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by: Marco Wolf


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Psychlogy > PSY 301 > INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
Marco Wolf
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Marc Lewis

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Marc Lewis
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marco Wolf on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Marc Lewis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/181791/psy-301-university-of-texas-at-austin in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.

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Date Created: 09/07/15
CHAPTER 14 THERAPY The Psychological TheraQies eclectic approach an approach to psychotherapy that depending on the client s problems uses techniques from various forms of therapy majority of PractitionersMajority of therapist use this meaning they use many types of therapies that seems to be appropriate Psychoanalysis Freudian therapy that believes in revealing the feelings of the unconscious Patience is suppose to say what s on their mind without doctor even asking any questions through the patient s dreams free associations resistances and transference Free association is when patient says aloud whatever comes to their mind childhood memory or a something from a dream this shows how often you edit our thoughts as you speak you may pause or omit embarrassing or shameful things before speaking TH ESE BLOCKS IN YOUR FREE ASSOCIATION INDICATE RESISTANCE resistance the blocking from consciousness of anxietyladen material hints that anxiety lurks and you are defending against sensitive material when things aren t comfortable you find a way out of it form of resistance is lapses of memory or talking about random issues normally it could be by not showing up or not paying for therapy transference the patients transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships such as love or hatred for a parent client sees therapist as his fatherGOOD You may find yourself experiencing strong positive or negative feelings for your analyst and analyst may suggest you are transferring feelings such as dependency or mingled love and anger that you experienced in earlier relationships with family members or other important people GOOD Doctor reminds patient of someone CLASS ONLY counter transference therapist sees client as someone from his own past bad Patient reminds doctor of someone from their past catharsis A way to move past the point of depression Therapy is progressing and patient finally opens up to therapist EX breaks down and crying sign that therapy is moving forward and working Humanistic TheraQies clientcentered therapy Rogerian therapy developed by Carl Rogers the therapist uses techniques such as active listening with a genuine accepting empathic environment to facilitate clients growth personcentered therapy nondirective therapy thought people could transcend themselves Therapist listens to person s conscious selfperceptions without judging interpreting or directing the client toward certain insights Clientcentered therapy o Wanted people to be better than they were o Selfactualization Fufiment of each individual s unique goal o Unconditioned positive regardThe practice ofviewing the client in a positive light under all circumstances caring accepting nonjudgmental attitude which helps clients to develop self awareness and self acceptance o Therapist is your friend puts things in a different way he makes it seem that he s on your side like he understands where you re coming from I EXAMPLE You say you called and hung up on girlfriend and therapist says oh you must have been real mad Behavior Therapies Behavior thrapyapplyies leaning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors doubts the healing power of selfawareness systematic desensitization exposure therapy a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxietytriggering stimuli commonly used to treat phobias get you to relax take whatyou re afraid of and bring it closer worm If you can repeatedly relax when facing anxietyprovoking stimuli you can gradually eliminate your anxiety The trick is to proceed gradually The goal is substituting a positive relaxed response for a negative fearful response to a harmless stimulus EX Fear of public speakingImagined scene of speaking in front of friends at coffee shop is paired with relaxation until you feel no trace of anxiety eventually being able to conquer you anxiety in actual situation aversive conditioning a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state such as nausea with an unwanted behavior such as drinking alcohol punish someone when they do the wrong thing It associates the unwanted behavior with unpleasant feelings EX To treat nail biting one can paint the fingernails with a nastytasting nail polish to treat alcohol dependency therapist offers client appealing drinks laced with a drug that produces severe nausea person s reaction to alcohol transforms from positive to negative CLASS ONLY flooding put person in situation face fear with fear They eventually get used to it Also works if imagining eg someone who is afraid of spiders put them in room filled with spiders Used for people with phobias andor anxieties not necessarily effective Gestalt Therapy Fritz Perls emphasis on the present and on integrating all parts of the person emotional and thinking with the world often very confrontative gets in your face talks about what s going on ripped up the paper girlfriend Wants the patient to express hisher feelingthoughts through their actions Unlike Rogerian Therapy Perls does all the talking very aggressive and opinionated doesn t show sympathy and asks lots of questions Therapist gets in face makes patient want to express emotions fully rationalemotive therapy Albert Ellis it s not what happens to us it s how we think about itquotis this kind of like cognitive therapy People are unhappy by not what s happening to them it is what might happen to them in the future Try to take the clients misrationalization and fix it by showing client that happiness is up to you and most things aren t that bad Clients think about what is going to happen to