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Guided Chapter Notes CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention
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CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention
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This 147 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFR 3150 Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention at East Carolina University taught by Dr Sheresa Boone Blanchard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Early Childhood Intervention in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Chapter 1: Philosophy of Early Education GUIDED NOTES Guided Notes 1.1 Current Assumptions (pages 1-3) Best practice is a dynamic concept representing the current knowledge base regarding skills and values of a field. Current assumptions of the field of early childhood special education include: • Attitude of Science • Personalization • Cultural Sensitivity • Family empowerment • Collaboration • Ethical Conduct Guided Notes 1.2 Attitude of Science (pages 3-7) An _attitude of Science requires two elements a. Parsimony: one would look for a _simple explanation or assumption before investigating more complicated possibilities Example: If your car stops running as you are driving along, the first thing you check is whether you are out of gas. Next, you might look under the hood to see if any belts or hoses are disconnected. You would not immediately assume something more complicated has caused the problem. b. Empiricism: to rely on _observation or experimentation and to be guided by practical experience rather than theory alone Example: We tend to scold a child who is misbehaving, but sometimes, when we notice that the child is misbehaving more often despite our reprimands, we realize that our attention may be encouraging the misbehavior and that ignoring the misbehavior may be more effective in reducing it. To build a conceptual system, a discipline must first conduct systematic replications , which will permit educators to use strategies with predictive utility . Replication: demonstrates ability to be repeated (same results ) in the same situation with other _children_ and in other settings. Predictive utility: provides accurate _forecasts_ about what will happen in certain circumstances Example of conceptual system: Knowing letter sound correspondences (phonics) increases one's ability to decode unfamiliar words and to read with competence. Reinforcers – the behavior that follows is likely to _increase_ in frequency Guided Notes 1.3 History of Disability Rights (pages 7-9) Disability rights in the United States is a movement that has been closely related to the larger _civil_rights movement. In our country's early history, people with disabilities were often locked away in very _restrictive_ settings. During the 1960s and 1970s people with disabilities gained more rights and education moved toward being more inclusive. Least _Restrictive_ Environment: 1. Placed with children who are not disabled to: the maximum extent appropriate 2. Removed from regular classroom only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that: education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily. 3. Education in the regular environment is preferred and occurs with: specialized (separated) services as needed by individuals Individualization The Civil rights movement, going back to _Brown_v Board of Education, established that separate education of students based solely upon individual differences was inherently discriminatory Eventually, the civil rights movement led the way to significant legislation for children with disability based upon the prthciple of equality and supported by the Equal Protection Clause of 14 Amendment of the US Constitution These special education laws, legislated the principle of individualization of services designed to meet the unique educational needs of students with disabilities Federal Law passed in 1975 and referred to as the Education for the Handicapped Act, eventually was renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act What is Inclusion? 1. Greater placement in regular classrooms, or neighborhood schools with non-disabled peers. 2. A _continuum_ of services should be available options across a variety of placements. Guided Notes 1.4 Natural Environments (pages 10-13) What are Natural Environments? 1. As appropriate, depending on child and family needs, infants and toddlers would be served in homes, day-care centers, and preschools. 2. However, when a child with a disability is placed in a regular setting without the delivery of needed specialized services, everyone in the system loses. Challenges for Natural Environments 1. General educators must be prepared for work with children with disabilities and specialists must learn how to provide treatment in non-specialized settings. 2. The quality of the intervention that is actually delivered is of fundamental importance and is dependent on the_expertise_ of the persons delivering intervention. 3. Some children and toddlers with disabilities tend to present a remarkably diverse and challenging array of risk factors and developmental disabilities that do require intensive and specialized services. 4. The reality of funding may cause agencies to limit choices to families of very young children with disabilities, thus losing the options provided by a continuum of services. 5. Early Intervention and Preschool services for children with disabilities are based upon a_family_ -centered model, one that is complicated to deliver in a natural setting without being fragmented 6. Few natural environments are available that are of high quality for very young children. Guided Notes 1.5 Personalization Goes Beyond Inclusion (pages 13- 17) 1. Each child's abilities and needs_unique_ and specific to that individual. 2. Each child's success is dependent on the quality of interaction, therapy, and _education_ provided by caregivers, family, and professionals. 3. A ful_spectrum of services and placement options must be available in order to appropriately serve each child's needs. 