospital 0 Research facility 0 A doctor39s or therapist39s office 2 Field Subjects can now act naturally Can be uncontrolled and unpredictable and may change at any time and make the collection or interpretation of data difficult or even impossible in some cases Anywhere that is not in a laboratory 0 A field 0 A school A day care center A sidewalk A grocery store aisle OOO IV Correlation vs Experiment Association vs Causation 0 quotCausesquot and quoteffectsquot are associated together but it is a very specific type of relationship called a causal relationship 0 The factors can only be said to tend to occur together and nothing further can be concretely stated 0 EX There is a strong correlational association between murder rates and ice cream sales both reaching their peaks in the summer months But it would be a mistake to conclude that ice cream consumption triggered homicidal tendencies or that committing murder increased the appetite for frozen dairy treats It is the capacity to directly compare the differences in the values of the dependent variable between groups based on the presence or absence of the independent variable that allows the experimental procedure to determine casual relationships V Theory amp Experiment The Scientific Method 0 Relies on practical and theoretical methods to experimentally collect facts or data control the manipulation of factors or variables and explain the outcomes of our observations as well as to refine those procedures 0 The goal of the scientific method is to continually refine our understanding of the world 0 Even if a theory is verified by an experiment it remains a theory because a theory is an explanation and an explanation is an explanation whether it is an accurate one or an inaccurate one whether it has been tested experimentally or not VI Statistical Methods A The Correlation Coefficient o It is a number between 10 and 10 o If there is perfect linear relationship between the two variables we have a correlation coefficient of 10 If there is a perfect linear relationship with one variable39s values decreasing as the other variable39s values increase we have a correlation coefficient of 1 a perfect negative correlation A correlation coefficient of zero means that there is no linear relationship between the two variables 0 O B Populations Samples amp Distributions 1 Variability of the Distribution 0 The quotspreadquot around that central value is called the variance and tells us how scattered the values of our observations are a Standard Deviation I The square root of the variance and as such also a number that gives us an indication of the scatter of our measured values 0 If we go up and down one standard deviation from the central value two thirds of all our observations should fall within that range 2 Centrality of the Distribution a Mean 0 The arithmetic mean or average b Median o The value which is greater than half the observations and less than the other half c Mode 0 The most frequently occurring value within the distribution 0 There can be more than one CComparing Distributions o T tests are used when there is only onecomparison made between two distributions 0 Then more than one comparison is being made an ANOVA is used 0 One thing to keep in mind is that the power to reliably determine differences between distributions depends on the number of observations the size of the groups SEC T ION 3 READING 1 I Defining Abnormality When discussing psychological disorders the rst step is to de ne what we mean by a disorder How do we determine that something is wrong psychologically with a person What constitutes abnormal It39s not as easy a matter as some people might think Some might say quotWell that person is oddquot Being quotoddquot could mean that their behavior or thinking is rare out of the statistical norm But what about people who have high intelligence or are artistically gifted Those traits aren39t statistically frequent but we wouldn39t call smart or a1tistic people abnormal Being quotoddquot could also mean that a person s behavior isn39t meeting certain social norms of the people around them But those standards can vary between cultures in some cultures for instance burping at the dinner table after eating is considered a compliment to the cook and even within our own culture standards can vary between social groups the behavioral excesses that might tolerated from a guitarist in a rock band would likely be unacceptable from an bank teller So views of suitable social behavior aren39t absolute Some cognitive or perceptual distortions such as hallucinations clearly are abnormal But what about milder distortions or perceptions of reality like in ated egos or unusually high selfesteem Some might say that feelings of personal alistress like depression or anxiety are abnormal But such feelings might be reasonable under some circumstances such as the death of a loved one or the loss of a job Only one trait seems to be clearly important in all cases and that is behavioral maladaptiveness A clear sign of abnormal behavior or mental state is when an individual39s behavior is destructive to themselves or their social group such as family friends or coworkers More than any other sign harming the welfare of one s self or those close to one s self is most universally accepted as indicating an abnormal mental or behavioral state II What39s Normal In some ways the question of de ning quotabnormalquot is simpler if we consider what we d call quotnormalquot when observing or categorizing the actions of others One factor that seems common to people with quotnorma quot psychological states is an e icient perception of reality meaning that an individual can form reasonable and realistic appraisals of themselves and the world around them Another factor is voluntary control over behavior Many people may drink alcoholic beverages but not all people compulsively abuse alcohol just as many people enjoy a re in the replace on a cold night but not everybody compulsively sets res like a pyromaniac might Psychologically healthy people also have a sense of self esteem anal acceptance which enables them to be at ease around people and feel comfortable socially with others to feel secure an unthreatened in social situations But in addition to feeling good about themselves they also are able to form a ectionate relationships with others whether it39s with family friends neighbors or colleagues Psychologically healthy people are sensitive to others able to form interpersonal bonds and don39t make excessive personal demands on other people Lastly a psychologically healthy and quotnormalquot person is able to maintain productivity They are able to channel their energy and activity even when the source of that energy is potentially negative like anger fear or frustration into useful and productive activity III Classifying Abnormality The DSM IV The of cial criteria and classi cation system used by mental health professionals is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM first published by the American Psychiatric Association in 1952 It has been revised several times The revisions were undertaken because as was suggested in the reference to social norms and abnormality the formulation and application of the diagnostic criteria varies by social and cultural variables The current edition is the DSMIV the IV referring to the fourth edition released in 1994 the DSMV is scheduled to be released in 2011 In the meantime a minimally revised version called the DSMIVTR the TR referring to quottext revisionquot was been released in 2000 This textrevised version ofthe DSM IV did not change any of the criteria for diagnosis or classification system only some of the na1rative text was revised The DSM employs a five axis classification system to diagnose disorders and guide their quot 1 39 lrJJT39S basically the problem that has brought the patient m l