them from any given situation Nothing is ever as bad as you think Don t look ahead and think I will never have that love again think of it like if I was able to have that kind of love knowl can have better love happiness comes from Within Gets upset thinking about what s going to happen in the future common self defeating thoughts EX If you make a bad grade on a test you say you will unk the course or you won t graduate Cognitive Theragies cognitive therapies for depression therapy that teaches people new more adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene bw events and our emotional reactions These therapies assume that our thinking colors our feelings If such thoughts can be learned then surely they can be replaced Main goal is to try and replace the negative thoughts with positive ones completely eliminate the negative where as rational emotive therapy tries to get them to look at things from both perspectives and rationalize which one is better Getting people to change what they say to themselves is an effective way to change their thinking EX Depressed client says bad grades depress him because a bad grade will keep him from getting into law school and if he doesn t get into law school he will never be happyhas to think more positive EX Selfdefeating thoughts This exam is probably impossible All these other students seem so relaxed and confident Iwish l were more prepared l ll forget everything Restructure thinking to more positive thoughts relax The exam may be hard but it will be hard for everyone else too I studied harderthan most people Besides ldon t need a perfect score to get a good grade Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Treats depression and anxiety Aims not only to alter the way people think cognitive therapy but also to alter the way they act behavior therapy EX A person with a fear of social situations for example might learn new ways ofthinking but also practice approaching people The Biomedical Theragies physically changing the brain s functioning by altering its chemistry With drugs or affecting its circuitry With various kinds of direct stimulation or psychosurgery Prozac medicine to treat depressionanxiety it s an antidepressant that s suppose to lifet people up from a state of depression Prozac partially blocks the reabsoption and removal of serotonin elevates arousal and mood which appear scarce during depression form synapses lithium medicine to treat behaviormood disorders like bipolarcan be an effective mood stabilizer for those suffering the emotional highs and lows of bipolar disorder ECT electroconvulsive therapy a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient although controversial ECT is often an effective treatment for depression that does not respond to drug therapy lobotomy a nowrare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion controlling centers of the inner brain this calmed uncontrollably emotional and violent patients although it usually decreased the person s misery ortension it also produced a permanently lethargic immature uncreative person CLASS ONLY inderol used to treat anxiety and migraines and to prevent heart attacks from reoccurring it is a beta blocker Keeps heart from beating quickly which makes you think you re not afraid helps treat social phobias phenothiazines medicine for schizophrenia trephining an ancient surgical procedure that involved drilling burrs into parts of the skull in order to let out the evil spirit believed to cause schizophrenia Now days it is still used but only when completely necessary EX when someone has had a serious head injury and there is blood swelling in the brain this surgery will be performed in order to relieve the dangerous pressure of the fluidblood building up in the patient s head If you were acting schizophrenia they would take a chunk of your brain out in orderto let evil spirits out 1 Is psychotherapy effectivethe relative of different therapies qeneral readinq p505507 Client s perceptions Client s responses about therapy are usually very positive however skeptics are not persuaded by this because of 3 main reasons 1 people often enter therapy in crisis the crises passes and people may attribute this to their improvement I therapy 2 client may need to believe the therapy was worth the effort because it involves a lot of time and money so they use selfjustification kind of like cognitive dissonance 3 Clients generally speak kindly of their therapists even if their problems remain he s understandingquot Clinician s Perceptions Therapist s treasure compliments from their clients as they say goodbye or later express their gratitude but they hear little from the clients who experience only temporary relief and seek out newtherapists for their reoccurring problems Because people enter therapy when they are extremely unhappy and usually leave when they are less unhappy most therapists like most clinicians testify to therapy s success regardless of the treatment Outcome research Study was done on the improvement of people with and without therapy and found that simply time was a great healer However it was also found that psychotherapy benefits people of all ages as reliably as schooling educates them quot Those not undergoing therapy often improve but those undergoing therapy are more liker to improve No such therapy is generally superior but certain therapies are better for certain conditions Behavior Conditioning Therapy is good for problems such as bedwetting phobias compulsions marital problems and sexual disorders Cognitive Therapy is noted for its effectiveness in coping with depression and reducing suicide risk The more specific the problem the greater the hope those with clearcut issues such as phobias can hope for full improvement but those with depression or anxiety usually benefit from the short term but relapse later Therapies with little or no scientific support include no prizes Energy therapies reggyeredmemoryutherapies rebirthing therapies facilitateducgmmunication criseusmdebriefingquot herapy Aims Methods 5 5 Therapy Assumed Problem Psychodynamic Unconscious forces amp Reduced anxiety Analysis and interpretation childhood experiences through selfinsighta Clientcentered Barriers to selfunderstanding Personal