4. The focus of intervention must be _achieving_ goals identified for each individual child and family by maximizing all learning opportunities. 5. The primacy of_parent_ decisions must be respected and their family values, priorities, and needs honored. 6. Comprehensive care requires full communit_commitment_ . Implications for Personalization 1. Services to very young children with disabilities requi_funding_ . 2. There must be priorities set for personnel training in order to fill positions in short supply with_highly_ _qualified__ personnel. 3. Well-documented, _evidence_ -_based_ best practices in early intervention should be implemented on a wider, regular basis. 4. _Advocacy_ on behalf of individuals with disabilities must continue. Guided Notes 1.6 Cultural Sensitivity (pages 17-18) As our country's diversity has grown, a lack of cultural sensitivity, or receptiveness to differences, has often led to conflict. Cultural sensitivity is challenging due to a number of factors: 1. Assumed _similarity : we assume our beliefs and values are the same as others. 2. _Ethnocentrism__ /denigration of differences: we hold the attitude that our own culture/origin is superior. 3. Anxiety/tension: we are uncomfortable when our basic _values are opposed. 4. _Prejudice__: we hold a hostile attitude toward people who belong to a different group. 5. _Stereotyping_: we make assumptions about people based on their ethnic or cultural group. 6. Comfort with the _familiar_: we are drawn to people who share similar interests and values and exclude others. Effective early childhood educators respect and preserve diversity, celebrate shared beliefs and traditions, and honor that which is distinctive in the many groups that make up this nation. Guided Notes 1.7 Population Trends and Economic Factors (pages 19-25) Minority populations _Hispanic_ Americans and _African_ Americans are the fastest growing minorities Hispanic Americans have the highest rates of poverty, the highest school dropout rates, and are educated in highly segregated schools. Increasingly, Hispanic students have been politically and socially targeted as a result of resentment over economic challenges and fear over demographic changes Hispanics, _African Americans, and American Indians tend to be overrepresented in special education. Confounding factors that tend to correlate with minority status: Low educational attainment, language differences, lack of economic resources, and lack of health insurance, all may contribute to an endless cycle of educational disadvantage Poverty/Economics An estimated 7 million children under the age of 6 live in poverty in the United States, and two thirds of these children live in working families who are not on welfare Homelessness Families with children represented 36% of those in homeless shelters Family Composition 1. Single Mothers: While the proportion of single parenting has risen dramatically, he poverty rate for children in single mother families is five times higher than that for children in two-parent families. 2. Teen Pregnancy: Adolescents in single-parent families are more likely to become adolescent parents. Birthrates among teenagers in the United States are substantially higher than in other Western industrialized countries. 3. Kinship care: Children who stay with kin tend to be more stable and are associated with fewer behavioral problems than those in foster care, even though most kinship caregivers live in poverty themselves Ethnicity Educational success correlates with highly with income. To conclude that education underachievement and other social problems are caused by racial characteristics would be uninformed, inaccurate, and unethical Guided Notes 1.8 Family Empowerment (pages 25-29) Empowerment: increasing one's _control__over one's life and taking _action_ to get what one wants. Some argue against the term empowerment, holding that the term is _paternalistic_ by suggesting that professionals are “giving” families power at our discretion--a right to which families already possess; Professionals must be careful to avoid communicating such authority. Families are empowered when their needs are met, and most of the credit goes to the families themselves. Empowerment is intended to promote family strength, competence and decision-making. Avoid _noncontingent_ helping, defined as providing services or support for families while expecting no proactive behavior on the part of families. Encourage empowerment: • Assume that families are _competent_ or capable of becoming competent • Create opportunities for families to _display__ competence • Enable families to develop a sense of personal _control_ Guided Notes 1.9 Working Collaboratively (pages 29-36) Essentials for effective teams: Consensus building: Each professional must be flexible and willing to share roles as well as information. Effective group process: 1. make all participants _comfortable_ in sharing their concerns and desires, 2. _Listening_ carefully to all members of the team, 3. _Valuing_the input of all members of the team, and 4. make decisions based on _consensus_. Team Models for Collaboration _Multidisciplinary teams are made up of members who work independently in providing assessment and direct services to a child and meet to share their goals and progress reports, though there is little direct coordination of efforts Example: An _Interdisciplinary_ approach means professionals may conduct their assessments and plan goals together, but continue to provide direct services on an independent basis. Example: In a_transdisciplinary_ model, professionals share roles and may combine their assessment and treatment tasks so that any one individual may be carrying out the responsibilities of a different professional. Relationship-based approach: __Family -centered service delivery means families are major _planners_ in treatment and professionals operate using _transdisciplinary_ approaches. Guided Notes 1.10 Ethical Conduct and Advocacy (pages 36-40) Professional Ethics • Becoming the very best educator you can be • Supporting others in providing quality services • Maintaining high ethical standards Code of Ethics of the National Association for the Education of Young Children "Above all, we shall not _harm_ children. We shall not participate in practices that are _disrespectful, degrading, dangerous_, exploitative, intimidating, psychologically damaging, or physically harmful to children." An advocate is someone who takes up another person's cause. Issues to advocate for according to the Children’s Defense Fund: End childhood_poverty_ Comprehensive medical and mental health care for women and children Child _protection______ and _connection_ High quality child care_all_ children Effective early literacy education for all children Prevention of and early intervention for behavior problems that lead to _criminalization__ of children Chapter 1: Philosophy of Early Education STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS What are the two important elements of an attitude of science? Give an example from your experience when you must demonstrate an attitude of science. What is the value of a conceptual system? How does the use of a conceptual system help you in your work? In what ways does applied behavior analysis meet the criteria for a good conceptual system? What other conceptual systems are dominant in early childhood? What is meant by personalization of intervention? What are its basic premises? Which of these do you feel you will be able to achieve first? What is needed in order to make the philosophy of personalization a reality? Which of these do you feel will be the most difficult to achieve? How has the population of the U.S. changed in regards to racial distribution? What changes have you observed in your own lifetime? State two reasons sensitivity to cultural differences is important in early childhood education. (Answers may vary) What cultural challenge is most difficult for you personally? What impact do changing demographics have on education? What trends have you seen in your own community? What are the detrimental effects of childhood poverty? Which of these have you seen in your work? How have the families changed in recent years? Give an example of how that affects your interaction with families. What can early childhood professionals do to support children from non-traditional families? What have you done in this effort? What problems accompany a philosophy of empowerment? How does this affect your work How is family defined within a family systems model? What components make up your family? Why is non-contingent helping not helpful? Give an example of this from your work or your life. What can professionals do to ensure that a team works well together? Give an example of an effective strategy you have observed that helped a team work together. Be able to tell two ways that each of the three primary team models is different from the others. 17. Give examples of how you could relate to a single mother of a child with Down syndrome that would contribute to a successful collaborative team. (Answers may vary) Chapter 1: Philosophy of Early Education TABLES Table 1–1 Basic Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis Basic Principle Contingent Effect on Future Example Consequence Rate of Behavior _Reinforcement_ A child who chews When a stimulus is The future his carrot carefully presented probability of that before swallowing (positive) or response is given ice cream removed increases. immediately after (negative) and in the future contingent upon a he chews carefully response, more often. (positive __Punishment_ reinforcement) The future A child who hits his When a stimulus is presented or probability of that play partner is response removed from the removed play activity and contingent upon a decreases told to watch for _Extinction_ response, five minutes before he is returned to the play activity, and in the future he hits less often. When the contingent The future stimulus for a probability of the A child who takes toys away from previously behavior reinforced decreases others has in the response is no past been allowed longer presented, to keep playing with the stolen toys and her rate of stealing toys increased. Now the teacher makes sure she must return any toy taken from another child and her rate of stealing decreases Table 1–2 Characteristics of Children from Birth to 5 Years with Developmental Delays Proportion of Area of Delay Population 46% Were reported as having a lot of trouble with communication 26% Described as having developmental delays 70% Were male 19% Could not pay attention and stay focused 25% Startled easily 39% Were very active and excitable 11% Were often aggressive Table 1–3 Characteristics of Families of Children Receiving Early Intervention and Preschool Services Approximate Risk Factors of Families Proportion of Children 1/4 Had incomes of less than $20,000 a year 1/5 Fathers with some college education Mothers with some college education 1/3 Received welfare or food stamps in the previous year 1/3 Were in households that did not include the child’s biological or adoptive father (given that these children were under 3 years of age, this number was likely to increase over time) <5% Were born to teenage mothers <5% Were born to mothers over age 40 SOURCE: NATIONAL CENTER FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH (2008). PRESCHOOLERS WITH DISABILITIES: CHARACTERISTICS, SERVICES, AND RESULTS. INSTITUTE OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES. FROM HTTP://IES.ED.GOV/NCSER/PUBS/20063003/SUMM_A.ASP Table 1–4 Demographic changes in ratio of children served in early childhood from 1997 to 2006. Demographic_ 1997 %age of Children Identified_2006 %age of Children Identified__5 yr olds_6.27_7.41__4 yr olds_4.89_6.07__3 yr olds_2.88_4.01 __2 yr olds_2.49_3.91__0-2_1.65_2.40__White Preschoolers/Infants and Toddlers_4.86/1.41_6.45/2.55__Black Preschoolers/Infants and Toddlers_4.43/1.66_5.93/2.32__Asian Preschoolers/Infants and Toddlers_2.28/1.18_3.59/1.95__American Indian Preschoolers/Infants and Toddlers_6.31/1.81_8.14/2.45__ Table 1–5 Team Models Team Model Strengths Weaknesses Multidisciplinary Team Involves more than May not promote a one discipline in unified approach to planning and services intervention Pools expertise for May lack team decision making cohesion and Reduces mistakes commitment** and biases Interdisciplinary