Psychology Chapter 6
Psychology Chapter 6 PSYC 1010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Payton Chance on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
CHAPTER 6: LEARNING - A relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience. - Not due to nature (getting taller) - Not due to short-term changes (new shoes) - Behaviorism: theory of learning that focuses exclusively on observable behaviors - Two types of learning: - Associative: making a connection or association between two events - Observational: learning that takes place through the observation and imitation of another’s behavior STIMULUS—-> RESPONSE—-> CONSEQUENCE Classical Conditioning - A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus (something that doesn't do anything ex: computer sound) comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus (ex: the altoid) that naturally brings about that response. - The neutral stimulus starts getting a meaning of the other stimulus. (the computer sound and the altoid) - Ivan Pavlov - Scientist who studied digestion by measuring the saliva of dogs - Discovered that dogs “predicted” the arrival of food; led to salivation - Pavlov’s experiment: - Attached tube to dog’s salivary gland - Rang a bell, then presented food (repeated pairings) - Dogs soon began to salivate when bell rang — even when food wasn't presented. - Neutral Stimulus: A stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest. (In Pavlov’s experiment it would be the bell) - Unconditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that brings about a response without having been learned ( the dog food) - Unconditioned Response: A natural, innate response that is not associated with previous learning. ( Eating the food) - Conditioned Stimulus: A NS that has been paired with a UCS to bring about a response formerly caused only by the UCS - Conditioned Response: A response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus. - NEUTRAL STIMULUS ALWAYS THE SAME AS CONDITIONED STIMULUS (NS AND CS) - if the stimulus is conditioned (CS) then the response is going to be conditioned (CR). - if the stimulus is unconditioned (UCS) then the response is going to be unconditioned (UCR). - Unconditioned response comes from the unconditioned stimulus. Example: Gavin recently went deep-sea ﬁshing with some friends. Unfortunately, Gavin was extremely seasick the entire time he was on the boat, and now when he sees boats, he feels queasy. In this situation, the conditioned stimulus is the: Answer: Boat Irinia's dog loves to go for walks, and she always puts a leash on him when they go out. The dog used to wag his tail as soon as they got outside, but now he wags his tail when she picks up the leash. In this case, what is the unconditioned stimulus? Answer: going for a walk (the stimulus that doesn't take any learning) Story of Little Albert - John B. Watson conditioned a small boy to be afraid of rats - unconditioned stimulus: loud noises - Fear generalized to other white, furry objects - Alberts fear was never “ﬁxed” (extinction) - Experiment is often criticized for being unethical Conditioning in the Media - Advertising Campaigns - Pairing a product with something desirable increases our chances of buying that product Example: Neutral Stimulus: Go daddy (the product) Unconditioned Stimulus: The pretty girl Unconditioned response: attraction to the girl Conditioned Stimulus: Go daddy Conditioned response: increase liking for go daddy Neutral Stimulus: the gatorade Unconditioned Stimulus: Hope Solo Unconditioned response: She’s strong and athletic and I want to be more like her Conditioned Stimulus: the gatorade Conditioned response: wanting to drink gatorade to be more athletic like hope solo Neutral Stimulus: coca cola Unconditioned Stimulus: the polar bears Unconditioned Response: the bears are cute Conditioned Stimulus: coca cola Conditioned response: wanting to drink the coca cola because the bears are cute
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