retardation and to the disorder such as a divorce relocation moving or a death in the family Axis l i I u m which scores how well the patient copes with the d1sorder on a daytoday basis in a variety of situations and environments r quoti In all the DSMIVTR describes nearly 400 disorders So for our further discussion we ll focus on several of the most commonly treated categories of disorders IV Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders can be generally divided into those in which the source of the anxiety cannot be identified and those in which the source can be identified Of those where the source is unidentifiable we have generalized anxiety disorder GAD and panic disorder In GAD the feelings of anxiety and distress are free oating While sufferers may worry about their job their finances their health and their family they may also worry over more common minor situations such as appointments housework haircuts and parking Once developed it is persistent and chronic with the sensations of anxiety and dread being experienced essentially constantly In panic disorder also called panic attack the anxiety is very intense and debilitating though it is confined to brief episodes The sensations can be so severe that the sufferer may think they are having a heart attack The attack can be triggered by a stressful situation but often the attacks occur with no waming and for no apparent reason However for most of the sufferer s day they are usually fine When the source of the anxiety can be identified it can be a specific object or situation or to an idea or to a traumatic event quot 39 m min f 39 w mw lt the All of us may be fr1ghtened of some objects or s1tuations but we don t necessar y have phobias clinically speaking In the case of a phobia the fear is unreasonable and excessive beyond the sufferer s control to the point where it may interfere with daily life Phobias can be m fear of a single stimulus such as heights or dogs 1 a a fear of a number of stimuli In a fear of elevators for example fear of falling being stuck between oors tight enclosed places losing selfcontrol in front of others or what might occur in the company of others for example fear of blushing losing selfcontrol public speaking trembling making a mistake p El the obsessions which are the source of anxiety However the anxiety can only be relieved by performing an often ritualistic act the compulsion Common obsessions include germs or losing things The compulsions for each of those may include washing for germs or arranging and grouping objects for losing things However the compulsion does not necessarily have to be logically related to the obsession The only requirement is that for whatever reason it relieves the anxiety generated by the obsession s I 7 The hallmark of PTSD is the experience of vivid memory ashbacks so vivid the sufferer may appear to be reliving the event that are unpredictable in their frequency and occurrence Other symptoms can include insomnia nightmares depression and emotional detachment ASD is a similar disorder but while PTSD is a longlasting disorder capable of persisting for years ASD is only diagnosed during one month after the traumatic event Also ASD includes symptoms such as amnesia for aspects of the event quot 39 J 39 and an quot 39 numbing and depersonalization V Mood Disorders The category of mood disorders consists of clinical forms of depression The two major categories of depression are major depression also called unipolar depression and bipolar disorder also called manic depression Major unipolar depression has a multitude of varieties under its quotumbrellaquot It is possible though to organize some of the variations according to some characteristics The first way to subdivide the unipolar depressive disorders is exoenous vs endo enou 4i quot r I if 7 H F I l r y l l y 39l The depressron is due to a due presumably to either a genetic cause or a malfunction in brain chemistry specifically low levels of one or more of the monoarnines As one might surmise in 39 psychological changes associated such as the decline of fitness vigor and mental and physical abilities with the aging process r 39 HE D is another form of depression that arguably has changes in the body39s physiology as its putative cause Some research suggests that the rapid sudden change in the body s hormonal profile when pregnancy comes to term and ends may cause postpartum depression though other research points to lack of social support systems for the new parent 39 39 l w SAD is nonexistent in the tropics but is reported in northern latitudes during winter It is thought that light sensitive neurons in the brain the skull actually does transmit some light through the bone that are part of the circuits involved in the hormonal regulation of the circadian sleepwake cycle do not function normally and their resulting dysfunction is the source of the depression In contrast to unipolar depression r l However the cycle between moods isn t balanced with the depressive phase typically lasting much longer than the manic phase The treatment of bipolar disorder is does not emphasize antidepressants but rather compounds called mood stabilizers The rationale for this strategy is the observation that if the manic r hase can be pre x 1 1 n bl m ar disorder does not re lith Antiseizure and depression medicine seems to work a lot If a patient is resistant to medicine they show signs of irritability which can then lead to suicide When a patient goes off medication they immediately enter their manic phase thinking they are ne and great VI Schizophrenia The word schizophrenia literally means quotsplit mindquot in Greek but it has nothing to do with having multiple personalities The split refers a quotbreakquot from reality The hallmarks of the disease are quot 39 I W 39 39 motor impairments and a withdrawal from reality that are severe enough to substantially impair ability to function normally and take care of one s self There are two forms of schizophrenia which share these hallmarks HQ m M39 v Mimi iuj w39 n gill V However 1n most cases medication 1s effective 1n treat1ng the d1sorder STUDY MOOD DISORDERSCHIZOPHRENIA SLIDES FOR TEST Who is vulnerable Well the disorder is relatively rare in the general population occurring in less than 1 of all people but more common than acute This disorder also ail quot men and women being equally susceptible A family history of l chronic schizophrenia is a risk factor But when we focus on children who are at risk having had one schizophrenic parent these patterns are often present in children that develop schizophrenia as adults 1 of schizophrenia o More likely to show inappropriate behavior at school BOYS anxious lonely discipline problems GIRLS withdrawn isolated poorly controlled NOTICE BASICALLY THE SAME BEHAVIOR BUT IN DIFFERENT WORDS Show an atypical pattern on infant development involving lags and spurts in maturation of visual and motor abilities Within schizophrenia there are two general clusters of symptoms Type I also called positive symptoms and Type II also called negative symptoms Positive symptoms are called that because they are symptoms that are quotaddedquot hence the positive or quotquot to a person s psychological state These include hallucinations audio hear voices that are telling them to do things visual seeing things that aren t there delusions strange ideas father and mother are secret agents bizarre behavior and confused thinking Individuals who display primarily positive symptoms typically functioned well in social and educational setting before they started to display signs of the disorder During their periods of clarity they also function fairly normally and their symptoms respond very well to antipsychotic medication It is believed that these symptoms are related to overactive dopamine transmission Antischizophrenic drugs typically act as J r 39 39 