Team Activities and goals complement and Professional ‘turf’ support other may be threatened disciplines Inflexibility by Allows commitment professionals may to unified service reduce efficiency plan Role of case manager Transdisciplinary Team Information flow is may be ambiguous, coordinated through case manager may become autocratic a case manager Encourages Requires participation interaction within by many experts many disciplines Places largest Encourages role responsibility on the sharing teacher as case Provides a unified, managertc "Places holistic plan for largest responsibility intervention on the teacher as Allows a more case manager" complete Requires a high understanding of the degree of child coordination and Leads to professional interactiontc enhancement and "Requires a high increased knowledge degree of and skilltc "Leads to coordination and professional interaction" enhancement and Requires more time increased knowledge for communication and skill" and planning tc "Requires more time for communication and planning " PAGE 3 Chapter 4: Human Development: Birth to Six GUIDED NOTES / PRESENTATION MATERIALS Guided Notes 4.1 Principles of Gross Motor Development Motor control progresses from head to toe (cephalocaudal) gross to fine motor control the center of the body toward the extremities (proximaldistal) 1. Developmental sequence for gross motor control: head control: lifting head in prone and supine shoulder control: prone propping and reaching trunk control: rolling over and sitting hip control: creeping and crawling legs and knees feet: cruising, walking, running etc. 2. Developmental sequence for fine motor control: eye movement (tracking) reaching grasping with whole fist with all fingersthumb opposing with thumb and index finger (progressively smaller objects) Guided Notes 4.2 Language Development Language Terms Communication is the ability to send and receive understandable messages Language is a symbolic system, with standard rules, used for communication Speech is the oral transmission of language Receptive Language refers to messages from others that are understood Expressive Language refers to messages communicated Three Aspects of Language: Form, Content, Use A. Form refers to the structure of language and includes: Phonology: study of speech sounds (vowels and then consonants) Syntax, the pattern or grammar of language (single words, twoword phrases, etc.) Morphemes, the units of meaning (free first then bound) B. Content refers to a child's knowledge of the words and the interrelationship between words C. Pragmatics, or language use is the way in which children communicate in social contexts Speech Acts refer to a speaker purpose for communicating Conversational Postulates are rules for effective communication such as turn taking, initiating conversation, sustaining an interaction Presuppositions are judgments made about the listener that influence how we communicate Guided Notes 4.3 Cognition Developmental Theory of Cognition The cognitivedevelopmental approach (Piaget) recognizes a fixed sequence in which thinking processes emerge. These stages include: Sensorimotor stage (infancy to 18 months) child integrates gross and fine motor development with the senses of sight and hearing. Child learns cause and effect through repetition, demonstrates object permanenc e and shows attachment. Preoperational Stage ( 2–7 years) is characterized by rapid intellectual development. Child uses language to express ideas and begins to understand time, size, etc. Concrete operations (7–11 years) is the first stage of logic and uses real objects in problem solving. It is during this period that children can classify, sort and organize facts about their world to use in problem solving. Formal Operations (11 years to adulthood) is the stage of adaptability, flexibility and abstraction. Guided Notes 4.4 Social Developmental Theory of Social and Emotional Growth Stages of Social Play Solitary play : A child is involved with his or her own play and does not interact with others. Spectator play: A young child observes the play of others but makes no attempt to join them. Parallel play: Children play independently even though they are near other children and engaged in similar activities. Associative play: Individual children will play with other children, engaging in similar or even identical activities. Cooperative play: Children give and take, play roles, and share and solve problems Emotional Development A. Attachment Theory: Secure relationships between infant and caregiver are the basis for emotional maturation Sensitivity and responsiveness of caregiver build attachment Several factors pose risk for secure attachment: caregiver substance abuse, child abuse, neglect, low SES, infant prematurity, absent father, overcrowding Infants are emotionally atrisk if they avoid attachment resist detachment: avoid exploration, but resist closeness when absent caregiver returns from separation B. Progress of Emotional Development 7–8 mo Categorize emotions 18 mo Able to regulate emotions or impulses 2 yrs Realize that the emotions of others have consequences for them Regulate others with their emotions (sadness works best!) 2–3 yrs Defiant behavior is expression of individuality and autonomy Attribute emotion (happiness/sadness) to getting what they want 4 yr old Attribute “happiness” to getting what they want, even if they have to break rules to get it 67 Complex emotional response to breaking rules; ability to empathize with victim and attribute “willpower” to denial of happiness when achieving that would result in breaking rule Guided Notes 4.5 SelfHelp Skills Independent Eating and Drinking Begins reflexively, infant then shows intent, hold bottle, tolerates pureed foods, holds cup, eats finger foods, uses spoon, masters use of fork, and reaches independence, even makes simple foods. Dressing Removes socks and shoes, assists in undressing, puts on simple clothes, works fasteners, dresses independently, and masters complex tasks such as tying shoes. Toileting Presents periods of dryness, recognizes wetness, stays dry during naps, achieves bladder control, achieves bowel control, and stays dry all night. Personal Responsibility Follows directions, completes routines independently, helps with chores, and is reliable. Chapter 4: Human Development: Birth to Six STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. Why should an early practitioner have exceptional knowledge of the milestones of development? Without a tethered knowledge of normal development, practitioners, especially those who work only or mostly with children with special needs, will have a tendency to drift from the norm in their assessment of children’s progress. Using this knowledge, they will be capable of making decisions regarding need for referral for professional assessment, judgments about the effectiveness of interventions, and precision regarding their communication with families. 