Psychology week 7 notes
Psychology week 7 notes Psyc 2010
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Psychology Notes 2/22-2/26 Perceiving Depth - Depth perception, not sensation o Can influence figure & ground organization - Influenced by o Binocular cues: you need 2 eyes to see them o Monocular cues: you only use 1 eye to see them - Binocular Cues o Convergence How crossed eyed we are to focus on a figure Ex) look at your pencil at a distance and then bring it close to your face, the closer it is to your face the more your eyes cross and converge. o Retinal Disparity Two images from our eyes Stimulation location on the rear of the eye o Ex) left eye open vs right eye open The closer the object, it contacts the retina further out. The further the object, the closer to the center of the retina it contacts. o This is why we can watch 3D movies*** by forcing retinal disparity/depth (it used to be done by anaglyphs which is the layering of 2 colors (red&blue)) Now we use polarized digital 3D forcing 2 separate images that forces you to see depth OR the Nintendo 3DS uses parallax/ lenticular 3D which places barriers/curves the screen when there’s only a 2D image but seeing depth causes it to be 3D - Other 2D images with depth o Ex) world picture: uses monocular cues & forces depth o Monocular cues Relative height Lower objects seem closer, If something appears below the horizon line it seems closer to us in an image. (only if it’s touching the ground) Occlusion Closer objects overlap further objects. Relative clarity Finer detail objects are closer Linear perspective * use this more * Parallel lines appear to converge in the distance o Ex) Railroad tracks Relative size * use this less * o The trees in the background look smaller, but closer trees are bigger. 2 2D image: painting: pictures: screens The Ponzo-allusion Ex) lines - Social perception o Preconceptions about people create perceptual sets. This guides how we see & perceive people. Ex) Trump vs Obama survey with democrats and republicans about health care ideas and the results show which parties agreed with who. When told that it was Obama’s health care idea these were the results: Democrats Republicans When told that it was Trump’s health care ideas these were the results: Democrats Republicans Preconceptions also share our reality in a very real way - Self-fulfilling prophecy o People’s expectations lead them to act in ways that cause others to confirm beliefs 3 Ex) stock market crashes: it crashes bc people take out $ out. Ex) bloomers study: Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968) Told teachers that some students would bloom or hit a spurt in academics that year. They measured (tested the students) before the school year & after. Bloomers doubled in how much they learned in the year compared to non bloomers. After, the teachers were informed that the test was just a joke, but the teachers had tried harder with the “bloomers”. (Pygmalion in the classroom) o Stereotypes Expectations on how someone will act based on a category they’re in (race, religion, sexual orientation, etc.). Learning: what is learning - Relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to an experience. - Associative Learning o Learning that 2 events occur together o 2 Kinds Classical conditioning: predict stimulus on the basis of another stimulus Operant conditioning: learn our behavior leads to consequence st Ex) if you take a baby to the doctor the 1 time they’re probably very excited up until they get a shot. The 2ndtime, they will cry when they 4 see the needle or even when they walk in the door. Classical Conditioning: Pavlov - Interested in saliva/drool - He measured how much a dog will drool when presented with food. o Classical conditioning: dogs would eventually start to drool as soon as they got to the lab or when they heard the footsteps of the instructor. Cause: Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Give food to dog Effect: Unconditioned Response (UCR) The dog drools Neutral Stimulus (NS) Might elicit other responses, but it doesn’t cause the unconditioned response. Ex) pair a bell with the food being brought out. The bell doesn’t cause the UCR (drool), the food does. But if you pair the NS & UCS each time and then present the NS alone, the dog will drool. o Because it precedes the unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus then becomes the conditioned stimulus & drool becomes the conditioned response. (it becomes conditioned once it is learned.) - Classical communication 5 o Human application: a couple kisses only when Taylor Swift music plays, and eventually when they hear Taylor Swift without kissing, their body responds as if they are kissing. NS: Taylor Swift Music US: kissing UR: face flushed & sweaty o After a lot of Pairing of NS & US CS: Taylor Swift Music CR: sweat & flushed Terms to know: - Trial: pairing of Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS/US) and the Neutral Stimulus (NS) o # of times the bell and dog food are paired. - Acquisition: phase we are running trials/ initial stage in learning- acquiring the response. - Stimulus contiguity: occurring together in time and space. o Ex) bell & food happen within minutes, not 1 hr apart because other stimulus can happen between the bell & food if you wait too long. - Stimulus Contingency: the frequency the UCS & NS are paired. If they’re paired every trial, then it is very contingent & the organisms will learn to associate it faster than if the UCS & NS are paired only every 3 trials. - There are some things that are easier to condition than others. - Higher stimulus value o Ex) if a dog loves food, it will quickly develop an association and doesn’t need a lot of contingency. 