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BI102 - Week 8

by: Markhame

BI102 - Week 8 BI 102

GPA 3.45

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Contents: Evolutionary Trees Vertebrate Evolutionary Tree Trees as Tools Coevolution and Trees Hominan Early Humans Human Evolutionary Tree
General Biology - Genetics
Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery
Class Notes
Biology, Oregon State University, Oregon State, Bio 102, Bio102, bi102, BI101, Blair, Lesley Blair, Science
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Markhame on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BI 102 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see General Biology - Genetics in Biology at Oregon State University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
Week 8  Tuesday, February 23, 2016  9:54 AM  Tuesday    2/23/16         "The tree of life"      Evolutionary Trees ‐ models changes over time      Evolutionary Trees    Trunk → Common ancestor  Branches → Species today    Why do we keep trying to draw   The tree?    Goal: Understand origins of the            diversity of life on Earth                      Common Ancestor  Two types of Evolutionary trees:    1.Phylogenetic → relationships + branches have meaning; widely accepted  a. Where current species came from and when the branches originated; meaning = TIME    2.Cladogram → Ancestral relationships; Hypothesis ‐ not as widely‐accepted; more of an idea of what might have happened     *Hypothesis: Proposed explanation of a phenomenon      Example: Dinosaur Evolutionary Tree                                                                                                                  Ornithischia have a pelvis structured very similar to birds    Suropods ‐ Biggest dinosaurs    Theropods ‐ mostly go extinct, but there's one branch that continues on to become birds  More data in a single tree             New form of Phylogenetic tree: Interactive circle            Vertebrate Evolutionary Tree      All models need an Assumption:    Key Assumption: All organisms are connected by genes that are passed along the branches of the tree    → All our genetic material has similiarities to all other species of life on earth  → We all came from a common ancestor    All models also need data:    Morphological Data (Structures)  Molecular data (DNA, Proteins)    *For living species (or recently extinct), we have both of these data     Example:      Dogs        *For long‐extinct species, we only rely on morphological data (from fossils or amber)  → We just don't have their DNA        → NOTE: Featherd dinosaurs are becoming huge in fossil finds because we're just beginning to uncover parts of China; and we're finding all kinds of new feathered dinosaurs  Feathered dinosaurs really didn't fly; probably just had feathers for mating      2008:  Tree using both morphological data and molecular data (collagen) for T. Rex  Found collagen in fossilized bones, and found enough to map the DNA sequence for a gene  Compared it to organisms alive in species on earth → CHICKENS and OSTRICHES             Trees as Tools    Science needs to be predictive → Scientists use trees to develop and test hypotheses  Needs to predict what happened; and if its wrong then you need to revise  Ex: if your tree doesn't match up with a new find, you need to scrap it and fix it    → "The Missing Links": we had holes in our evolutionary trees  We're no longer just waiting to find fossils to fill these holes  We're using the trees to predict what was in those holes or going out and finding the fossils    → Tetrapod ancestor (360+ mya)  Somewhere along  the line, there were fish that had four legs and walked  2004 → Tiktaalik (first discovered fish with four legs)      Coevolution and Trees    Coevolution → Species Impact each other of time    Example: Gophers + lice    Researching have found that as new gopher species appear, new types of lice also appear with them  They each have their own distinctly different lice species  {Portfolio #3 Due Monday}               "Hominan"  Very common in parasites  The Human‐like evolutionary tree has many branches.    Example: Sharpshooter insect + Bacteria    Hominan (hominin) → Human‐like species    Sharpshooters have bacteria living inside them; usually benefiting them   On the big tree: Eukarya → Animals → Primates → Hominans    New species of Sharpshooter insects → new species of bacteria inside them  Relative to the different plants they're eating??  Can be traced:  5.5+ mya → Present     →The "ultimate" relationship: Endosymbiosis → One or more species living inside another  How do we distinguish between us and other primate species?   ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐Hominan = bipedal, walking upright ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐  Origins of human‐like species → Africa    Primates → Walking on the outside of the foot  Hominan → Walking with whole foot    Why did this develop? → We believe that walking became important to the species, so they developed a better way to do it.    FALSE: We evolved from Chimps    TRUE (supposedly): We share a common ancestor          { Habitats: Tropical Rainforest }        Fossils of the Human Family:      Early Hominans        Ardipithecus → Thought to arise when Africa was becoming dryer and airid     Can be seen growing bigger and bigger over time  Overlaps with Genus   Homos    Australopithecus  → 4 mya ‐ 1.5 mya, extremely successful species (Found in S. Africa)          → Approx. 2.5 mya: Begin finding tools with fossils of hominids      Genus homo  2.5 mya →  Present; Our species  Big brain, tools                                                                                           Australopithecus    vs     Genus Homo  → We also see jaw devlopment related to speech      HOMO ERECTUS:   → begin to migrate from the African continent and into southern Asia  → It had tools, and the first species with the control of fire  → Found fire pits and shelters  This is why we guess they could have moved north into colder environments  Fire in Africa; Shelter in Southern Asia    Where and when did the migration go?        Neanderthalensis (400 tya) VS Sapiens (200 tya)      Neanderthalensis had larger brains; and maybe even should have won in the evolution.. But didn't?  We've managed to map out their DNA → Extremely similar to us,  There's some interpersonal relations between the Neanderthals and the sapiens → possibly even interbreeding (oops)  Where did the Neanderthals die off? → Disease most likely      New Finds    → Paranthropus ‐ a different genus??  Came out of Australopithecus Africanus  Don’t interbreed with Australopithecus, though  Disappears abruptly    → Homo Naledi (2013) ‐ one of the most significant fossil finds ever  15 partial skeletons founds  One of the most dangerous cave excavations ever  Approx. 5ft tall; extremely tiny brain  Not dated yet  Because the skeletons were thrown into the cave, we think it was a grave site → meaning that Naledi may have deliberately disposed of its dead  This was thought to be a unique act to Homo Sapiens prior to this find    → Homo Floresiensis ‐ found in Indonesia  "Hobbit man" ‐ only about 3ft tall; no other homonid species this small  Tiny brain → not homo sapiens  Approx. 13 thousand years ago  Possibly a very small branch off of Erectus  Stories in Indonesia about tiny jungle humans      Key: Other species overlapped with Homo Sapiens    → Why are we the only ones left?  Mutations???? Brain??? 


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