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Week 8 Lecture Notes Psych 330

by: Melissa

Week 8 Lecture Notes Psych 330 PSY 330

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Psychlogy > PSY 330 > Week 8 Lecture Notes Psych 330
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About this Document

Note that some of the notes for the book notes are identical to what he says in the book, I just condensed it for the major ideas. -Halpern, Diane F. "1: Thinking: An Introduction." Thought and Kno...
Psy 330 thinking
Ted Bell
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 330 at University of Oregon taught by Ted Bell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Psy 330 thinking in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 02/28/16
● What is a Problem?  ○ gap or barrier between where you are and where you want to be  ○ To problem solve, need to generate new options because there are no good  options available  ○ Problem­based learning: students would learn better if they were engaged in  real­life problem solving  ● Anatomy of a Problem  ○ As,if statements  ■ Considering problems “as, if” they were something else  ○ Problems start with an initial start and end with an ideal goal  ■ Problem space involves the solution paths from the initial state all the way  to the goal  ● They consider all of the alternatives and choose the best one  ■ There are also givens  ● information and rules that place constraints on the problem  ○ includes knowledge needed to reach the goal  ■ can be stated or implied  ○ Situation awareness  ■ Consider the model of problem solving in which the problem occurs in a  context where the problem solver needs to recognize a situation that  needs action and bases that action on series of steps  ● Situation­­>sensemaking→ decision making/problem solving→  implementation  ● Stages in Problem Solving  ○ Preparation or Familiarization  ■ time spent in understanding nature of a problem, desired goals, and the  givens  ○ Production Stage  ■ where the solution paths arise  ○ Judgment/Evaluation  ■ individuals evaluate which path will be the most beneficial  ○ Optional 4th stage in which we cannot complete the process right away:  Incubation Stage  ■ Insight: where you suddenly have a realization of finding a solution  ● The AHA moment  ■ Compared to selective forgetting  ● When we problem solve, we rely on a relatively small number of  concepts held in a limited capacity short­term or working memory  ○ Memories in short term are quickly forgotten  ○ Persistence  ■ Levine’s “intimate engagement” or the willingness to work on a problem in  an involved and concentrated way  ■ Grit: Perseverance and passion for long term goals  ■ To become a good problem solver, must be willing to work at a problem  and to search for solution paths and to continue even when you don't feel  you can find the answer right away  ● Well­Defined and Ill­Defined Problems  ○ Well­defined: Problems that have a well defined correct answer  ○ Ill­defined:problems with many possibly correct answers  ■ Harder to evaluate possible solutions because you have to decide which  one is ultimately the best  ■ Poetry  ■ To approach these kinds of problems, have an explicit goal in mind and  set multiple goals in objective terms so that a variety of solution paths can  be considered  ● Problem­Planning and Representation  ○ Planning: higher­order thinking skill that is used to direct and regulate behavior  ○ Multiple Statements of the Goal  ■ increases size of the problem space and provides more opportunities for  finding a good solution  ● Transcontextual­ can be used in any context with any sort of  problem  ○ View from another perspective   ■ new perspectives emerge when we are forced to state an ill­defined goal  in several different waves  ○ Basic Steps  ■ Recognition of a problem  ■ Construction of a representation  ■ Generation and Evaluation of possible solutions  ■ Selection of a possible solution  ■ Execution of possible solution chosen  ○ Representation of the Problem Space  ■ Good visual representation is helpful  ■ Ways of representation  ● Write it Down  ● Draw a graph or diagram  ● Hierarchy trees  ○ branching diagrams; often used with problems involving  probability  ● Make a matrix or rectangular array of facts or numbers; a chart  ● Manipulate Models  ○ Detour problems: path to the goal is not a direct linear one;  requires intermediate steps  ○ Select the Best Representation  ● Problem­Solving Strategies  ○ Means­End Analysis  ■ Where people choose subgoals from their detours to determine the end  goal  ■ Forward looking strategy where you consider operations that move you  closer to subgoals and ultimately the final goal  ■ Steps  ● Choose appropriate subgoal  ○ Working Backwards  ■ Work from your goal to where you stand  ○ Generalization and Specialization  ■ Tree diagrams  ● ill defined problem  ○ Random Search and Trial and Error  ■ Trial and error works when there are few possible solution paths  ○ Split­Half Method  ■ useful when there are no apparent reasons for selecting from a  sequentially organized set of possible solution paths  ○ Brainstorming  ○ Contradiction  ■ Don't compromise when there are contradictions but rather devise a  solution that incorporates both ideas  ○ Analogies and Metaphors  ■ Inferences come from these because it allows us to relate two situations  ■ personal analogy: use yourself in the comparison  ■ direct analogy: comparing the problems you are working with with several  problems in other domains  ■ Symbolic activity: utilizes visual imagery and gears us away from the  constraints of words or mathematical symbols  ■ Fantasy analogy:   ○ Consult an Expert  ■ problem­solving aid not the solution though  ○ Crowdsourcing  ■ posing a job or a problem to a group of people, usually on the internet  ■ when this is done, individuals work alone but problem solving requires  group work  ● Groups have collective intelligence  ○ targets how they relate to each to other  ○ Important to consider social sensitivity  ○ Select the Best Strategy  ● Probem­Solving Problems  ○ Often because we get in thinking ruts( functional fixedness and mental set)  ■ functional fixedness: type of mental set in which individuals only consider  the usual use or function of objects  ■ Generic­parts technique: way of overcoming functional fixedness by  decomposing each component of a problem into smaller parts  ● Typically asked in the form of   ○ Can this be decomposed further?  Does this description imply a use?  ■ Mental set: predispositions to think and respond in a certain way  ● Inability to think of a new solution or new type of solution for  familiar problems  ○ Misleading and Irrelevant INformation  ■ need to decide what information is relevant  ○ World View Constraints  ■ from social class, nationality, or political views 


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