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by: Marco Wolf


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Psychlogy > PSY 301 > INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
Marco Wolf
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Kathryn Harden

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Kathryn Harden
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marco Wolf on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Kathryn Harden in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/181798/psy-301-university-of-texas-at-austin in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/07/15
PSY 301 Harden FINAL EXAM REVIEW Psychological Methods Psychology 0 The scientific study of mind and behavior Descartes 0 French philosopher O Argued that mind and body are two separate things 0 Body made of material substance and mind is made of an immaterial or spiritual substances 0 Dualism O Descartes argued that the mind influences body through the pineal gland tiny structure near bottom of brain 0 Proposes that the mind controls the body but that the body can also influence the otherwise rational mind such as when people act out of passion Not many followers at all Helmholtz 0 German physicist O Developed a method for measuring the speed of nerve impulses in frog legs 0 Trained people to respond when he applied a stimulus sensory input from the environment 0 He recorded the reaction time the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus O Sooooreaction times Wundt O Credited with the emergence of psychology 0 Opened first laboratory ever to be exclusively devoted to psychology 1879 Leipzig 0 Analyzing consciousness a person s subjective experience of the world and mind 0 We may be able to be conscious of sights sounds tastes smells thoughts and feelings O Structuralism the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind 0 Introspection the subjective observation of one s own experience 0 Used reaction times to examine distinction between perception and interpretation of stimulus 0 Assistant of Helmholtz O Titchener 0 Set up psych lab at Cornell University 0 Studied under Wundt in Germany 0 Focused on identifying basic elements of consciousness O Structuralist approach faded because of introspective method 0 Listed 44000 elemental qualities of conscious experience James O Disagreed with Wundt39s claim that consciousness could be broken down into separate elements 0 More of a flowing stream of elements 0 Principle of Psychology 0 Functionalism the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment 0 Inspired by Charles Darwin39s natural selection 0 Discovering the function of mental processes biological process Freud 0 Physician from Austria who worked with hysteric patients clinical setting of study 0 Thought hysteria could trace back to a painful childhood unremembered O Studied with Charcot in Paris 1885 0 Childhood experiences that people can39t always remember have powerful influences O Unconscious the part of the mind that operates outside of awareness but influences conscious thoughts feelings and actions 0 Psychoanalytic theory 0 Emphasizes unconscious O Psychoanalysis 0 Therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into consciousness to better understand disorders 0 Sexual experiences and desires became controversial during that time 0 1909 met with leading academic psychologists at a conference hall organized at Clark University where he met James Watson 0 Behaviorism is the approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior 0 What people do rather than experience 0 Behavior can be measured objectively O Influenced by Pavlov39s experiments with dog salivation as a response to a tone 0 Little Albert experiment 0 Believed environment is the most important factor to influence behavior 0 Reinforcement Consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again 0 Behaviorism ignored mental processes and evolutionary history of the organisms it studied Chomsky O Wrote in book in response devastating critique of BF Skinner39s Verbal Behavior 0 Linguist at MIT O Argued that Skinner missed important features of language 0 Language relies on mental rules that allow people to understand and produce novel words and sentences 0 Sparked the interest of cognitive psychology 0 The study of mental process including perception thought memory and reasoning Brain imaging 0 fMRI function magnetic resonance imaging detects the twisting of hemoglobin molecules in the blood when they are exposed to magnetic pulses 0 Most widely used technique 0 allows researchers to localize changes in the brain very accurately 0 more precise than PETs and quicker at capturing images 0 PET position emission tomog raphy a harmless radioactive substance is injected into a person39s bloodstream then the person39s brain in scanned as they perform tasks such as reading or speaking 0 Areas of the brain that are activated during these tasks demand more energy and greater blood flow 0 MRI magnetic resonance imaging involves applying brief but powerful magnetic pulses to the head and recording how these pulses are absorbed throughout the brain Operational definition 0 A description of a property in concrete measurable terms 0 Requires a measure 0 The steps we take to measure a physical property are the same steps we take to measure a psychological property Validity O The extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related 0 Example frequency of smiling is a valid way to define happiness 1 Face validity Does the test appear to measure what it purports to measure 2 Criterion predictive validity How well can they predict some criterion of interest 3 Construct validity Are we really measuring the theoretical construct that we think we are measuring 0 hig hest form of validity Reliability 0 The tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing 0 Example if a person39s facial muscles produced precisely the same electrical activity on two different occasions then an EMG should produce precisely the same readings 0 Reliability is necessam but not sufficient for validity Something can39t be valid without reliability 3 Types of Reliability 1 Interrater Reliability How well do measurements taken by two or more people agree 2 Testretest Reliability How well does a measurement agree with a subsequent measurement taken later 3 Splithalf Reliability How well do half of the items in a measure agree with the other half Naturalistic Observation 0 A technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments 0 Helps avoid problem of demand characteristics 0 Problem is we can39t always observe everything we want to such as thoughts DoubleBlind Experiment 0 An observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed 0 World39s blindest experimenter a computer Doesn39t have any expectations Measures of Central Tendency 1 Mode the value of the most frequently observed measurement 2 Mean the average value of all measurements 3 Median the value that is in the middle 0 When you hear about the average college student sleeps about 83 hours a day you39re hearing about the mean 0 The mean gets pulled in the direction of the rare observations Range 0 The value of the largest measurement in a frequency distribution minus the value of the smallest measurement Standard Deviation O A statistic that describes the average difference between the measurements in a frequency distribution and the mean of that distribution 0 In other words how far are the measurements from the center of the distribution Correlation Coefficient is a measure of the direction and strength of a correlation which is signified by the letter r 1 If every time the value of one variable increases by a fixed amount the value of the second variable also increases by a fixed amount they are perfect positive correlation 2 If every time the value of one variable increases by a fixed amount the value of the second variable decreases by a fixed amount then the relationship is a perfect negative correlation 3 If every time the value of one variable increases by a fixed amount the value of the second variable does not increase or decrease systematically then the variables are uncorrelated Matched Samples Technique 0 A technique whereby the participants in two groups are identical in terms of a third variable Experiment 0 A technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables 0 Manipulation and random assignment Independent Variable O The variable that is manipulated in an experiment Dependent Variable O The variable that is measured in a study unchanged result Random Assignment 0 A procedure that uses a random event to assign people to the experimental or control group O Toss of a coin to determine someone39s group assignmen Informed Consent risks that participation may entail O A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all the 0 Part