growth Active listening and unconditional positive regard and self acceptance through selfinsight Behavior Maladaptive behavior Extinction and Counterconditioning exposure desensitization relearning aversive conditioning and operant conditioning Cognitive Negative selfdefeating Healthier thinking and Reveal and reverse selfblaming thinking selftalk CHAPTER 15 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations Background Info Attribution theory proposes that we usually attribute others behavior either to their internal dispositions or to their external situations EX Juliette seldom talks in class over coffee Jack talks nonstop Attributing behaviors to their personal dispositions we decide Juliette is shy and Jack is outgoing however this can lead to errors fundamental attribution error FAE the tendency for observers when analyzing another s behavior to underestimate the impact of the situation external factors and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition internal factors Whatever you do reflects something about you You assume people are a way based on how they act brave heroic actions reflect a person s inner being EX In class Jack may be as quiet as Juliette Catch Juliette at a party and you may hardly recognize your quiet classmate EX If a new friend acts grouch we may decide she s a grouchy person Her grouchiness may actually reflect her current situation losing sleep over a nancial worry getting a flat on the way to work or having a ght With a family member CLASS ONLY forced compliance People can sometimes be forced to comply with commands against their better judgment and often times this lead to odd effects from the other people watching the person who has been forced to comply EX a person is forced to read a paper about all of the negative aspects of the US in front of an audience of strangers even though she is very patriotic and loves everything about America Because of her reading that paper the people in the audience think she hates America the audiences even think that when they were told beforehand that the person loves America and is being forced to read the paper proves that the fundamental attribution error is TRUE selfhandicapping bias acting in a way that removes internal personal attribution forfailure allow external factors to influence performance example staying out late with friends instead of studying for a tough test now when the student fails can attribute it to being hung over external rather than lack of intelligence internal or saying I m not really goodquot when playing PingPong your explaining to yourself why you may not be good Do Our Actions Affect Our Attitudes the footinthedoor phenomenon the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request To get people to agree to something big start small and buildquot doing becomes believing EX Korean war US soldier prisoners become convinced that communism is good for Asia and 21 prisoner actually stayed with communists EX Ask people to put large ugly sign in window they say NO but ask to put small sign in window and they agree then come back 2 weeks later and ask them to put large sign in window and they agree EX Can you donate even a penny will help then when person goes in pocket they most likely don t pull out a penny and end up giving more cognitive dissonance theory the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort dissonance we feel when our actions clash with our thoughtsvalues cognition obligating When we become aware that our attitudes and actions don t cincied we experience tension or cognitive dissonance To relieve this tesion we often bring our attitudes into line with our actions Doing something you know isn t right amp you make an excuse for it When your actions don t match what you think The point to remember Cruel acts shape the self But so do acts of good will Act as though you like someone and you soon will Changing our behavior can change how we think about others and how we feel about ourselves Ex when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes We begin to rationalize if I choose to do it then I must believe in itquot we usually do this when it is a big decision that we have made basically we begin to lie to ourselves When your thoughts and your actions conflict sometimes you change your thoughts to rationalize your actions Ex when you ask a smoker why they smoke they rarely say I don t mind dyingquot they will make up other excuses that rationalize their actions People who go through initiations are more likely to like the group Like when people join cults or gangs they usually have to make dramatic changes in their life tattoo shave head hard work etc so even if they don t like the group after theyjoined they feel like they ve given up so much so they want to stay with it and they make themselves believe that they enjoy being in the group People don t tend to change their mind even though colt s visions proved to be wrong like believing earth will be destroyed Another example is when people get mad at someone who has caught them in a lie They try to blame it on the other person but often they are just mad that they got caughtannoyed really Showed pic of tobacco companies swearing that tobacco is not addictive How did they get to do that Cognitive dissonance They are going through the actions and they are explaining it to themselves When people shop lift and say things like oh well they re gouging people any way they re a big company and can afford itquotthat s donkey kong diss Cognitive diss is the danger of pretending to be something that you re not you become what you pretend to be CLASS ONLY all cognitive dissonance experiments discussed in class EXAMPLE Person gets 100 for experiment that was not interesting at all He is honest when asked if it was boring Subject who got 10 is more likely to agree that it was interesting because he only got 10he invested time not as wellpaid and will convince himself it wasn t that bad Example of people in colts example of smoker justifying why he smokes amp tobacco companies fear appealslow level or moderate fear works better than high fear Remember when he showed the ridiculous old video about the effects of marijuana the reaction they got of people was usually laughter