block A r The rationale for this is that people who abuse stimulant drugs such as cocaine or amphetamine often develop a stimulant induced psychosis that is virtually indistinguishable from schizophrenia type 1 However their symptoms subside after detoxification Negative symptoms are called negative because the re ect deficits from a person s normal psychological state These include a poverty of speech speak in broken sentences or not much at all emotional unresponsiveness no reaction to something that 39s happy sad funny seclusiveness and impaired attention Individuals with primarily these symptoms have a poor history of social functioning prior to the onset of their disorder and resume those difficulties when they are in their clear phases These symptoms are not responsive to antipsychotic medication It is believed that these symptoms are due to diffuse structural brain damage presumably occurring before birth Evidence for this hypothesis is the 1957 u epidemic in Helsinki Finland In that epidemic the children of pregnant women who were sick with the u during their second trimester a critical period of time in brain development were at a higher risk of developing schizophrenia In comparing positive and negative symptoms it should be noted that there are rarely pure Type I or Type II chronic schizophrenics Some patients have some of each type of symptom and the distribution and severity of the symptoms can change over the course of the illness Brain scans of schizophrenics show results consistent with brain damage and dopamine overactivity Computerized axial tomography CAT and magnetic resonance imaging MRI scans which show the structure of the brain indicate much larger ventricles in schizophrenics compared to controls which suggests diffuse neuronal damage and cell loss Positron emission tomography PET scans which can show brain metabolic activity show that while in a psychotic episode undedicated patientthe frontal lobes of schizophrenics are less metabolically active than those of controls or even themselves when during a clear period or on their medication and symptomfree Other PET scan studies have shown that schizophrenics also seem to have more Dzlike receptors than controls The D1 and D 5 receptors are similar and are called the D1like family The D2 D3 and D4 receptors are in the Dzlike family VII Personality Disorders Personality disorders are part of the DSMIV axis II and they are characterized as rigid long term patterns of thought and action The DSMIV recognizes 10 personality disorders but two Borderline Personality Disorder BPD and Antisocial Personality Disorder APD have attracted the most research Individuals with BPD teeter between a variety of neurotic traits display intense emotional instability and often display psychotic symptoms delusions so and so is obsessed with mestalked me Women are 3 times more likely than men to be diagnosed with BPD These individuals have great difficulty in their personal relationships which are often tumultuous and unstable They are often manipulative and display emotional neediness in order to avoid abandonment or the threat of abandonment They are often scared about losing someone so they sabotage the relationship to make themselves in controlonly temporarily satis ed whether real or imagined They are often great consumers of outpatient mental health services Those with APD often fit the label sociopath or psychopath APD is more common in men than in women In young boys three traits are correlated with later diagnosis of APD bedwetting cruelty to animals and pyromania Not all children who exhibit these traits develop APD but they are more common in the history of those with APD than they are in the general population In severe cases of APD it has been noted that the individuals seem to have no conscience no guilt no empathy or concern for others They can be thrillseeking and impulsive but show little physiological signs of anxiety or arousal They can sometimes show signs of conscience remorse concern for others and can be quite charming But these are insincere and actually wellmimicked behaviors to gain the fulfillment of their wishes Some people say that whitecollar criminals like those who manipulate stocks ENRON are really APD but have gotten so good at covering up their emotions that they ll never get caught Conartists and serial killers are often diagnosed with APD VIII Dissociative Disorders The dissociative disorders include Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue and Dissociative Identity Disorder The common thread in all these disorders is psychological dissociation in which certain thoughts emotions or memories are separated from awareness In dissociative amnesia there is an inability to recall important personal information The loss of memory is sudden and due to a psychologically stressful event Its duration may be brief or prolonged and recovery can be sudden or gradual at some point they will get over it when they come back to normal everybody is accessible to your memory of what happened Dissociative fugue is very similar in its symptoms causes and duration However two things distinguish fugue from amnesia First fugue sufferers often travel away from their homes and assume new identities Secondly when the amnesic or fugue state ends amnesia suffers recall the entire past Fugue sufferers regain their old memories but their fugue memories are lost In dissociative identity disorder DID also referred to a multiple personality disorder there is the presence of two or more distinct identities each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving relating to and thinking about the environment and self The identities or personalities recurrently take control of the person s behavior Often there is an inability to recall or share memories between personalities that occur when another personality is in control The formation of multiple identities is argued to be a coping mechanism for a severe and early childhood psychological trauma There are instances where this is indisputable one personality might have high blood pressure while another doesn t ie physical differences IX Infancya Childhooda amp Adolescence Childhood diagnosed disorders include Attention De cit with H yperactivityDisorder ADHD and Pervasive Developmental Disorder PDD formerly called autism though the term PDD now includes other related syndromes as well W V 39 m39i iquot J r i39w F a r H q 7 Evidence suggests that children with ADHD have cognitive function that are similar to those of patients with frontal lobe impairments Learning impairments can be attributed to de cits in attention to stimuli or de cits in the expression of learned behavior Impairments in working memory both verbal and spatial have also been reported Working memory is thought to be essential for goaldirected learning and behavior management because it maintains a representation of events or stimuli after they have passed or are hidden from view Brains of ADHD subjects have been reported to show structural abnormalities comared to nonADHD subjects in the Frontal cortex and basal ganglia F M kw V T pically appears before age 7 medicated with Ritalin Overall these ndings support the v1ew that ADHD is associated with impaired FCBG activity Indirect catecholamine agonists have been the primary pharmacological treatment for ADHD Consistent with this treatment approach molecular genetics have shown that alleles of speci c dopamine related genes are associated with this disorder Earlier studies implicated the D2 receptor in ADHD and other impulsive disorders More recent studies of family members diagnosed with ADHD have correlated variations of the dopamine transporter gene DAT1 with the disorder In related and unrelated ADHD sub39 rm 0 m m 7 A 9 39 39 39 tr am Mini1U EMT Children with autismP others or e world They have impaired verbal and anew Jib W i in H J T