2. Describe the sequence and age milestones of hip control. When an infant is independent he/she is able to get in and out of a sitting position, it is because some hip control has developed. At this time, an infant in a prone position will begin to crawl by coordinating its arms and legs to move across the floor or other surfaces. Later, weight bearing at the hips permits infants to resist gravity, raising its head and lifting its trunks off the floor on its hands and knees. By coordinating movement of the extremities, infants of nine to ten months, creep from this elevated position. 3. Explain the progression of development from reflex to reaching to grasping. At birth, infants' reach and grasp are entirely reflexive. Intentional reaching from a supine position begins at about 2 months after an infant has gained some control at the shoulders. Infants will initially reach towards objects with minimum coordination and may bat or swing at any object but not grasp it. A predominant flexor pattern holds the hands in a fisted position. By four months, infants' reach has become more coordinated and moves arms and heads towards specific objects. Grasping occurs at the point where reaching has become refined which permits infants to acquire and hold objects. The palmar grasp is characterized by a child scooping objects in his/her hand. 4. What are the five principles of language development? 1. Humans are born with a certain capacity to acquire language. 2. Children acquire language according to a universal pattern, which is observed across children of different language, cultures, families and disabilities. 3. Children generally develop an understanding of the meaning of concepts before they learn to use the corresponding words. A child's receptive language is almost always more highly developed than a child's expressive language. 4. Social exchanges are a necessary context for language development. 5. Children's language development is facilitated through modeling by adults repeated practice of sounds and words and differential reinforcements. 5. Explain the three aspects of language considered when discussing form. 1. Phonology: It is the study of speech sounds. When considering the linguistic development of infants, the evolution of phonemes follows a predictable pattern. 2. Syntax: The rules that govern structural patterns of language utterances and sentence grammar. 3. Morphological development: The evolution of word structure and word part such as prefixes and suffixes. 6. Briefly outline the general development of phonology skills and sentence structure. The sounds made by neonates are nonspecific: crying grunting, and gurgling. Without training or direction, caregivers are typically able to differentiate the types of crying sounds in order to determine the state of the infant. Infants begin to make vowel sounds within the first few months. Vowel sound production is referred to as cooing. Infants begin to babble by bout four months. Children produce words that increase in understandability as initial sounds, ending sounds and middle sounds of words which are put together with precision at 18 months. Speech is only about 25%65% intelligible when toddlers; children are able to produce twoword utterances. Age 4 is when children have acquired most phonetic sounds and are producing almost totally intelligible sentences. Syntax: Children are able to convey AB patterns and meaningful relationships between words. From here, children ask "why" questions then to negative question statements and finally to more complex sentences. 7. What is a morpheme? How do we measure the sophistication of language? A morpheme defined as the smallest part of a word that possesses meaning. Morpheme and other language is measured and calculated by the Mean Length Utterance which divides the number of utterance (at least 50). A MLU of 1.0 is observed when infants are at the one word phrase stage. 8. Describe the receptive language ability of a child around the following ages: 1yr, 18months, 2yrs, 3yrs, and 6yrs. Infants begin to recognize familiar words in speech by about 7.5 months but by the end of the child's first year they begin to acknowledge specific words. This is evident when children respond differentially to their names. By the end of their first year, infants recognize a few high frequency words and can demonstrate this skill by looking directly at the named objects. By about 16 months infants point to body parts upon request. At the end of the year, infants' understanding of speech is nears perfection. During the second year, infants begin to categorize concepts by making more gradual sophisticated generalizations. By age three, children can interpret and use figurative speech. At four years of age, children can understand passive sentences, but use them infrequently in conversation. At six years of age, children are good at solving subtle messages in language such as sarcasm and humor that relies on irony. 