because it was so offbased Low fear saying if you smoke weed your life will go nowhere EX Smoking didn t do anything to mequot 40 yr old man saying this still living with mother with no job doorintheface a person obtains compliance to the target request by first obtaining noncompliance to a larger target first EX salesman tries to sell expensive car then after being denied they try to sell a moderately priced car Example of this is an ad saying their product is not 3999 not 2999 but only 1999think of infomercials EX Ask a rich person if they will give UT 50 million they say NO So you say ok how about 50000 then they say sure low ball similar to footinthedoor starting small and working up to want you want but in this you make the small thing impossible after they agree to it EX can you grab something out of my car that is just outside the building and then after they agree to it then you remember it is really at home and try to get them to get it from your house inoculation way to prevent someone you have trained in your ideas to be resistant to counterideas by giving them counters to arguments against your ideas A way to keep people from changing their attitudes When you are taught to believe something and tehn that belief is contradictedyour belief comes crashing down EX believing the ways of the podium Social Influence Conformity Asch s conformity experiments Created a small group of about three college students in which they went around the table and said which line of the three comparison lines was identical to the standard line At first all of them guess the same correct lines but then the people who are in on the experiment began purposefully guessing the wrong line When it came to be the true experimenter s turn you could see them begin to feel intense discomfort squinting their eyes taking a long time to answer Even though most of the college students went with their eyes even when the others did not Asch still found that more than onethird of the time the intelligent and wellmeaning college participants were willing to call white black by going along with the group Conformity people conform to do what everyone else is doing people walking backward on sidewalk conditions that strengthen conformity the most important of these will be discussed in class 0 when one is made to feel incompetent or insecure the group has at least three people the larger the group the more you will conform o the group is unanimous fully in agreement because the dissent disagreement ofjust one other person greatly increases social courage 0 one admires the group s status and attractivenessyou will go along with someone who looks like a scholar rather than a drunk 0 one has made no prior commitment to any response 0 other s in the group observe one s behavior 0 One s culture strongly encourages respect for social standards o If one person stands up and says this is wrong the whole group would agree o If dissenter changes mind then group will go back to their orginal choice o If you re by yourself you usually don t change your mind CLASS ONLY how models affect attitudes Jason said we don t have to know this Jericho experiment Who s most likely to help in situation Go to seminary and get good Samaritans to participate and see howthey help On the way to experimental location good Samaritan passes by a person knocked out on the ground This test if they do anything or continue on their way Depending on how much time they had to get to the sermon they were going to give EX If they were late less likely to help barely on timenot likely to help had 30 minutesmore likely to help Obedience all about Milgram s experiments The study concerns the effect of punishment on learning according to experimenter There would be two subjects one being the teacher and the other the student You are the teacher and are told to teach the student through punishment electric shock increasing in intervals from low shock to dangerous and xxx The student a person working with the experimenter not really being shocked of course would grunt and scream and plead as the electric volts increased every time a word pair was incorrect Eventually the student would stop responding the teacher hesitates but is insisted by the experimenter that the study MUST go on The real study was looking at how far you would followthe experimenter s commands to inflict punishment 63 complied fully all the way up to the last switch Even with students who beforehand reported to having a heart condition still there was 65 full compliance Obedience was the highest when there was 1 an authority figure or prestigious figure with lab coat and clipboardpeople obey the uniform 2 an authority figure 39by a quot539 39 quot quot 3 the victim was depersonalized or at a distance even in another roomless likely to shock person if they were in same room 4 Proximity of guy in lab coat to gut giving shocksThe closer lab coatquot guy is the more intimidating he is 5 there were no role models for defiance that is no other participants seen disobeying the experimenter page 534536 in textbook Lessons from the F quot and L quot Studies With kindness and obedience on a collision course obedience usually won Such experiments demonstrate that strong social influences can make people conform to falsehoods or capitulate cruelty Ordinary people can become agents in a terrible destructive processquot Think of Hitler how he was able to influence all of Germany to partake in such grotesque acts against the Jewish shows the strength and meaning of a having authority Also shows how a little authority in the wrong hands can go so wrong However the minds that usually showed resistance usually showed them early on in the experiment either way the participant s attitude changed with and justified whatever action they decided to take whether it was to go on with the experiment or quit Main lesson of these experiments in any society great evils sometimes grow out of people s compliance with lesser evils Contrary to images of devilish villains cruelty does not always take the form of monstrous characters all it takes is ordinary people corrupted by an evil situation EXAMPLE ordinary soldiers who follow orders to torture prisoners ordinary student who follow orders to