of the rules that govern the conduct of psychological research Galvanic skin response 0 Measuring electrical activity on the skin which increases when sweating 0 Example lie detector test measures Ileart rate Ilood pressure Neurons and the Brain Two major divisions of the Nervous System 1 Central nervous system CNS 0 The part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cor d O Receives sensory information from the external world processes and coordinates this information and sends commands to the skeletal and muscular systems for actions 2Peripheral nervous system PNS the part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body39s organs and muscles Two major subdivisions of PNS a Somatic Nervous System Responsible for sensation andcontrol of the skeletal muscles b Automatic Nervous System Regulates involuntary action as of the intestines heart and glands and that is divided into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system A Sympathetic Nervous System A set of nerves that prepares the body for action in threatening situations 0 Dilates pupil accelerates heartbeat inhibits digestive activity stimulates glucose release relaxes bladder stimulates ejaculation in male B Parasympathetic Nervous S stem 0 A set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state 0 Contracts pupil slows heartbeat stimulates digestive activity contracts bladder allows blood flow to sex organs Dendrite O The part of a neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body 0 Comes from the Greek word for tree and many neurons have dendrites that look like tree branches Axon O The part of a neuron that transmits information from other neurons muscles or glands 0 Each neuron has a single axon that sometimes can be very long even stretching up to a meter from the base of the spinal cord to the big toe Resting Potential The difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron39s cell membrane Roughly a charge of 70 millivolts O O Arises from the differences in concentrations of ions inside and outside of the neuron39s cell membrane 0 In resting state there is a high concentration of a positively charged ion potassium K as well as negatively charged protein ions inside the neuron39s cell membrane O Buuuuut there is a high concentration of positively charged sodium ions Na and negatively charged chloride ions Cl outside the neuron39s cell membrane 0 The concentration of K inside and outside an axon is controlled by channels in the axon membrane that allow molecules to flow in and out 0 In the resting state the channels that allow K molecules to flow freely across the cell membrane are open Action Potential 0 An electric signal that is conducted along a neuron39s axon to a synapse O Occurs only when the electric shock reaches a certain level or threshold 0 Occurs when there is a change in the state of the axon39s membrane channels 0 Flow of a positively charged ion Na are opened and pushes the action potential to its maximum value of 40 millivolts Refractory period 0 The time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated O Imbalance of ions is reversed by a chemical pump in the cell membrane that moves Na outside and moves K inside the axon clicker questions from lecture with key terms for nal 1 During the resting potential sodium ions are concentrated on the outside of the cell resulting in a slight negative charge 2 During depolarization sodium channel opens potassium channel closes and changes the charge from negative to positive 70 to 30 3 Repolarization occurs when potassium channels open while sodium channels are closed changing the charge from positive to negative Synapse O The junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another 0 Adults have between 100 trillion and 500 trillion synapses Synaptic transmission 0 Allows neurons to communicate with one another and ultimately underlies your thoughts emotions and behavior 0 Dr Harden referred to this as the chemical dance as both neurons are interacting to get the neuron from one to the next 0 Figure 37 Neurotransmitters Chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neu ron39s dendrites 0 Act as a lock and key with receptor cites only some neurotransmitters bind to specific receptor sites on a dendrite O Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter O Norepinephrine influences mood and arousal It is involved in states of vigilance or heightened awareness of dangers in the environment Agonists 0 Drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter Antagonists 0 Drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter Both agonists and antagonists drugs can enhance or interfere with synaptic transmission at every point in the process Figure 38 The Brain Cerebellum O A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills little brain 0 Maintains balance proper sequence of movements Cerebral Cortex The outermost layer of the brain visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres 1 Occipital lobe a region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information located in the back 2 Parietal lobe a region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch located in front 0 contains the somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figured call a homunculus little man in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them 3 Temporal lobe a region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language located in the lower areas of each hemisphere 0 Primary Auditory Cortex is located here 4 Frontal lobe a region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement abstract thinking planning memory and judgment located behind the forehead Thalamus O A subcortical structure that relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex 0 Receives input from all the major senses except smell which has a direct connection Hypothalamus O A subcortical structure that regulates body temperature hunger thirst and sexual behavior Pituitary Gland O The master gland of the body39s hormone producing system which releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body 0 the hypothalamus sends hormonal signals to the pituitary gland which in turn sends hormone signals to other glands to control stress digestive activities and reproductive processes Hippocampus O A structure critical for creating new memories and integrating them into a network of knowledge so that they can be stored indefinitely in other parts of the cerebral cortex 0 People with damage to the hippocampus can acquire new information but as soon as they get distracted they lose that information Amygdala O A part of the limbic system that plays a central role in many emotional processes particularly the formation of emotional memories 0 Fear punishment or reward O Amygdala stimulates the hippocampus to remember many details surrounding situations HPA axis 0 Made up of the hypothalamus pituitary gland and adrenal gland 0 Figure 161 0 After a fearful stimulus is perceived the hypothalamus activates the pituitary gland to release ad renocorticotrophic hormone ACTH The ACTH then travels through the bloodstream to activate the ad renal glands to release catecholamines and cortisol which energizes the fig ht or flig ht response 0 This can occur because of stress Cortisol O Increases blood sugar and suppresses the immune system Stress and Health Type A personality and mortality 0 Developed the concept of the Type A behavior pattern which is characterized by a tendency towards easily aroused hostility impatience a sense of time urgency and competitive achievement strivings 0 Researchers found that of 258 men who had heart attacks two thirds were classified as Type A behaviors Another study showed that students who responded to stress with anger and hostility were found to be three times more likely to develop an early heart attack 0 Hostility predicts heart disease better than any other major causal factor Optimism 0 An optimist who believes that in uncertain times I usually expect the best is likely to be healthier than a pessimist 0 Patients with higher levels of overall optimism were less likely than other patients after their surgery to need rehospitalization for complications 0 A person s level of optimism or pessimism tends to be fairly stable over time and research comparing the personalities of twins reared together versus reared apart suggests that this stability arises because of these traits are moderately heritable Hardiness O Hardiness training can have similar positive effects in college students for some even boosting their GPA Stress resistant groups or hardy shared several traits all starting with C 0 Commitment ability to become involved in life s tasks and encounters rather than just dabeng 0 Control expectation that their actions and words have a causal influence over their lives and environment 0 Challenge undertaking change