TMHIM m0 ll said children with PDD display a range of abilities skills and behaviors Some are very high functioning One individual with PDD Temple Grandin is a PhD in animal science and a professor at Colorado State University and is an internationally recognized authority on the design and construction of humane and lowstress livestock handling facilities She describes her dealing with PDD and her obsession as a youth with ritual and order as an effort to deal with sensory stimulation To her the sensory stimuli we can lter out were often intense and intrusive and her obsession with ritual and order was an attempt to cope with an experience that felt to her like sensory overload Contrary to popular lore individuals with PDD are not typically savants that is they do not posses extraordinary mental or artistic skills as was depicted in the movie Rain Man PDD and savant abilities are two separate conditions though they can occur together 7 quot 39u v a r7 V lysn hr w as born with several brain abnormalities including the i normally connects the two hemispheres of the brain It is thought that his savant abilities are due to his brain s compensatory changes to deal with the lack of a corpus callosum People with autism seem to restrict their interests to a very narrow range They are obsessed with order and they choose strategy as a way to navigate the world They cannot zone out they process every little detail coming in In a busy environment they experience sensory overload Their ability to understand emotional states of others is limited to nonexistent no social understanding READING 2 MEMORIZE SLIDES IN EXTREME DETAIL I Structure of the Mental Health System Many people major in psychology because they are interested mental illnesses and harbor the notion that they might like to be a mental health professional at some point However they often do so without a clear idea of the structure of the mental health system and those that work in it But one thing everyone that has such aspirations needs to be perfectly aware of A bachelor s degree alone is utterly insufficient top work as a mental health practitioner Some degree of additional postgraduate work will be necessary A Places of Treatment The landscape of where people go to be treated has changed in the last 30 years particularly for the care and treatment of chronic mental health conditions Starting in the 196039s staterun psychiatric mental hospitals started to lose favor Until then due in part to the lack of drug treatments suitable for some conditions patients unable to care for themselves schizophrenics the severely mentally disabled were institutionalized in mental hospitals But su h care was sometimes deemed inhumane and was expensive as well 7 39 MD 1 Hi v l specifically deal with psychiatric patients for care However most nursing homes have few if any specialized treatment personnel so the quality of care and conditions for aged psychiatric patients varies greatly Today many patients are served by 39 39 assisted living for an extended period of time Nobody wants to live near a halfway house They teach individuals how to live outside and on their own Job interview skills resume and general care They often provide help acquiring living skills and help finding outside employment and living arrangements for their patients in an effort to guide as many patients as are able to become a part of mainstream society 39i ften provide free or lowcost mental health services in an effort to prevent serious psychological problems from developing Some provide a wide variety of services such as inpatient outpatient day hospital night hospital emergency aftercare rehabilitation public education consultation and evaluation services Lastly clinicians39 5 392 offices are often preferred by those that can afford them B Providers of Treatment There are a variety of mental health professionals that can treat patients though there is a hierarchy of treatment capacities and responsibilities While a bachelor s degree is insufficient to treat or diagnose individuals not all positions as a clinical mental health provider require doctoral level training At the top of the clinical hierarchy is the quot air 4 mu d W mt HM l work in hospital or late typically prefer to treat disorders by medication However they sometimes incorporate various nonmedical forms of therapy which may take into account biological psychological and socialcultural perspectives less prone to do talk thera usuall 39ust ive a prescri tion 391 in quot 4 Many are employed in universities as faculty The main difference between the relative emphasis of research and clinical treatment in th Jl Students who want to eventually teach o W programs while those who are definitely interested only in clinical practice with no interest in teaching or research may be wellserved by a PsyD program ll L counsel c nts on their eXper aging and common life experiences 39 39 a Lin v a in counseling and also go through a state certi cation Under some circumstances they may be required to have a teaching certi cate They are often employed in schools and institutions but also may work in halfway houses community mental health centers and in private practice They may help people with school or jobrelated problems as well as substance abuse behavioral mental health or family and relationship problems aid as much sawmill mrl lwwrm ali pm musll H MM 7 m H 7 7 7 y CPS will use them Many work for governmental agenc1es or hospital in the management of outpatient cases problems ranging from substance abuse to strokes to mood disorders and others but some do go into private practice In some jobs they may visit clients or patients in their home settings to assess their conditions M13 w M g 7 7 u 7 39 Theyusuallywork in hospitals or communit care centers ey can conduct psychotherapy sessions with the appropriate training and may dispense medication but not prescribe under the supervision of an 11 Assessment So an obvious question would be how does a person with a mental disorder get treated Who decides what treatment and in what environment Well first the person s behavior and mental condition must be assessed Let s take a hypothetical case Suppose a man is walking on the sidewalk in front of a busy office building He is unkempt seems agitated and is speaking gibberish Occasionally he yells and runs into tra ic and then back onto the sidewalk The police try to place him into custody but he is unresponsive to their requests for information just replying in confusing nonsensical meandering sentences before he faints The police then take him to the hospital for an evaluation In the hospital the first question is to determine whether the man s disoriented behavior has an organic basis or a psychiatric basis Basically is it due to a medical or neurological condition a hypoglycemic drop in blood sugar due to diabetes an adverse reaction to medication a stroke in the frontal lobes or language processing areas or a psychological disorder schizophrenia or a dissociative disorder The first step is the initial interview where the patient is asked questions or if they are unresponsive a search is done of their personal effects to find a medical alert bracelet or personal ID documents to search for any medical records If a clear answer isn39t forthcoming then one next step would be the use of some noninvasive imaging technology to look at the brain for evidence of damage or malfunction Usually the first choice is to look for structural damage For this the computerized axial tomography CAT or CT scan is often used The CAT scan is a 3D Xray machine with multiple Xray sources and detectors in a circular arrangement around the patient The information is then processed by computer software to generate a three dimensional reconstruction of the body The strengths of the CAT scan are that it is relatively inexpensive compared to the