haze initiates in their group ordinary employees who follow orders to produce and market harmful products Group Influence social facilitation stronger responses on simple or welllearned tasks in the presence of others tendency for people to do better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when in the presence of other people This implies that whenever people are being watched by others they will do well on things that they are already good at doing and will not do as well on activities that are more challenging to them Presence of others arouse people social loafing the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable EX People told to scream or clap as loud as they can do so more when they think they are doing it alone when told to do the same thing with group of people they produces less noise EX Groups not tipping bc they expect others to tip People fee ride on the other group member s efforts Presence of others diminish their feelings of responsibility deindividuation the loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity a loss of identity that can result from being part of a group or any other source of anonymity ie lynch mob warriors wearing a mask an important factor in the bystander effect this is why most people don t intervene in emergency situation Lose your identity you tend to let group take control the presence of others both arouses people and diminishes their sense of responsibility Group Polarization the enhancement of a group s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group when people within a group discuss an idea that most of them either favor or oppose EX When high prejudice students discussed racial issues they became more prejudiced Low prejudice students became even more accepting EX Suicide Terrorists don t have terrorist s mentality all of a sudden it arises from being around other people who feel same way Groupthink the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Harmonious but unrealistic group thinking This is believed to have led to some of the major disasters in our country the invasion of Cuba the attack on Pearl Harbor because no one seemed to speak strongly against these plans everyone assumed the decisions were unanimous and so they didn t REALLY think about the consequences that might occur In such cases groupthink is overfed by over confidence conformity self39ustification and group polarization However despite these fiascos two heads are usually better than one There have been many great happenings because of group decisions and groupthink is usually prevented when a leader welcomes various opinions and critiques assigning people to identify possible problems Just as suppression of dissent bends a group toward bad decisions open debate often shapes good ones None of us is as smart as all of us CLASS ONLY territoriality we change in different territories mark territories don t go to close to one another Why guys can t pee at the urinal next to each other Why we look up at number in elevators instead of looking at the other people easier for men amp woman to stand face to face then 2 men hot countries stand close cold countries stand further apart Social Relations Cognitive Roots of Prejudice When categorizing people into groups we often stereotype them overlooking their diversity we think members of some other group other than our own seem to look and act alike OTHERRACEFACE recall faces of one s own race accurately than faces of other races We often overgeneralize when judging other groups from vivid memorale casesEX we relate Muslims to terrorist Prejudice prejudgment An justifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group it is mixture of beliefs stereotypes emotions and predispositions to action to discriminate Prejudice is a negative attitude discrimination is a negative behavior justworld phenomenon the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get special case of fundamental attribution errortoo much focus on victims not enough attention to situation leads people to falsely blame victims ie poor people must be lazy crime victims must be careless domestic abuse victims must provoke attacks Attraction proximity opportunity after being close for awhile get used to that person s face they become more attractive The more we see someone or be around them the more we like them We like those live in same neighborhood sit nearby in class work in same office mere exposure effect the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them EX Class picked most attractive lady as the one they seen the most in class physical attractiveness appearance most effects your first impressions most people don t think they are unattractive people s physical attractiveness predicts their frequency of dating their feelings of popularity and other s initial impressions of their personalities Attractivness eyes pupils genetics we also like the average personTexan similarity we like people that look similar to us because we really love ourselves being alike leads to liking we like people who are like us similarities stand out CLASS ONLY pheromones smell moleculeschemical factors that trigger a social response in members of the same species Smell molecules that attract peoplethis is why we like to KISS first impressions first impression is lasting but confidence can override first impression Why 19999 is betterthan 200 lnitial impression of the number 1 First impression usually is the last one EX guy starts off as bad worker then gets better over time boss still sees him as a bum neotony cute something that looks like a baby is more attractive because we are programmed to likelove babies we like people who look like babies halo effect Someone has one good quality so you assume they have other good qualities the more they see you the more they like you they start to think that all of your qualities are good EX appear in court and let the judge see your face often then she will begin to believe you are innocent playing hard to get we like people who seem to be hard to get for other people but not hard for us Hard to find someone when your single cuz your easy to get when your single and hard to get when your with someone


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