and accepting opportunities for growth Reframing O Involves finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat 0 Reframing can be an effective way to prepare for a moderately stressful situation but if you absolutely can t bear to think about anything until you absolutely must the technique may not be usable Repressive coping O Controlling your thoughts isn t easy but some people do seem to be able to banish unpleasant thoughts from mind 0 Many victims of rape for example not only avoid the place where the rape occurred but may move away from their home or neighborhood 0 Avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint Rational coping O The opposite of repressive coping and so may seem to be the most unpleasant and unnerving thing you could do when faced with stress It requires approaching rather than avoiding a stressor in order to lessen its longer term negative impact 0 Involved facing the stressor and working to overcome it and is a three step process 0 Acceptance realize the stressor exists 0 Exposure attending to the stressor thinking about it even seeking it out 0 Understanding working to find the meaning of the stressor Stressinoculation training SIT O A reframing technique that helps people to cope with stressful situations by developing positive ways to think about the situation 0 Subsequent research on SIT has revealed that it can be useful too for helping people who have suffered prior traumatic events to become more comfortable living with those events Fightorflight response 0 An emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action 0 Occurs in the hypothalamus stimulating the pituitary gland which releases a hormone called ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone O stimulates the adrenal glands 0 ad renal glands release hormones Iortisol increases the concentration of glucose in the blood to make fuel available to the muscles Eatecholamines increase sympathetic nervous system response and decrease parasympathetic activation 0 Epinephrine Adrenaline O Norepinephrine Inflammatory cytokines 0 These types of cytokines are created primarily by immune cells that are engaged in the process of amplifying inflammatory reactions as a means of dealing with some sort of health threat to the O Cytokines proteins that circulate through the body and communicate among the other white blood cells and also communicate the sickness response to the brain pg633 0 One form of inflammatory cytokines is known as the pro inflammatory polypeptide regulators By relaying messages between the cells these cytokines help to trigger the immune system s rate of response to whatever threat is present Hypochondriasis O A psychological disorder in which a person is preoccupied with minor symptoms and develops an exaggerated belief that the symptoms signify a life threatening illness 0 People who constantly worry about their health and these poor souls can mentally turn every cough into tuberculosis and every headache into a brain tumor 0 For hypochondriacs the tendency to catastrophize symptoms by imagining their worst possible interpretation can come a chronic source of anxiety pg646 Conversion disorder 0 Conversion disorder a disorder characterized by apparently debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary but that the person experiences as involuntary O The patient might experience seizures blindness deafness paralysis or insensitivity to touch or pain in some body part symptoms usually traced to neurological causes 0 Conversion disorder may spontaneously resolve but the disorder is difficult to treat and in some patients the absent symptoms are later replaced by other pg646 I atient with paralysis of the leg might inadvertently move it to retain balance when the other leg is lifted by the physician Somatization disorder Somatization disorder involves combinations of multiple physical complaints that have no medical explanation 0 Chronic symptoms often lead the person to seek medical attention sometimes from more than one physician at the same time Unlike hypochond riasis somatization disorder involves a great focus on symptoms l39he patient will usually complain of many symptoms searching for someone to sympathize with their many physical problems but often only succeed in alienating their loved ones and doctors with their persistent complaintspg 646 General adaptation syndrome GAS O A three stage physiological stress response that appears regardless of the stressor that is encountered GAS is nonspecific the response doesn t vary no matter what the source of the repeated stress 1 Alarm phase the body rapidly mobilizes its resources to respond to the threat Energy is required and the body calls on its stored fat and muscle Resistance phase the body tries to cope with the stressor Shuts down unnecessary processes digestion growth and sex drive stall The body is taxed to generate resistance 3 Exhaustion phase the body s resistance collapses Many of the resistance phase defenses create graduate damage as they operate leading to costs for the body that can include susceptibility to infection tumor growth aging irreversible organ damage or death pg631 N Sensation and Perception Sensation 0 Simple stimulation of a sense organ Perception O The organization identification and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation Transduction 0 What takes place when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system 0 All senses depend on transduction Synesthesia O The perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another 0 Example people experience tastes when certain sounds are heard 0 Usual print in black appears to be all in different colors ABCDE becomes ABCDE PARTS OF THE EYE Retina O Lig ht sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball Accommodation 0 The process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina The Lens 0 Thickness and shape of the lens adjust to focus light on retina O The muscles change the shape of the lens to focus objects at different distances making the lens flatter for objects that are far away or rounder for nearby objects Pupil O A hole in the colored part of the eye located in the center of the iris Iris 0 A translucent doughnut shaped muscle that controls the size of the pupil and hence the amount of light that can enter the eye Fovea 0 An area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all Rods O Photoreceptors that become active under low lig ht conditions for night vision 0 Work when you walk around at night to go find a bathroom Cones O Photoreceptors that detect color operate under normal daylight conditions and allow us to focus on fine detail 0 More rods than cones 0 Contain one of three types of pigment Bipolar Cells 0 Located in the middle layer of the retina and they collect neural signals from the rods and cones and transmit them to the outermost layer of the retina Blind spot 0 A location in the visual field that produces no sensation on the retina because the corresponding area of the retina contains neither rods nor cones and therefore has no mechanism to sense light Receptive Field The region of the sensory surface that when stimulated causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron O Applies to all sensory systems Receptive field of a Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon of a retinal ganglion cell joins with all other RGC axons to form the optic nerve 0 Responses conveyed to the ganglion cell by each bipolar cell depend on the combination of excitatory or inhibitory signals transduced by the larger group of photoreceptors connected to that bipolar cell 0 The RGC responds to a spot of light falling on any or all of the photoreceptors within its receptive field as a result of lateral inhibition Area V1 0 The part of the occipital lobe that contains the primary visual cortex 0 Here the information is systematically mapped into a representation of the visual scene 0 There are about 30 50 brain areas specialized for vision mainly in occipital and temporal lobes Perceptual Constancy O A perceptual principle stating that even as aspects of sensory signals change perception remains consistent O Explains why our friend looks the same to us even after they got a haircut O Perception is sensitive to changes in stimuli but perceptual constancies allow us to notice the difference in the first place Perceptual Grouping 1 Simplicity simplest explanation is usually the bestvisua system tends to select the simplest or more likely interpretation 2 Closure we tend to fill in missing elements of a visual scene allowing us to perceive edges that are separated by gaps 3 Continuity edges or contours that have the same orientation have what Gestaltists called good continuation and we tend to group them together perceptually 4 Similarity regions that are similar In color lightness shape or texture are perceived as