other major imaging option magnetic resonance imaging MRI and can detect most forms of brain damage due to blows old clotbased strokes tumors and hemorrhagic strokes The weaknesses are that it does not have as fine a resolution as an MRI The MRI can see smaller features so it may miss some tumors especially small ones and it cannot detect a clotbased stoke in its early stages The MRI does not expose the body to ionizing radiation but it does place the body in a very strong magnetic field that is repeatedly turned on and off When the magnetic field is turned on the field forces the water molecules in the tissues to align themselves with the lines of magnetic force When the field is turned off the water molecules rebound and in doing so emit radiofrequency energy which is detected by a circular array of detectors surrounding the patient Similar to the CAT scan computer software compiles a 3D image of the body Because of varying water content across tissues blood bone myelinated axonal pathways neuronal cell bodies the image generated provides a very accurate high resolution image of the brain39s structure The strengths of the MRI are that it is better able to tell the difference between similar tissues for example tumor vs brain tissue and has typically better fine resolution that the CAT scan Its weaknesses are its relatively higher cost and the noise and enclosed nature of the machine that may make it disturbing and difficult to endure for some patients However both CAT scans and MRIs are good choices for structural analysis of the brain CAT goes all the way threw MRI body actually emits light However in some instances the structure of the brain may be reasonably intact and it may be necessary to try and assess the function of the brain One of the most commonly used is methods is positron emission tomography PET scans which allow for the examination of brain metabolic activity through the use of weakly radioactive markers which emit positrons during their decay used in schizophreni frontal lobes don t shine as brightly The consequences of positron emission are then detected by a circular array of sensitive radiation detectors around the body The radioactive markers are often compounds such as glucose or water that have been tagged with a radioactive isotope They accumulate wherever cerebral blood ow is greatest presumably due to higher brain activity levels requiring more blood ow The information from the detectors is then computer analyzed to generate a 3D image of brain activity The strengths of the PET scan are that it is relatively inexpensive compared to an MRI and long used imaging technology and it can detect metabolic activity throughout the entire brain The weaknesses are that the metabolic activity data is relative all the tissues are alive and requiring some blood ow and that requires some time for subtle differences to arise It can take a session of several minutes to a half hour or more to be able to determine which areas may be more or less metabolically active Also the spatial resolution is not very good Often the PET scan is combined with a CAT scan or MRI to get a clear idea of where the differences in metabolism are located poor resolution must be used with a CAT scan or MRI You must let the radiation accumulate The patient must be calm for about 5 or 10 min Another older but still useful technology is electroencephalography EEG In EEG multiple electrodes are placed on the surface of the skull to detect the electrical activity of the underlying brain s cortex The strength of this technique is that it can detect the electrical activity of the brain in realtime down to the millisecond level and its low cost The weakness are that it can only resolve activity within a few centimeters and it can only detect electrical activity on the surface of the brain deeper structures are not detectable There is one last imaging technology functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI It is basically and MRI with a much much much stronger magnetic field that is currently only used for research due to its cost A typical MRI uses a magnetic field of 03 to 15 Tesla A Tesla is a unit ofmagnetic field strength An fMRI uses a minimum of a 3 Tesla field with some experimental units using up to 9 Tesla fields The reason for such strong fields is that the fMRI is used to generate and detect differences in the radio frequency signatures of the hemoglobin in blood that is carrying oxygen vs the hemoglobin that is carrying carbon dioxide Because of that this technique can examine the structural and functional state of the brain If the patient is responsive there are a variety of psychological assessment techniques that be used One of the first is the mini mental state examination MMSE a series of 30 questions used to assess mental functioning The questions are simple but tap basic functions like the transfer of memory from short term to long term cognitive skills like simple arithmetic basic orientation and semantic knowledge and memory ask whats your name what city are you in who is the current president give them a few words and tell them to remember It is not a comprehensive test but it is a quick and dirty assessment of the intactness of a person s cognitive state and capacities Another test sometimes used to screen for dissociative disorders and the faking of symptoms is the amytal interview In this test a dose of the barbiturate sodium amytal is administered and the person is then interviewed by a clinician Sodium amytal is not a truth serum there are no truth serums but the rationale is that the drug will lower inhibitions and make deception more difficult Ifthey are faking something it is hard to make something up if they are sedated lightly In the absence of drugs the most common interview techniques are the structured and unstructured clinical interviews The structured interview is a scripted list of interview questions to assist in making diagnoses of disorders The strength of the structured interview is that due to its standardization it can be administered repeatedly at different times and places by different clinicians and the results compared Its weakness is that because of its standardization an experienced clinician is not free to explore responses that may provide additional insight into the condition of the patient The responses by the patient are often limited to yesno or definitelysomewhatnot at all The unstructured interview is an interview conducted by an experienced clinician where he or she conducts the interview according to their own skill experience and the response of the patient The questions allow for more openended responses by the patient While the exibility is its strength because of the unique nature of the interview its weakness is that the results of different unstructured interviews by different administrators at different times can t be compared Other forms of assessment include penandpaper formal diagnostic tests which are questionnaires and assessments taken by the patientclient such as IQ tests for example the WechslerAalult Intelligence Scale WAIS and personality tests for example the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI Lastly there are projective T 1w w w J E IJ39HWLr images in a manner that will allow hidden or suppressed feelings thoughts and attitudes to be re ected in the responses ch category For instance Both techniques are us mind39s tendency to edit and censor one39s own k m 39l u l t v m no ma ter how trivial or even uncomfortable or embarrassing Over t1me 1n the quotsafequot therapeutic environment it is expected that the memories involved in the unconscious con icts will come to the surface In dream analysis the client and therapist go over the content of the client s dreams Dreams are considered important because during dreaming psychoanalytic theory holds that the conscious mind s A is lessened The