9. As children begin to develop expressive language, actions and objects dominate their early vocabulary. Explain why this may be so. Actions and objects dominate early words, through nouns appropriately tend to be learned more easily and more frequently used than verbs. This makes sense since objects have a concrete referent, while certain actions are not permanent and their dimensions change with each event. Words that represent objects that are acted upon in a variety of different ways are more frequently used than objects that don't move. 10. Describe a child’s language use at the ages: neonate, 12 months, 2 yrs, 3 yrs, and 6 yrs. Neonates have been observed engaging in reciprocal turntaking with caregivers in the first days of life. Eye blinking and mouth and tongue movements can become routinized back and forth between a child and caregiver. When children begins to use intentional communication many of their language intentions are nonverbal even at the first yearspeakers have been observed altering communication for their listeners. By age 2, children begin to use language for a variety of purposes and functions that integrate regulatory and interactional skills. Children have learned that a single utterance can serve more than one function. Three and four year olds will adapt their communication based on their perceived assessment of their listener's prior knowledge. Though many give more or less information based on the existence of previous experiences their listeners are judged to possess. 11. Define Cognition Cognition is the acquisition of knowledge which is a complex phenomenon in which people are constantly learning about the world. This allows human beings to learn reason, to think logically and to organize information about their world. 12. Explain the process by which children learn to regulate their environment. (Birth–2) This stage consists of simple learning governed by sensations, primitive reflexes and imitation. The Reflexive Stage: Repetitive action of the reflexes allows infants to eventually draw associations between their activity and a response. Voluntary behavior: Deliberate activity begins when infants learn that certain behaviors can elicit specific accommodations with an infinite incorporation and adaptation of actions. (2–7 years) During this period of development, children view the world only in direct relationship to themselves. They seem to be unable to view a situation from a perspective other than their own, and their thinking processes are generally concrete. They are increasingly able to use language to express ideas and use toys symbolically to replace objects in play (e.g., using a broom as a “horse”). (7–11 years) This is the stage of logic. It is during this period that children can classify, sort, and organize facts about their world to use in problem solving. They continue to solve problems concretely based on perception since most have not yet developed abstract thinking. In looking at the development of memory in children at this stage, the processes of selective attention, strategies used for retention, and the duration of memory must be explored. There is no doubt that age makes a difference in the abilities of children to both attend to learning and remember what has been learned before (11 years to adulthood) This is the stage of adaptability, flexibility, and abstraction. During this stage, adolescents can make hypotheses and use them to think in theoretical and philosophical terms. These individuals are aware of the contradictions in life, can analyze them practically, and can act upon the conclusions. 13. Explain how imitation is both a tool and an index of intellectual development. Imitation of such things as facial expressions is a sign of internalizing feelings and actions of the environment and shows that the child's learning broadened has become more sustained to include not only expressions, but verbalizations and motor activity. Imitation, the repetition of a sound or activity or both actions and sounds of another individual, implies there has been storage of information within an infant’s brain. 13. How is the sensorimotor phase of development qualitatively different than the preoperational stage? Sensorimotor: This stage consists of simple learning governed by sensations, primitive reflexes and imitation. The Reflexive Stage: Repetitive action of the reflexes allows infants to eventually draw associations between their activity and a response. Voluntary behavior: Deliberate activity begins when infants learn that certain behaviors can elicit specific accommodations with an infinite incorporation and adaptation of actions. Preoperational: this period of development children view the world only in direct relationship to themselves. They seem to be unable to view a situation from a perspective other than their own, and their thinking processes are generally concrete. They are increasingly able to use language to express ideas and use toys symbolically to replace objects in play (e.g., using a broom as a “horse”). 15. When and how is caregiver interaction a determinant of social and emotional evolution in children? As early as fetal development, the emotional status of mothers can affect children’s development. Research has shown that maternal stress and anxiety during pregnancy raise cortisol levels, which cross the placenta and affect fetal hormonal levels and brain development. In infancy serious emotional deprivation on the part of mothers can result in developmental delays. Nurturance, or reliable stimulation to the senses in early childhood is the mechanism through which infant and mother develop trust, reciprocal confidence and attachment. Failure to provide emotional support, use of high levels of negative emotion and/or fail to communicate with emotion leads to children who have low levels of emotional understanding. Emotional deprivation from mother leads to emotionally depressed children. 16. What is attachment and how does it mature over time in secure relationships? What are some indications that an attachment relationship is insecure? Attachment is described as the secure relationship between infant and caregiver and the basis for emotional maturation. Mothers who are sensitive and responsive to their infant/child build secure attachment. Several factors pose risk for secure attachment: caregiver substance abuse, child abuse, neglect, low SES, infant prematurity, absent father, overcrowding. Infants may be emotionally atrisk if they avoid attachment or if they resist detachment by avoiding exploration in order to stay close to their caregiver. These same children resist closeness when an absent caregiver returns from their separation. 