belonging to the same object 5 Proximity objects that are close together tend to be grouped together 6 Common Fate elements of a visual image that move together are perceived as parts of a single moving object Attention Feature integration theory the idea that focused attention is not required to detect the individual features that comprise a stimulus but is required to bind those individual features together 0 Attention provides the glue necessary to bind features together Ventral Stream 0 Travels across the occipital lobe into the lower levels of the temporal lobes and includes brain areas that represent an object39s shape and identity what it is Dorsal Stream 0 Travels up from the occipital lobe to the parietal lobes connecting with brain areas that identify the location and motion of an object where it is Memog Short term memory 0 Holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute Information stored for 15 to 20 seconds Iconic Memory 0 Fast decaying store of visual information Echoic Memo 0 A fast decaying store of auditory information Working memo O The active maintenance of information in short term storage 0 Subsystems that store and manipulate visual images or verbal information a central executive that coordinates the subsystem 0 Regions within the frontal lobe Episodic memory 0 The collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place 0 Only form of memory that allows us to engage in mental time travel 0 Hippocampus is not necessary for acquiring new semantic memories 0 Episodic memory also involved in imagining future events difficult for those with damage to hippocampal region Semantic memo 0 Network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world Implicit memory 0 When past experiences influence later behavior and performance even though people are not trying to recollect them and are not aware that they are remembering them 0 Ex Ability to ride a bike play an instrument tie your shoelaces Procedural memo O The gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or knowing how to do things Long term memory 0 Holds information for hours days weeks or years Has no known capacity limits 0 Sensory Input a Sensory memory attention a Short term memory maintenance rehearsal encoding a Long term memory some information lost over time 0 Long term memory retrieval gtshort term memory 0 Hippocampal region of the brain is critical for putting new information into the long term store Acts like an index for memories Priming 0 An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus such as a word or object as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus O The brain saves a bit of processing time after priming due to reduced activity in certain areas of the brain while performing a primed task 0 Perceptual Priming implicit memory for the sensory features of an item Back of the brain ex Visual cortex 0 Conceptual Priming implicit memory for the meaning of a word or how you would use an object Frontal lobes Storage 0 Process of maintaining information in memory over time Sensory short term and long term Retrieval O Retrieval Cue external information that helps bring stored information to mind 0 Encoding Sgecificity Princigle a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re create the specific way in which information was initially encoded O Statedependent retrieval the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval O Transferaggrogriate grocessing memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match 0 Retrieval can improve or impair subsequent memory 0 Retrievalinduced forgetting process by which retrieving an item from long term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items 0 Apple vs orange recall since similar Fruit or O Eyewitness testimony asking about certain details of a crime scene 0 Successful recall activates parts of the brain that play a role in processing the sensory feature of an experience vs trying to recall activates the left frontal lobe Benefits of retrieval practice for longterm memory 0 Strengthens a retrieved memory making it easier to remember than information later 0 Students should spend more time testing themselves on the to be learned material than simply studying it over and over Brain activation during attempts at retrieval 0 Trying to remember activates the left frontal lobe O Successfully remembering activates the hippocampus and the regions in the brain related to sensory aspects of an experience Rehearsal O The process of keeping information in short term memory by mentally repeating it Chunking O Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks Encoding 1 Visual Encoding 2 Survival Encoding you remember things better if you need them to survive Example in the book was ranking a list of items 3 Organizational Encoding Process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items a Example Memorizing the words peach cow chair apple table cherry lion couch horse desk now organizing them in three categories fruit peach apple cherry animal cow lion horse and furniture chair table couch desk It makes them easier to memorize 4 Semantic Encoding Type of encoding in which the meaning of something a word phrase picture event whatever is encoded as opposed to the sound or vision of it a Example iResearch suggests that we have better memory for things we associate meaning to and store using semantic encoding CraikampTulving 1975 Memory Experiment 0 Thinking about a word s meaning making a semantic judgement results in deeper processing and better memory for the word later than merely attending to its sound rhyme judgment or shape visual judgment 0 Consolidation The process by which memories become stable in the brain 0 Reconsolidation Memories can become vulnerable requiring them to become consolidated again 0 Long term potentiation LTP A process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection making further communication easier 0 Recency Effect 0 This is the principle that the most recently presented items or experiences will most likely be remembered best If you hear a long list of words it is more likely that you will remember the words you heard last at the end of the list than words that occurred in the middle This is the recency effect You should also note that you will be likely to remember words at the beginning of the list more than words in the middle and this is called the Primacy Effect 0 Primacy Effect O This is the tendency for the first items presented in a series to be remembered better or more easily or for them to be more influential than those presented later in the series If you hear a long list of words it is more likely that you will remember the words you heard first at the beginning of the list than words that occurred in the middle This is the primacy effect You should also note that you will be likely to remember words at the end of the list more than words in the middle and this is called the recency effect 0 Anterograde vs Retrograde Amnesia O Anterograde is the inability to transfer new information from the short term store into the long store 0 Retrograde The inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date usually the date of an injury or operation Role of Hippocampus Seven sins of memory 1 Transience Forgetting what occurs with the passage of time a Occurs during the storage phase of memory after and experience has been encoded and before it is retrieved Also occurs in long term storage 2 Absentmindedness A lapse in attention that results in memory failure 3 Blocking A failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it 4 Memory Misattribution Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source 5 Suggestibility The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections 6 Bias The distorting influences of present knowledge beliefs and feeling on recollection of previous experience 7 Persistence The intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget most deadly sin a Frequently occurs after disturbing or traumatic incidents 0 Relation to PTSD experience some kind of trauma that you re unable to stop remembering it So memories persist Sexual assault survivors and combat veterans Ebbinghaus and Forgetting O Forgetting curve is the exponential loss of information that someone has learned Learning Learning 0 Involves the acquisition of new knowledge skills or responses from experience that result in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner Classical Conditioning 0 Occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that produces a natural response US UR CS CR Pavlov s Dogs 0 Unconditioned stimulus US 0 Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism I resentation of the food 0 Unconditioned response UR O A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus l39he dogs salivation O Conditioned stimulus CS 0 A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism I avlov found that the dogs would salivate to stimuli that don t usually make dogs salivate buzzer metronome flash of a light a tone when he paired the stimuli with the unconditioned stimulus presentation of the food 0 Conditioned response CR 0 A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus l39he dogs salivating to be conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus Little Albert Experiment 0 Watson wanted to know if a child could be classically conditioned to experience a strong emotional reaction namely fear so he tried this on a healthy well developed 9 month old baby Albert Watson presented Albert with a variety of stimuli a white rat a dog a rabbit various masks and a burning newspaper Albert s reactions in most cases were curiosity or indifference and he showed no fear of any of the items But Watson also established that something could make him afraid While watching Rosalie Rayner Watson unexpectedly struck a large steel bar with a hammer producing a loud noise Which made Albert cry 0 What came next was the acquisition phase Albert was presented with a white rat and as soon as he reached out to touch it Watson struck the steel bar Watson kept pairing the two stimuli until Albert cried just at the sight of the white rat lone O The point Watson demonstrated that fear could be learned It wasn t necessarily linked to deeper unconscious processes or early life experiences like Freud believed Trace and Delay Conditioning in terms of the Air Puff thing Also Role of Conscious Awareness Delay Conditioning 0 The CS is a tone that is followed immediately by the US a puff of air which elicits an eyeblink response The tone and air puff overlap in time then the tone and air puff end at the same time After a few pairings of the tone and air puff conditioning occurs and the the tone alone elicits a response Trace conditioning O The only difference is there is a brief interval of time after the tone ends and the air puff is delivered 0 Delay conditioning requires awareness of the contingency between the tone and the air puff whereas trace conditioning does not 0 Trace and delay conditioning addressed the question of whether or not conditioning required the awareness of the US CS relation Spontaneous Recovery 0 The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period Operant Conditioning 0 A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism s behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future Skinner s Pigeons O Skinner put several pigeons in Skinner boxes set the food dispenser to deliver food every 15 seconds They learned behaviors that were accidentally reinforced which is why their pecking aimlessly seemed so bizarre or superstitious Reinforcement Punishment 0 A reinforcer is any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it 0 Positive reinforcement where a rewarding stimulus is presented 0 Negative reinforcement where an unpleasant stimulus is removed 0 A punisher is any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it 0 Positive punishment where an unpleasant stimulus is administered 0 Negative punishment where a rewarding stimulus is removed Children learn better from positive reinforcement than punishment 0 Children learn better from positive reinforcement because the correct behavior is reinforced Punishment tells you what the wrong behavior is but not what the correct behavior is Reinforcement Schedules O Interval Schedules 0 Under a fixed interval schedule F1 reinforcers are presented at fixed time periods provided that the appropriate response is made 0 Under a variable interval schedule VI a behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement Both tend to produce slow methodical responding because the reinforcements follow a time scale that is independent of how many responses occur 0 Ratio Schedules 0 Under a fixed ratio schedule FR reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made 0 Under a variable ratio schedule VR the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses Patterns of responding associated with each schedule 0 See the graph in chapter 7 page 282 Secondary reinforcement 0 Food comfort shelter warmth are examples of primary reinforcers Secondary reinforcers derive their effectiveness from their associations with primary reinforcers through classical conditioning Observational learning is learning that takes place by watching the actions of others Based on cognitive mechanisms such as attention perception memory and reasoning Bobo Doll Study 0 Bobo the Clown was an experiment where an adult demonstrated anger towards a clown and children mimicked this behavior Observational learning Research on exposure to TV violence 0 Observational learning belief that more exposure to TV violence shapes them children more aggressive as adults Implicit learning is learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products of information acquisition Brain regions involved 0 Occipital lobe Shaping is learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final de Secondorder conditioning is the phenomenon where the stimulus that functions as the US is actually the CS from an earlier procedure in which it acquired its ability to produce learning Pavlov paired a new CS a black square with a CS a tone that had been presented with food Thorndike s Law of Effect states that behaviors that are followed by a pleasant state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an unpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated Latent learning Tolman s rats study 0 when a person learns a new concept in its life but the knowledge is not immediately expressed For instance a child may observe a parent setting the table or tightening a screw but does not act on this learning for a year then he finds out later on that he knows how to do these Tolman placed three groups of rats in mazes and observed their behavior each day for more than two weeks The rats in Group 1 always found food at the end of the maze the rats in Group 2 never found food and the rats in Group 3 found no food for 10 days but then received food on the eleventh The Group 1 rats quickly learned to rush to the end of the maze to find their food Group 2 rats did not learn to go to the end Group 3 acted as the Group 2 rats until food was introduced on Day 11 Then they quickly learned to run to the end of the maze and did as well as the Group 1 rats by the next day If an elevated cue is added to the maze to help draw attention to details the rat will later need in learning the task the quotinsightquot or latent learning is facilitated Latent learning can happen in shorter amounts of time such as in three or seven day groups Language Developmental milestones for children s language learning and when they are reached 04 Months Can tell the difference between speech sounds phonemes Cooing especially in response to speech 0 46 Months babbles consonants 0 610 Months understands some words and simple requests 0 1012 Months begins to use single words 0 1218 Months Vocabulary of 30 50 words simple nouns adjectives and action words 0 1824 Months two word phrases ordered according to syntactic rules Vocabulary of 50 200 words Understands rules 0 2436Months vocabulary of about 1000 words Production of phrases and incomplete sentences 0 3660 months vocabulary grows to more than 10000 words production of full sentences mastery of grammatical morphemes such as ed for past tense and function words such as the and but Can form questions and negations Babeng 0 Between the age of 4 6 months babies begin to babble speech sounds Regardless of language all babies go through the same babbling sequence Deaf babies don t babble as much Morphemes O The smallest meaningful unit of sound 0 Content morphemes refer to things and events Cat dog take 0 Function morphemes serve as grammatical functions like tying sentences together andmormbutquot Methods for studying language development in infants 0 There are three different approaches behaviorist nativist and interactionist 1 Behaviorist learning occurs through reinforcement shaping extinction and other basic principles of operant conditioning 2 Nativist the view that language development is best explained as an innate biological process 3 Interactionist although infants are born with an innate ability to acquire language social interactions play a crucial role in language Conditioned head turn paradigm 0 Whenever an auditory stimulus changes an electric toy lights up or becomes active 0 Infants are conditioned to turn their head towards the toy whenever they detect a new auditory stimulus O Observer who codes video without sound uses the infant s action to judge whether infant hear the difference High amplitude sucking paradigm O Sucking reflex is common in all mammals and present at birth 0 Pleasant auditor stimuli used to reinforce sucking above a certain rate operant