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by: Marco Wolf


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Psychlogy > PSY 305 > INTRO TO COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Marco Wolf
GPA 3.56

Arthur Markman

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About this Document

Arthur Markman
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marco Wolf on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 305 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Arthur Markman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/181787/psy-305-university-of-texas-at-austin in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.

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Date Created: 09/07/15
Between category structure 0 Hierarchical structure 0 The basic level 0 Goalderived categories Multiple categorization 0 What is this 7 Poodle dog animal thing pet as a dog Hierarchical categories 0 Categories are organized hierarchically 7 Different levels of abstraction 0 Why do we have different levels 0 How do we know which one to use Chances are you rst identi ed this Why different levels Communication 7 Different levels communicate different things 7 Allows us to refer to groups of different sizes Inference 7 Hierarchies allow inheritance web 70 f 157 Cells Does a dog have a tail Dog Is a dog made of cells wjmrt Tail is7 Does a poodle have a tail Poodle How do we use these levels Objects are named at a middle level of abstraction The middle level 7 Often called the basic level Animal Dog The superordinate level Cat The basic level Poodle Siamese I The subordinate level What makes the basic level basic 7 Studied by Rosch and colleagues Why is the basic level basic Many factors converge at the basic level The most abstract level at which 7 Objects from a category tend to have the same shape 7 The same motor movements are used With the objects 7 Objects Within the category tend to share parts 7 Contmsting categories can be easily compared A high level of within category similarity 7 Members of a category tend to be similar A low level of between category similarity 7 Members of contmsting categories tend to be dissimilar Changes With expertise Noviceexpert differences American students differ from Itzaj Mayans 7 Bird is the basic level for American students 7 Level is more speci c for Itzaj Mayans 7 This difference is only seen for naming 7 American students and Ma ans similar When tested using other functions of categories We ll talk more about that next class Similar results have been observed within this culture for experts and novices Is this only true for objects There may be a basic level for events too 7 Basic level events contain common subevents 7 Superordinate events may have many possible subevents M aklng a purchase Fund Shupplng Shupplng at a Shupplng at a supermarket vegetable stand Goalderived categories Not all categories name groups of objects 0 Some categories are organized around goals Pets Goalderived categories 0 Are goalderived categories at all like taxonomic categories They have a graded typicality structure There are good and bad examples What is a good example of a pet What is a bad example of a pet Typicality is assessed relative to ideals What is the ideal pet How is this related to good and bad examples of pets Ad hoc categories Goalderived categories may also be formed on line Things to take on a picnic Things to take out of the house in the event of a re Categories are easy for people to form These novel categories also have a graded typicality structure Like other goalderived categories typicality is assessed relative to an ideal Summary Between category structure Hierarchical categories 7 Good for making inferences Basic level Goalderived categories


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