content of the dream is divided into two types I v w 39 39 39 1lH 4M 39 Through he application of free association to the manifest content the hope is to uncover the latent content of the dream and through that the nature of the psychological con ict or problem hold that a person s core beliefs contribute to automatic thoughts that re exively emerge in our daily lives The thrust of all cognitive therapies is to identify the problematic psychological condition then to identify the negative or irrational beliefs or thoughts which generate or maintain the problem and challenge them and eventually replace them Instruction in self change skills relaxation therapy increasing pleasant events cognitive strategies ID irrational negative thought like being perfect is impossible assertiveness training learn how to assert yourself don t live with guilt increasing social interaction LOOK AT SLIDE FOR MORE DETAILS 391 1 a Lu 39 meone that has come t drinking alcohol or smoking cigarettes The cues sight smell taste associated with the drinking experience predict the following feelings of lowered anxiety lowered behavioral inhibitions and chemical name disulfiram which causes rapid intense ushing of the skin accelerated heart rate shortness of breath nausea and vomiting when even small amounts of alcohol is ingested essentially an instant massive hangover results without the enjoyable feelings of alcohol consumption So the stimuli CSs sight smell taste which used to predict pleasant feelings now predict extremely unpleasant ones In the other major counterconditioning therapy Ln As a practical matter it is used to treat phobias and anxiety disorders In systematic desensitization the individual is gradually exposed to the object or situation which elicits fear until it can be tolerated The presentation usually follows a pattern similar to the following First the patient may be taught relaxation and mediation techniques in response to the mere thought of an encounter with the feared stimulus Then when that has been mastered thee patient then may progress to using the same relaxation and meditation techniques to photographs of the feared stimulus then to the stimulus itself at a great distance Over time systematically the feared stimulus is brought closer and closer while the individual learns to relax Eventually the patient is able to be brought into close contact with the stimulus and not be afraid The next two classical conditioning based therapies are based on extinction and are also used to treat phobias or anxiety disorders However they are less thorough and effective than systematic 39 u In doing so by experiencing an encounter with the object or situation that they fear greatly but coming to no actual haim they may extinguish their learned acquired fear response B contrast in 391 r v i M U I For instance your parents may calculate credits of varying value for each time you do something the like such as clean your room or don t do something that they donOt like such as not fighting with your brother or sister As you accumulate pointscredits you can redeem them to do something that you like which costs you points which you may not normally get to do like staying up late on a school night or sleeping until noon on a Saturday servational leamingbased therapies include modeling and behavioral rehearsaVrole e 1 J i i The models can be actually present or symbolic if hey are observed indirectly in movies or television Observing the model provides the observer with information on what the model does as well as on consequences of the model39s actions It is expected that the observer will acquire the model39s behaviors andor accept of the model s behaviors as guidance for their own actions 7 39 quot 39 HM r Ill The goal is to getthe patientclent to practice desired behaviors in a safe structured situation with corrective and positive feedback before performing the behaviors in a real target situation with a greater risk of failure n IV Effectiveness Is psychotherapy effective The answer is yes but it is difficult to quantify the degree of effectiveness For wide ranging psychological problems both subjective client reports and objective observations indicate that counseling and psychotherapy are effective This includes both the short term and longer time periods For some problems with biological components such as endogenous depression evidence also suggests that psychotherapy can enhance the effects ofmedication i 39r 1quot H1 la mu A cw n we of ii There seems to be no clear onesizefitsall champion This may be partly because most therapists are eclectic in their therapeutic approach using a variety of styles and techniques as they deem useful and appropriate based on their experience and their assessment of the client Even when therapists do preferentially specialize in one approach all therapists have some qualities in common They try to create an atmosphere of warmth and trust they provide reassurance and support the act of simply dealing with the problem openly with another person provides some amount of desensitization for the client therapists will reinforce any adaptive responses they see and they try to promote understanding and insight in the client Taken together these factors probably explain why there is no single clear cut universally applied from of p 39 quot J J quotI 39 39 things will get better by themselves All therapy styles share common factors They all try to develop an interpersonal relationship of wrath and support reassurance and support desensitization just putting it into words reinforcement understand or insight V Biological Therapies There are three categories of disorders that are commonly treated with psychoactive drugs Anxiety disorders schizophrenia and depression l A J JU BZDs are fastacting and iety within 2030 minutes of cross the bloodb administration T J some but not all GABAA receptors The limbic system important in emotion and motivation has high numbers of BZD sensitive GABA receptors especially the amygdala which is involved klt 9quot 5 E 5 00 H o l But another source of problems is that quot 39 If a patient then tries to suddenly stop using the BZDs they often experience a sudden rebo nd anxiety worse than the anxiety that initially led them to seek treatment For this reason their administration must be 1 If f H39 sedative 7 I which are plentiful in the basal ganglia wh1ch is involved in voluntary movements However after being medicated for some time the schizophrenic patients reported the loss of their positive symptoms hallucinations and delusions This lead to the adoption of chlorpromazine and other phenothiazines as antipsychotic medications with some success However one curiosity is that r u 1 ll u timely hunt 4 rmuww ur 1 c m l I W m I a 39 l 39 they also block serotonin 5HT3 receptors Since man hallucinogens ar in agonists it is unclear how much if any in uence blocking 5HT3 receptors may have on the reduction of hallucinations and delusions t l u an m x buttons after reuptake These drugs were used on depressed patients in the 1950 s after the observation that some depressed people had low levels of monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal uid samples taken from them Not long after MAOIs still in the 195039s 39 tox1c1t than MAOIs and acted pr1mar1 y i u increasing levels in the synapse While research continued on new antidepressants it wasn t until the 198039s that 4 39 39 i SSRIs were developed l 39 w l e m These drugs have low toxicity but have ggression and suicide in some rare cases Still despite the range of e cases are resistan 39 quot l been reported to facilitate a drugs that can be used to treat depression som 4 l JlJMIE 3 n many druresistant cases of depression at least in the shortterm V w l M Unlike what you may have seen in the movies ECT is administered while the patient is anesthetized and unconscious a shock lasting