conditioning O Organisms lose interest in familiar stimuli habituation and pay more attention to novel stimuli Phonological rules Set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds Morphological rules 0 Set of rules that indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words Syntactical Rules 0 Set of rules that indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences Infant recognition of morphemes not in native language 0 At birth infants can distinguish among all the contrasting sounds that occur in all human languages Within the first 6 months they lose this ability and like their parents can only distinguish among the contrasting sounds in the language they hear being spoken around them Nativist Theory of Language 0 The view that language development is best explained as an innate biological process Deep Structure vs Surface Structure 0 Deep structure is the meaning of the word and surface structure is how the sentence is worded Wernicke s area and Broca s area 0 Broca s area is located in the left frontal lobe and is named after Paul Broca The Wernicke area is located in the upper left temporal lobe and is named after Carl Wernicke These areas provided the earliest evidence that the brain locations for speech production and speech comprehension are separate and that for most people left hemisphere is critical to producing and understanding language DecisionMaking Rational choice theo O The classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen probability judging the value of the outcome and multiplying the two Ex 10 of winning 500 10 x 50050 20 of winning 2000 20 x 2000400 According to Rational Choice Theory the rational choice would be to pick the 20 chance as the product is larger Conjunction fallacy 0 When people tend to think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event EX Just because someone likes to play chess and likes to read the probability that the said person is in both the chess club and book club is lower than the probability that he is in just one club The more events the less probable that they all occur together Prototype theory 0 comparing to ONE member of a category left hemisphere prototype information is a more holistic process involving image processing visual cortex Sunk cost fallacy O A framing effect where people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have already invested in it EX Basketball coaches spend a lot of money on star players and try to play them as much as possible to get their money s worth even if there were lesser paid players that were actually better than the star player Representativeness heuristic O A mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgement by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event EX When told that some people in a group are engineers you infer that one person is an engineer because they like math problems because it fits with your prototype of an engineer or how an engineer should behave Even though they may not be Prospect theory 0 People tend to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risk when evaluating potential gain People tend to gambletake risks to lower their debts and tend to not gambletake risks to raise their winnings Availability bias 0 items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently Functional fixedness O the tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed Think of the box of matches thumbtacks and candle problem Meansends analysis 0 A process of searching for the means or steps to reduce differences between the current situation and the desired goal First analyze what you want to accomplish Second analyze your current situation Third find the differences between the two And fourth start reducing those differences either directly without any intermediate steps creating intermediate steps or subgoals or from finding a similar problem that already has a solution Analogical problem solving 0 Solving a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution and applying that solution to the current problem EX In order to get rid of a tumor and not kill the person with one big X ray does the doctor uses this problem solving method to think about the time where an army invaded a castle through different bridges so they wouldn t collapse under the whole army s weight So he uses sma X rays that add up to get the job done like the army used sma forces that added up to get the job done Algorithmic problem solving 0 a well defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a problem Insight 0 Insight involves a spontaneous restructuring of the problem It appears as if it a comes right out of the blue It s like when you try to find the solution to a problem and the solution just hits you out of nowhere Like seeming to solve a riddle you ve never heard before out of nowhere Social Psychology Social Psychology the study of the causes and consequences of sociality O Sociality organization into networks of genetically related and genetically unrelated individuals Aggression 0 Behavior whose purpose is to harm another Reactive Aggression O Aggressive behavior as the result of provocation tit for tat Proactive Aggression O Aggressive behavior without provocation Relational Aggression Behavior that threatens or damages another s social status or social relationships Physical Aggression 0 Behavior that threatens or damages another s physical well being O Toddlers are very physically aggressive O The older you get the less physically aggressive you become Malefemale differences in each Males SometimesAggres more than Females large gender difference MgtF in proactive aggression large gender difference MgtF in physical aggression Email gender difference MgtF in reactive aggression Ilo gender difference or maybe even FgtM in relational aggression Testosterone Secondary sex hormone produced by tests Levels of T increase 10 20x during adolescence Roid rage anger aggression and hostility resulting from anabolic steroid use T does NOT directly lead to aggression T increases sensitivity to social status Testosterone lowers sensitivity to signs of threat FrustrationAggression Hypothesis 0 Animals aggreswhen and only when their goals are frustrated Ex course evaluations given immediately after an exam versus after returning from Spring Break Negative Affect Painful electric shock Unpleasant odors Hot weather Extremities in ice water Aggression can be displaced away from source of frustration or negative effect Role of culture in Agression 0 Cultural norms can shape 0 What is perceived as a threat to self or status 0 What is perceived as a socially normative or expected response 0 What the consequences of W versus nun 39 W J39 a will be 0 Cohen et al 1996 on Culture of Honor 0 Cohen et al 1996 Insult Aggression and the Southern Culture of Honor thite male undergrads from the University of Michigan Northern vs Southern I articipants bumped in the hallway and called an Asshole by a confederate Ither confederates who appeared to just be doing homework in the hallway rated how angry the participant s response was I Ieasured cortisol and testosterone levels Ilo demographic differences in church attendance military background frat membership SAT score weight parental income etc Southerners showed Higher increases in testosterone 0 Higher increases in cortisol Greater likelihood of angry responses 85 versus 35 IZulture of honor Small conflicts become contest for social status and reputation Diffusion of Responsibility 0 Individuals feel diminished responsibility for their action because they are surrounded by others Ex Group projects 0 Surrounding others even strangers set rules for appropriate behavior 0 Individuals look to the group and evaluate their own behavior in light of these rules 0 If it were important to do other people would be doing it Deindividuation O Immersions in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values 0 Examples Iraternities and Sororities Religious groups Songs prayers etc Altruism 0 Behavior that benefits another with no apparent benefit to the self 0 It is an evolutionary paradox Behavioral dispositions towards altruism would make organisms less likely to survive and would be selected against Reciprocal Altruism 0 Behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future 0 Considered extended cooperation 0 Not true altruism 0 Highly prevalent in animal kingdom Kin Selection 0 Gene centered 39 quot Not J r J on an 39 quot quot 39 WWI s survival 0 Richard Dawkins The Selfish Game 0 Evolution would select for behaviors that benefit group of genetic relatives Social Exclusion O Cyberball Paradigm Participants either played with the other 2 players or received 7 throws and then were Excluded participants then reported their moods 0 Participants who showed social exclusion showed greater activity in two brain regions 0 Anterior Cingulate Cortex ACC 0 