6 However, if a dog doesn’t really care for food it doesn’t really care when it will be fed & wont associate it as fast. - Novel stimuli: new stimuli o Been pairing bell & food o Try bell with another stimulus: it is hard to associate the bell with something else. - Biological Preparedness o Disgust & fear – the threat of death Taste aversions & fear responses Taste aversion: Have to eat food & feel disgusted immediately if it needs contingency o Ex) if you eat a food & 24 hours later get the flu, you wont be able to eat the food that you had eaten prior to being sick even if it didn’t directly make you sick. Fear responses: if someone exposed you to a marker and sent you an electrical shock each time, you’d be afraid of markers. o We naturally have fear responses to snakes, bears, and anything that can kill us Fear associations are easy to form because fear is important for survival. o Processes in conditioning 7 Stimulus generalization- transference of CR to other similar NS. Ex) you’re afraid of red markers, it causes you to be afraid of all markers. If you showed a little kid a baby white rat & banged pots & pans each time he will start to cry as soon as he sees a rat. If you bring in a white bunny, he will cry too. He cries because of stimulus generalization. o Stimulus discrimination Non-transfer of CR to other NS Ex) fear of rats, not of bunnies o Through greater experiences you learn stimulus discrimination. o Ex) traffic lights: red press break, green press gas - Generalized to discriminated o Generalized at first & becomes more discriminant as time passes. Ex) you feed a dog every morning when your alarm goes off the dogs know when the alarm goes off theyre going to be fed. Well, if you have to get up earlier than usual and you use a 8 different alarm, the dogs at first will still think they’re about to be fed. But over time, they will learn to differentiate between the 2 alarms as one means nothing and the other means food. - Extinction o The diminishing of a learned response, When US isn’t paired with CS classical conditioning Also happens in operant conditioning when behaviors no longer lead to consequences. o Spontaneous recovery: sudden return of the behavior Procedure: - Acquisition: Bell & food cause drool - Extinguish: Bell & no food causes no drool - A few times later, spontaneous recovery: bell causes drool - Extinguish: Bell causes no drool. Extinction procedure - Used on drug addicts, hard because of spontaneous recovery - Also used to treat anxiety o Phobias: they’re classical conditions that’re associated. Ex) CS: spider CR: fear - Operant Conditioning o Associate a behavior with a consequence Does the behavior reoccur or diminish? Reinforcements: STRENGTHEN behavior Punishments: DISCOURAGE behavior 9 Ex) kid doesn’t eat veggies, send him to bed without dessert, that’s a reinforcement so that he eats veggies. - Rats pushing levers o Law of effect: a rewarded behavior is likely to occur. o Ex) put a rat in a Skinner box (named after Skinner, the guy who invented it) which has a lever and gadgets like a speaker, light, dispenser. o STEPS: Put rat in box & wait (a long time) for it to move. Eventually the rat discovers the lever & presses it. Then, a drop of sugar water is released which the rat drinks. The rat goes back to cleaning itself and later eventually presses the lever again—this time when a drop of sugar water is released the rat makes a connection between the lever and the water. The rat moves (behavior) Reward rat with sugar water (reinforcement) Go back to step 1. - Now, say we want the rat to stop pressing the lever. o We change the lever press to cause a static shock. o After it pushes the lever 2x it realizes the lever causes the shock o Lever touch decreases. Reinforcement 10 - Reinforcements: anything that strengthens behavior. Both + and – reinforcements increase the likelihood of the behavior. o Positive (+) reinforcement: administer a PLEASANT stimulation. Give the organism something it likes. Ex) work hard, get paid. o Negative (-) reinforcement: remove a stimulation that the organism dislikes. Ex) you’re sore so you use Advil to remove the pain. Since it removes your pain, you’re more likely to use it to remove your pain next time. Punishment: anything that weakens behavior/ decreases it. - (+) punishment (aversive punishment): Give something o Administer stimulation Ex) a dog is barking & you give it an electric shock. Since it causes the dog to STOP barking it is a punishment - (-) punishment (response cause): remove something the organism likes. o Ex) if you rob a bank we REMOVE your freedom and you’re sent to jail. Reinforcement Schedules - Fixed vs variable o Ex) teaching a dog to sit with treats, and you stop giving it treats, the dog won’t sit anymore o Fixed: you give the reward at a fixed ratio (ex reward a dog every 3 times) o Variable: you give a reward at an average (ex reward a dog on average every 3 times) 11 Interval vs Ratio o Interval: receive reward for 1 behavior after a certain period of time. Ex) rat presses the lever & gets reward, but then has to wait 3 minutes before getting another reward no matter how many times the lever is pressed. o Ratio: receive reward after certain # of responses. Different ratio schedules lead to different patterns of learning. Fixed interval: reward after specific time has passed time is constant o Ex) check mail: you wouldn’t check it every hour, you would check it when it usually comes o not an example of fixed interval: hourly pay because you don’t physically get the money after every hour. Variable interval (VI) o Rewarded 1 response after the elapsed time, time is the variable Ex) fly fishing: you won’t catch a fish in the same amount of time each time. 12
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