17. How did Vygotsky describe the normal emotional crisis of 2–4 year olds? Vygotsky identified age 3 as a critical transition phase or “crisis,” wherein children begin to struggle with their position with respect to social structures. The most salient description of this transition to higher mental functioning is “defiant behavior” organized into seven categories by Vygotsky: negativism, stubbornness, obstinacy, willfulness, protest, devaluation and despotism. These are the natural behaviors that lead eventually to a healthy and natural transition to individuality and autonomy. 18. Describe the emotional giveandtake progression of infants and their caregivers through early childhood. 7–8 mo Categorize emotions; anxiety at separation 2 yrs Realize that the emotions of others have consequences for them Regulate others with their emotions (sadness works best!) 2–3 yrs Defiant behavior is expression of individuality and autonomy Attribute emotion (happiness/sadness) to getting what they want; At 3 yrs, children are defiant toward peers 4 yr old Attribute “happiness” to getting what they want, even if they have to break rules to get it; at 4 yrs, children are defiant toward adults 6–7 Complex emotional response to breaking rules; ability to empathize with victim and attribute “willpower” to denial of happiness when achieving that would result in breaking rule 19. Describe the context and importance of play to socialemotional development. Beginning at birth, the back and forth interactions between caregiver and child are the basis for learning social interplay. Simple games like patacake and peekaboo provide simple rules for reciprocal exchange so necessary in social development. Imitation, again beginning in infancy is an important factor in social play. The integrity of interactions and number of opportunities for play important in the rate at which children progress to more sophisticated levels of play. As children begin to play with their peers, they learn the social rules for successful play from their peers because peers are less tolerant of deviation from rules than are adults. 20. Identify the sophistication of children’s play behavior in a group according to your knowledge of play evolution: solitary, spectator, parallel, associative, cooperative Solitary Play: This involves both isolation and independence. This play experience can involve an individual child within the same physical area as a group of children. They enjoy the physical presence of others, but do not speak to them. These children do not attempt to decrease the physical distance between play areas. Spectator Play: It also involves frequently referred to onlookers play. This occurs when a young child observes the play activities of others but makes not attempt to enter in the activities. This play may involve conversation about the nature of the activity between the observer and the children involved. Parallel Play: It also involves independent play between children in a group. Children play with toys that are like those of the other children around them, but of their own choosing and in their own fashion. Associative Play: This occurs when individual children will play with other children. A child may in engage in similar or even identical activities without an adult. Associative play generally lacks organization. Children begin to establish strong preferences for associates and may begin to have a “best friend.” 21. Give two examples of any infant/toddler behavior demonstrated in a social context and explain how this behavior is an index of socialemotional, cognitive and language, and physical development Play enhances skill development in both motor activities and emotional development. Active play develops muscle control, cognitive development and socialization. Through play, children learn about their physical world and its relationship to themselves. Children also learn to develop language skills. Feeding: a mother feeding her infant shows responsiveness to her child’s subtle and obvious signals and fosters attachment; communicating to her child in soothing conversation is also important nurturance and language stimulation. The back and forth nature of signalfeed teaching the infant control over their environment and builds cognitive skills and finally, letting the child reach/grasp spoon and help guide spoon to mouth is assisting in motor development. The mother is watchful of her child’s play overtures and responds by imitation, song, and givetake. Reading: A 14monthold infant sits on her mother’s lap while reading a picture book. The child turns the pages and points to pictures (motor), while mother “reads book” in a playful voice (language). The child points to familiar pictures as they are name (cognitive) and the mother imitates word approximations as her child names (play). All this is the context for secure emotional attachment and the building of rules of social interaction. 22. List the traditional skills that fall into the domain of selfhelp. Selfhelp skills include: independent feeding, dressing, toileting, and personal responsibility. 23. Describe a child's eating and drinking repertoire at the ages: 4–6 months, 8 months, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years, and 5 years. It is not until infants are four months old that they suck voluntarily with enthusiasm and vigor. Young infants consume exclusively liquid diets of either breast milk or formula. In the first 4–6 months, infants seem to take responsibility for eating by holding their bottle. At about 8 months, a dramatic transition of independence occurs. These infants now have welldeveloped fine motor skills, they will drink from cups with help, will feed themselves finger foods and may refuse to drink from their bottles. By age 2, toddlers are often independent eaters and drinkers. At 3 years of age, children will eat well with a spoon and may be able to use a fork to stab foods. These youngsters now will display some very sophisticated skills. At the table, children will serve themselves drinks and portions of food. By the age of 4, many children have independence in the use of utensils. They also enjoy helping prepare meals and are able to make simple meals as cereal and toast, independently by age 5. 