Right Ventral Prefrontal Cortex rvPFC O The same brain regions are active when people feel physical pain Prisoner s dilemma O Illustrates the benefits and costs of cooperation 0 If players A and B BOTH cooperatedo NOT confess O A gets 1 year B gets 1 year 0 If player A does not confess and player B does confess O A gets 30 years B gets 0 years 0 If player A does confess and player B does not confess O A gets 0 years B gets 30 years 0 If BOTH players confess O A gest 10 years B gets 10 year 0 It s best to cooperate with each other not confess because you will both get a mild punishment Cooperation 0 behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit 0 one of our species greatest achievements along with language fire and opposable thumbs Ultimatum game 0 a game often played in economic experiments in which two players interact to decide how to divide a sum of money that is given to them The first player proposes how to divide the sum between the two players and the second player can either accept or reject this proposal If the second player rejects neither player receives anything If the second player accepts the money is split according to the proposal Normative influence 0 when appropriate standards of behavior are communicated via another person s behavior Informational influence a type of normative influence 0 provides information for things that are not directly observed 0 a phenomenon that occurs when a person s behavior provides information about what is good or what is rig ht 0 example people in the mall start screaming and running for the exit you join them even though you don t know what they are running from but you guess it must be pretty bad Systematic vs heuristic persuasion O systematic persuasion the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to REASON O heuristic persuasion the process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to HABIT OR EMOTION O Lyndon B Johnson s Daisy Ad appealed to emotions rather than facts Heuristic definition 0 heurisitics are simple shortcuts or rues of thumb Doorintheface vs footinthedoor O door in the face 0 make a very large request something more valuable than what you really want 0 then concede and make a smaller request gob negotiations lapitalizes on norm of reciprocity O foot in the door 0 make a smaller request 0 then ask for what you really want lapitalizes on people s avoidance of cognitive dissonance l3reenpeace petitioners Conformity O adapting one s behavior to be consistent with others behavior simply because others are behaving in a certain way Asch line experiment 0 1 person in a group of actors that are asked if the lines are equal length or not The actors all said the opposite of the rig ht answer to see if the 1 person would conform or not Obedience O adapting one s behavior to the demands or expectations of a powerful other authority Milgram experiment 0 measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience Norm of reciprocity O the unwritten rule that people should benefit those who have benefited them returning a favor Cognitive dissonance an unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes that inconsistency of his or her actions attitudes or beliefs when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions attitudes or beliefs 0 When people experience cognitive dissonance they naturally try to alleviate it and one way to alleviate it is to change one s actions attitudes or beliefs in order to restore consistency among them 0 When small inconsistencies are justified by large consistencies cognitive dissonance is reduced Gender differences in sexual selectivity 0 Women tend to be more selective than men 0 Why Sex is potentially more costly for women than for men Basic biology may push women to be choosier than men but culture can push just as hard cultures glorify promiscuous men as playboys and disparage promiscuous women as sluts Passionate love vs companionate love Passionate love an experience involving feelings of euphoria intimacy and tense sexual attraction 0 What brings people together 0 Has a rapid onset reaches its peak quickly and begins to diminish within just a few months 0 Companionate Love an experience involving affection trust and concern for a partner s well being 0 What keeps people together 0 Takes some times to get started grows slowly and need never stop growing Hedonic motive O Pleasure seeking is the most basic of all motives and social influence often involves creating situations in which others can achieve more pleasure by doing what we want them to do than by doing something else 0 There are some instances in which rewards and punishment can backfire O Reward and punishment can backfire simple because people don t like to feel manipulated Personality Lexical hypothesis AllQort O The key dimensions of personality that differentiate people are reflected in language 0 Core traits that distinguish individuals enduring characteristics trustworthy generous warm smart 0 Construct self report personality items from pool of adjectives reflecting human traits and administer to a very large number of people 0 Use factor analysis to reduce to a smaller number of core underlying dimensions Consensus model big five Big Five personality traits O Conscientiousness tendency towards self discipline orderliness planned vs spontaneous behavior and high achievement striving Agreeableness Tendency to be compassionate and cooperative with others Neuroticism tendency to experience negative emotions such as anxiety and depression Openness Appreciation for unusual ideas intellectual curiosity and Extraversion Preference for social stimulation outgoing CANOE 0 These 5 factors have a good balance of accounting for variation in personality while avoiding overlapping traits O People s personalities tend to remain stable throughout their lifetime How change with age 0 Conscientiousness tends to increase as we get older 0 Openness tends to decrease as we get older Performance Orientation O Achievement driven by extrinsic rewards grades peer reputation teacher evaluations etc Example It s important to me that my professor does not think that I know less than others in my class Mastery Orientation O Achievement and learning are viewed as intrinsically valuable deep understanding of the material 0 Example It s important to me that I learn a lot of new concepts this year Grit Study 0 Grit Perseverance and Passion for Long Term Goals Consistency of interest and Perseverance of effort I am a hard worker I finish whatever I begin etc 0 West Point Study First year cadets All HIGHLY selected SAT scores physical aptitude class rank leadership ability 1 in 20 cadets drop out before the end of the first summer even thought you have to be elite to get into the program 1 in 20 can t take it afterjust the first summer 1 in Grit 60 more likely to complete first summer BEST PREDICTOR even better than SAT scores 0 GRIT Uncorrelated with IQ Positively correlated with conscientiousness Effort 0 Goals may not influence behavior much if you don t put effort into achieving them Examples quotI work hard I turn plans into actions I am very good at focusing my efforts on attaining a goal 0 Related to conscientiousness and grit persistence Limits of personality selfreport measures 0 Social desirability Unwilling ness to admit to negative traits eg sloppiness coldheartedness etc 0 People don t typically see themselves the way other people see you O Malingering Exaggeration of negative symptoms for some gain forensic setting Projective personality tests advantages and disadvantages of Rorscach 0 Remember in class she showed us all those weird pictures and asked us to say what we saw in them they re on the slides for personality 2 that is the Rorscach Based on studies of 300 patients in a mental asylum and 100 normal controls Advantage When individuals have to interpret ambiguous nonsense stimuli they project their own motives desires and individual experiences Disadvantage Extremely difficult to learn they don t even teach Psych majors this anymore and very time intensive to administer Low interrater reliability and low predictive validity MMPI advantages vs disadvantages lack of face validity O Well researched clinical questionnaire used to access personality and psychological problems Consist of more than 500 descriptive statements Measures tendencies toward clinical problems depression anxiety paranoia etc and general personality characteristics degree of masculine and feminine gender role identification sociability vs social inhibition and impulsivity 0 Advantages Easy to administer just give someone a pencil and the sheet and biases are minimized because no interpretation of the responses is needed 0 Disadvantages People actually need to be honest in their responses which is not always the case 0 The validity scales cannot take these problems away but they can detect them