a few seconds Shocks are administered until a seizure lasts at least 15 seconds Treatments are usually given 23 times per week for atotal of 612 treatments Side effects can include memory loss and confusion II III IV Time39s Window 0 6070 milliseconds is when you can see two separate ashes of red and green light I Less than that you will say you say one yellow ash Blind sighted people are better at determining where the light is coming from and the color when they guess I Parts of the brain can be active even when you aren t consciously aware of it 0 When you are working hard your frontal lobes are more active I Less efficient 0 When you are an expert on something the activity of the frontal lobes are less active than normal because you are working smarter I More ef cient O The Construction Of Perception 0 Our brain tries to ll in the space that really isn t there with what it thinks should be there Hardwired Cognition o The weaker signals can shut down the bigger ones 0 The cortex of the brain is forming categories based on experience all by itself Oscillations o 40 Hz rhythm when you are wide awake and when you are in a dream 0 Between thalamocorticalspecific and nonspeci c loops 0 When you hear or catches your attention the signal resets to the front of the brain OUTLINE I Terms To Know A Gene 0 An observable inherited trait o A specific deoxyribonucleic acid DNA sequence which codes for a specific polypeptide or protein B Genotype o The DNA content of a cell s nucleus whether a trait is externally observable or not C Phenotype o The pattern of expression of the genotype or the magnitude or extent to which it is observably expressed D Monozygotic o quotDerived from one fertilized e quot o Identical twins are monozygotic twins that share the exact same DNA just as they shared the same uterine environment E Dizygotic o quotDerived from two fertilized e squot o Fraternal twins are dizygotic twins and only share half the same DNA but the same uterine environment F Clone 0 Any organism that shares the same genotype with another 11 Common Misconceptions A One Gene means 0 Actually some genes DNA sequences can yield more than one protein 0 Most observable traits are polygenic in uenced by more than one gene rather than controlled by a single gene B Environment means 0 Environmental roles can mean more than just those of the immediate surroundings o It includes a multitude of nongenetic factors such as nutrition experience and activity education as well as culture and society and even exposure to drugs or toxic pollutants C Clone means o Clones are not necessarily completely identical in every way 0 Some in uence of environment can change the expression of the clones genotype Ill Heritability Heritability h2 refers to the observed variation in traits phenotypic of course that can be accounted for by genetics in a population not in individuals A Variance due to genes E Total Variance 0 An estimate must be made of the total variation seen for a trait in a population which is the variation cause by both genetics and environment in uences Then an estimate is typically made by looking at related individuals to estimate the variability due to genetics The genetic variance is divided by the total variance and the resulting number is heritability h2 o If we see h2 08 then that means that 80 of the variability of that trait is due to genetics and 20 is due to environmental factors B Caveats l The estimate of variation due to genetics is a difficult one to make and may be wrong 2 Heritability is a measure of how much a trait may be in uenced by genetics for a group but is meaningless to tell us anything of use about traits within a single unique individual 3 Heritability increases as genetic variation increases 4 Heritability decreases as environmental diversi increases IV Inheritance of Psychological Traits A Relatedness o Relatedness refers to how many genes are shared between individuals B Relatedness amp Concordance of Schizophrenia 0 There does seem to be some prenatal environmental in uence on schizophrenia as well 0 Fraternal twins and regular siblings have a relatedness of 50 But fraternal twins who shared the same uterine environment have roughly twice the concordance rate for schizophrenia as siblings 17 vs 9 C Relatedness amp Concordance of IQ o Genetics and the environment play a signi cant role in IS 0 Identical twins raised together show IQ scores with a correlation coefficient of 086 which is quite high but not the perfect correlation of 10 Identical twins raised apart have similar but slightly lower correlation coefficients of 072 suggesting some role for environment D Cultural amp Racial Studies of IQ 0 Environmental and social factors such as deprived backgrounds and opportunities are responsible for poor performances on IS 2 tests by any specific racial or cultural segments in our society 0 When black children adopted at similarly early ages are adopted by white middle or upper class families at adolescence their IQ scores are higher than the black population overall and not different from the white population overall V Failures of Genetic Determinism A Criminality o In the 1960 s a supposed link was found between a chromosomal aberration called XYY and violent criminal behavior 0 Studies showed that 96 of men with the XYY condition led relatively normal lives Of those that do have problems most are mildly mentally retarded and may have some irregular facial abnormalities B Alcoholism o In 1990 researchers at the UTSA Health Science Center reported a link between a dopamine D receptor variant and alcoholism However no other laboratory in the world has been able to reproduce their findings C Manic Depression 0 Two 1987 studies examining relatively genetically limited populations Israeli and Amish subjects each reported finding a different gene as linked to bipolar disorder manic depression Both studies were later retracted D Alzheimer39s Disease 0 Genetics plays a role in Alzheimer s It runs in families and one form of early onset Alzheimer s has been linked to a specific gene called Apo E only less than 10 of cases 0 75 of Alzheimer s cases occur in indiViduals with no family history or known genetic abnormality OUTLINE IPsychology Its relationship to other fields 0 Mainly related to Biology and Philosophy 0 Physiology the study of the functions of living things 0 Epistemology the study knowledge and how we know what we know II Psychology In general A Foci of Research 0 Developmental I Childhood amp beyond 0 The control of movements the acquisition of language math and musical abilities the formation of the self and the identity the formation of emotional attachments moral judgments and the development of problem solving and reasoning skills 0 Social I Interpersonal behavior 0 How people alone or in groups think act feel believe or behave based on social situations 0 In speci c situations 0 Experimental I Sensation perception learning memory 0 Animals or people and understand the basic principles of them 0 No surgery or drugs are used 0 Physiological I The underlying biologically and chemically based mechanisms underlying psychological phenomena 0 Nervous system amp hormones 0 Cognitive I Higher mental processes reasoning problem solving and creativity 0 Personality I Beliefs attitudes and behaviors across a varzetyof times places situations and conditions I Individual consistency in behavior 0 In a wide variety of situations o Psychometrics I Psychological testing 0 Studies and develops the theory techniques and tools of psychological measurements 0 Figure out how to conceptualize and measure a psychological property 0 Intelligence 0 Honesty o Fidelity o Aggression B Some Dominant Research Perspectives o Phenomenological Humanistic 0 Car Rogers and Abraham M510 W 0 Childhood is most important because that is where behaviors are formed People are good The nal choice