24. Describe a child's dressing skills at 9 months, 18 months, 2 years, 4 years, and 5 years. At 9 months, significant progress in dressing made when infants assist with dressing by lifting up their arms to remove or put on a shirt and stepping into a pair of pants or shoes. At about 18 months, toddlers take off jackets, shoes, socks and hold still during diapering. Children have little success in dressing even in articles of clothing that are easy to put on until they are about two years of age. At 2 years old, many learn to fasten large buttons, and small front buttons by 3 years of age. Zippers and buckles are more difficult because it requires higher fine motor skills which is mastered by about age 5. Usually children will be able to dress themselves at the age of 4. 25. When should training of bowel and bladder begin? Completed? It should begin at least by 18 months of age or later if a child does not stay dry for an hour or more. Bowel movements: training for bowel movement control can begin at 12 months and often is completed by about age 3. By five years old, children should be expected to be independent in all toileting needs. Chapter 4: Human Development: Birth to Six TABLES Table 4–1 Refinement of Gross Motor Development. 12 to 18 Months Creeps up and down stairs Runs Throws ball overhand Pulls toy behind when walking Walks backwards 18 to 24 months Kicks a ball Squats Bends at waist to pick something up without falling Walks up stairs alone with both feet on each step 3 years Rides a tricycle by pedaling with alternating feet Catches a large bounced ball Broad jumps two feet Runs smoothly with changes in speed 4 years Catches a thrown playground ball against body w/arms Walks up and down stairs alternating feet holding rail Jumps over a string held slightly off the floor Walks to the rhythm of music 5 years Catches bounced ball Skips alternating feet Jumps rope a 2–3 consecutive times Rides a bike with training wheels Skates forward a few feet Hits a ball with a bat or stick Table 4–2 Refinement of Fine Motor Development. 12 to 18 months Holds crayon, with crayon held from radial side of hand Turns pages of a cardboard book Places a peg in a pegboard Builds a tower with two blocks Places a round form in a formboard 18 to 24 months Imitates a crayon stroke Imitates vertical and circular stroke Completes puzzle with circle, square, triangle Builds tower with several blocks (4–6) 2 years Turns door knobs or TV handles by twisting wrist Unscrews nesting toys Turns pages one at a time Holds a crayon with thumb and forefinger Cuts with scissors on a line 3 years Holds pencil with adultlike tripod grasp (resting on third finger) Folds paper Winds up toys 4 years Completes puzzle of 35 pieces Moves paper and cuts out simple shapes (e.g. triangle) Draws a person with two body parts Makes crude objects w/2–3 parts w/clay Screws together threaded objects 5 years Prints first name Completes 11–15 piece puzzle Copies lower small case letters Colors within lines Opens lock with a key Hits a nail with hammer Table 4–3 Consonant Development Age Emergence 75% Mastery 8 months d, t, k, m, h 1 year g, n, b 1.6 years w, s 2 years p, s, k, z 2.5 years f, tS, j, l, r, pw, bw 3 years fw, kw, pl, nts, nd, ps, ts h, zh, y, w, ng, m, n, p, k, t, b, g, d 3.6 years dz, sp, st, sn, sl f 4 years tw, sk, sm, bl, kl, gl, br, tr, dr, kr, gr l, sh, ch 5 years v, fr, sr, pr, fl j, s, z, r 6 years skw v 7 years spl 8 years skr th as this 8.5 years th as in thing Sources: Bowen, C. (1998). Developmental phonological disorders. A practical guide for families and teachers. Melbourne: ACER Press. McLeod, S., & Sturt, C. (November, 2003). Neurological and developmental foundations of speech acquisition. Presented at American SpeechLanguage Hearing Association Convention, Chicago, IL. Table 4–4 Sequence of acquisition of morphological inflections. 1. Present progressive (eating) 2/3. Prepositions (in/on) 4. Plural (boots, Shoes) 5. Irregular Past Tense (came, went) 6. Possessive (daddy’s chair) 7. Copula, Uncontractible of "to be" (“there you are”) 8. Articles (a, the) 9. Regular Past Tense (jumped) 10. Third Person singular, Present tense, Regular (jumps) 11. Third Person singular, Present tense, Irregular (does, has) 12. Auxiliary, Uncontractible (can, will) 13. Copula, Contractible (“It’s mine”) 14. Auxiliary, Contractible (“I’ll take it.”) Source: Adapted from Wiig, E. H., & Semel, E. M. (1980). Language assessment and intervention for the learning disabled. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing, p. 28. Table 4–5 Milestones of language development. Birth Responds to noises (activity stops) Frequent crying vowellike sounds “e” and “a” 1 month Vocalizes Responds to voices Uses Sspecial cry for hunger Vocalizes pleasure 4 months Imitates simple gestures Repeats syllables (dadada) Localizes sounds Uses vowel sounds “o” and “u” Expresses displeasure without crying 8–11 months Produces consonant sounds in babbling Stops activity momentarily when told “no” Combines two syllables in vocal babbling “bada” Babbles using adult like intonation Shows understanding of some words Waves “byebye” Plays “peekaboo” and “patacake” 12 months Says 5–10 words Points to familiar objects when named Expresses wants Says “no” with authority 18 months Points to 2–3 pictures named names familiar objects upon request Intelligible speech 25% of time Imitates last word spoken Uses own name in conversation 24 months “Sings” along with music Uses plurals Uses 2word phrases Responds to choices Uses utterances that have communicative intents intelligible speech 65% of time Overextensions (goed, feets) 3 years Knows a few songsapproximates correct pitch Can carry on a conversation Uses 4word sentences Uses past tense, and present tense (ed) “wh“ questions Uses pronouns I, her/him, hers/his, she/he Intelligible speech 80% of time 4 years Says "excuse me" to interrupt conversation Will retell story read by someone else Carries out instructions with prepositions Participates in group songs Defines words Can tell what simple things are made of 5 years Knows birthday, phone number and parents names