is conscious Personality is being formed in childhood 1 Need for unconditional love and acceptance 2 Need for selfactualization a To do your best and be your best 0 Psychoanalytic o gmund Freud 0 Childhood is most important because that is where behaviors are formed People base their decisions for pleasure and to avoid pain People are not good Inner con icts take place in the unconscious mind and people are therefore unaware of the true source of emotional or psychological problems 0 Cognitive o How people perceive remember reason decide think and the attitudes they hold to nd the causes of behaviors and even psychological disorders 0 Your ideas and attitudes that will guide your behaviors o Evolutionary o Views human mental and psychological traits as the result of natural selection during the course of human evolution Behaviors Genetics some genes are related to behavior We are related to the Cavemen just more advanced GOO GOO o Behavioral Behaviors themselves and their repetition are the foundations of learning adaptation and psychological states 0 Doing it then you become it 0 Biological Brain structure and function Biolo is the sin 1e most im ortant in uence on behavior and psychological traits HoweverI it is not the only in uence and under some conditions its in uence can be overruled The physiological activity of the brain and genetics are the source of psychological traits and phenomena 0 Anxiety 0 Intelligence 0 Aggression 0 Mental illnesses C A Rough Historical Timeline 1860 Gusba VF eclzner published the book Elements ofPsyclIoglzysics 1879 Mllzelm WiIndtfounded the first psychology laboratog at the University of Leipzig in Germany 0 Study consciousness 1900 Sigmund Freud published llze Interpretation ofDreams which argued for the value of the study of role the unconscious m particularly in the treatment of mental disorders 1905 Al edBmet and llzeodore Simon founded the eld of psychometrics by creating the first intelligence test 0 Mental age test 1912 lWaX IVertlzeimer founded the Gestalt school in part to oppose structuralism and its emphasis on studying consciousness and the mind by trying to break it down to simple processes 1913 Jolzn Watson published Bella Viorism 0 Measure things we can objectively possess behavior 1932E C Tolman published Purposive Bella Vior in Animals and lWen which cited instances of learning which could not be explained by simple rewarded stimulusresponse habits but suggested that even rats fomied mental maps of their environment when in search of food o 1938BF Slanner reinvigorated behaviorism when he published as 1716 Bella Vi39or 0f Organisms as well as his work in developing automated animal testing chambers called Skinner boxes by many 0 Could run as many times as you want 1951Car Rogers one of the founders of phenomenological psychologypublished ClientCentered Therapy which argued that the patient has a conscious capacity to be in control of their behavior 1957N0am Cbonzskypublished Syntactic Structures which suggested that language and grammar are an innate capacity of the human brain rather than a behavior learned by simple behavioral habit 111 Some Philosophical Views Which Shaped Science A Determinism o The view that every event is determined by a sequence prior events each one causing the one that follows E Positivism 0 Knowledge should be based on the objective observation of the properties of the world around us either by sensory experience or instruments C Materialism o Evegthing can be explained or is caused by the physical materials of the universe and laws of nature D Reductionism o All complex things or problems can be understood by breaking them down simpler or more fundamental components E Empiricism o The only valid knowledge of the world can be gained through observation and sensory experience and discounts any valid role of intuition or mystical revelation IV Sorne Major Figures and Movements in Psychology A Philosophical Roots 1 Descartes 0 Born in 1596 Rene Descarteswas a French mathematician anatomist and philosopher o Believed in duality that the mind and body were two separate and distinct entities Proposed that the soul interacted with the body through the pineal gland controlling the flow of uid and hence the movement of the body A natjvjst believing that some ideas or information are present at birth and proposed his doctrzne ofjdeas 2 Locke o Bom in 1632 John Locke was a prominent British physician and philosopher o Believed that all human knowledge was acquired through sensory experience 0 Suggested that we are born a bula raise a blank slate which is written on by our experience B Physiology amp Psychophysics 1 Von Helmholtz 0 Born in 1821 o The perception of colors and auditory tones o The first to accurately measure the speed of a nerve impulse o 90 ftsec 0 Thought and movement were not simultaneous 2 Fechner Born in 1801 In 1860 he published le Elements ofPsyclIoplIysjcs which laid out the methods used by the later structuralist psychologists Absolute threshold vs Differential threshold 0 Magnitude of sensation C Psychology Structuralisrn 1 Wundt o Believed that beyond psychophy sical measurements the conscious experience was a fit topic for study and believed that the mind built up our conscious experience from simple elemental experiences he called 1391211226d1late experiences structuralism 0 Color shape height etc of an object 2 Stumpf o Expertise was in the auditory perception of tones 3 Titchener o Founded the department of psychology at Cornell University in 1893 D Psychology Functionalism William James American psychologist with a background in anatomy physiology and philosophy The father of mctz39onab39sm which held that it was the 15111017011 of the mind and mental processes that should be studied rather that the structure of the mind Published his in uential textbook 1716 Principles of Psychology E Psychology Psychoanalysis Freud 0 He was a physician 0 The rst to propose that unconscious processes can affect conscious actions and behaviors He based his theory of psychiatric disorders on unconscious con icts between selfgrati cation and morals Sex or aggression is all of our motivators Hedonism gain pleasure and avoid pain 0 Ego conscious on the ideal principle 0 Reali rinci le Super ego vou LEARN all the right and wrong ld gain pleasure and avoid pain at all costs sel sh o Unconscious principle F Psychology Gestalt Wertheimer See the big picture rst and then break it down Natural closure of incomplete shapes The father of Gestalt psychology 0 Basically gestalt says that the sensory whole is not the mere sum of its parts The mind did not process sensory input and build our conscious experience bit by bit in the way that structuralists believed G Behaviorisrn Purposive Behaviorisrn amp Neobehaviorisrn 1 Watson 0 Led to the proposition that learning consisted of learned responses made to stimuli which signaled reward Never hug your children or kiss them Father from Hell Proposed that psychology should rely only on the study of objectively observable behavior and not the mind both the conscious and unconscious 0 He termed this school of thought behaviorism in which behavior is described in temis of physiological responses to stimuli 2 Tolman 0 Did not believe that the mind should be completely abandoned as a subject for study There is a pugpose to behavior Even rats form expectations and even mental representations quotcognitive mapsquot of their spatial surroundings 3 Skinner o Skinner Box 0 Animal had to do something ACTIVE to trigger chain or response 0 In operant conditioning the animal s own responses have consequences which are then either reinforced or not reinforced rather than by stimuli that signaled reward or punishing consequences V The Swinging Pendulum of Influence


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All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.