well enough to make personality inventories generally effective means of testing classifying and researching many personality characteristics Malingering Exaggeration of negative symptoms for some gain forensic setting Social desirability bias The tendency of respondents to answer questions in a manner that will be viewed favorably by others It can take the form of over reporting good behavior or under reporting bad behavior The tendency poses a serious problem with conducting research with self reports especially questionnaires This bias interferes with the interpretation of interpreting average tendencies as well as individual differences The Nun Study positive affect and longevity 0 Predicted both positive emotions and cognitive ability 0 Positive emotions high extraversion low neuroticism 0 Physical health mental health and longevity Nuns tend to live longer than the average person Selfverification O The tendency to seek evidence to confirm the self concept you have We find it disconcerting if someone sees us quite differently from the way we see ourselves Selfconcept O A person s explicit knowledge of his or her own behaviors traits and other personal characteristics 0 Can be thought of as a self narrative A story that we tell about ourselves Selfesteem O The extent to which an individual likes values and accepts the self 0 In general those with high self esteem tend to live happier and healthier lives cope better with stress and be more likely to persist at a difficult task 0 Self esteem can be affected by what kinds of domain we consider most important in our self concept For example one person s self worth could be contingent on how well they do in school If that person gets an A on an exam that person s self esteem could receive a big boost Selfserving bias 0 People tend to take credit for their successes but downplay responsibility for their failures We process information in a biased manner to feel good about ourselves Walter Mischel power of the situation 0 Mischel39s work proposed that by including the situation as it is perceived by the person and by analyzing behavior in its situational context the consistencies that characterize the individual would be found He argued that these individual differences would not be expressed in consistent cross situational behavior but instead he suggested that consistency would be found in distinctive but stable patterns of if then situation behavior relations that form contextualized psychologically meaningful personality signatures eg she does A when X but B when Y Locus of control C Questionnaire to measure a person s tendency to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external in the environment 0 People who believe they control their own destiny are said to have an internal locus of control 0 People who believe outcomes are random determined by luck or controlled by other people are described as having an external locus of control 0 People with internal locus of control tend to be less anxious achieve more and can better cope with stress than people with external locus of control Intelligence Intelligence 0 The ability to direct one s thinking adapt to one s circumstances and learn from one s experiences Heritability 0 Definition The proportion of the variation in the behavior that is due to variation in genes 0 Calculated h2 2correlation between MZ twins correlation between DZ twins 0 Interpretation heritability of intelligence is roughly 5 meaning 50 of the difference in intelligence between you and someone else relies on your genes Twin Studies Tests consisted of those who shared genes but had different environments vs those who shared environments but had different genes vs those who shared both the same genes and environment Fraternal twins share 50 of their genes whereas identical share 100 Identical twins were strongly correlated when raised together r 86 Identical twins were strongly correlated when living in different environments r 78 Fraternal twins are the same as a normal brother and sister they just shared a womb Brother and sister are not strongly correlated r 26 Merriman 1924 Found the correlation between identical twins for IQ gt 08 to be higher than the correlation for the total twin population OOOOO Geneenvironment correlation rGE 0 People pick their own environments in response to their own personality traits and temperaments which are influenced by genes 0 Shared genes with a shared environment have a higher correlation than those with the same genes and different environments A shared environment with different genes creates an even smaller correlation 0 Genes and environment are two separate ingredients blended together to form IQ Genes may lead a person to like the library and spend time there but it s the environment of the library and reading the books that will make someone smarter Passive 0 Children who inherit genes for intelligence are also raised by more highly educated mothers Evocative 0 Children with genes for higher intelligence elicit greater attention from their teachers Active 0 Youth with genes for intelligence choose more challenging coursework Geneenvironment interaction GxE research on IQ and social class 0 The effects of genes depend on the environmental context 0 The flip side of the same coin O The effects of environmental experience depend on someone s genes 0 High SES Mean ZSD 0 month old High in shared environment medium in genes I year old High in Genes medium in environment 0 Mean SES 0 month old High in shared environment low in genes I year old High in shared environment low in genes 0 Low SES Mean 25D 0 month old High in shared environment very low in genes I year old High in shared environment very low in genes First law of behavioral genetics 0 All human behavioral traits are heritable How heritability of IQ changes with age O Heritability increases with age even as people are accruing more and more environmental experience Fluid intelligence vs crystallized intelligence and how each changes with age 0 Fluid Intelligence Gf An ability that operates whenever the sheer perception of complex relations is involved key word abstract 0 Biologically based abstract not dependent on experience 0 Crystallized Intelligence Gc Diverse skills and knowledge that are acquired in a culture key words general experience 0 Can be both declarative and procedural Flynn effect 0 The accidental discovery by philosopher James Flynn that the average intelligence test score has been rising about 3 every year which is to say that the average person today scores about 15 IQ points higher than the average person did just 50 years ago Francis Galton Hereditary Genius 0 Published genealogies of British families and concluded that talent ran in families The book classified heredity of intelligence Ratio IQ vs Deviation IQ score 0 Ratio IQ aka intelligence quotient a statistic obtained by dividing a person s mental age by the person s physical age and then multiplying the quotient by 100 0 Deviation IQ statistic obtained by dividing a person s test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100 O The good thing about deviation IQ is that a 30 year old cannot become a genius simply by getting older The bad thing is that it does not allow for comparisons between people of different ages System Integrity hypothesis 0 Intelligence is a marker of system integrity The Bee Study how bee learning measured results O Smarter bees live longer Intelligence is correlated to longer lifespan The Nun Study cognitive complexity O 678 Catholic sisters followed until 2002 at which time the oldest sister had survived to age 107 O Handwritten autobiographies when took vows in 1931 1943 0 See if Idea Density predicts age outcome 0 Low idea densitya Lower brain weight greater neurofibrillary pathology signs of Alzheimer s shorter life span 0 Smarter Happier nuns live longer 0 Positive Emotions high extraversion low neuroticism related to health amp longevity Positive manifold 0 Is intelligence one ability or many 0 straight quote from Harden The positive manifold is a fancy name for a simple concept It is just the finding that there are positive correlations across different types of test scores if you do well in math you are likely to also do well in english for example Hierarchical model of cognitive ability 0 Top General factor like Spearman s 0 Middle A set of factors called group factors like Thurstone s primary mental abilities 0 Bottom Specific factors like Spearman s Factor analysis Spearman O A computational procedure which sorts trait terms or self descriptions into a small number of underlying dimensions or factors based on how people use the traits to rate themselves 0 Analyzes the correlations among various intelligence tests Twofactor theory Spearman 0 Suggested that every task requires a combination of a general ability g and skills that are specific to the task 5 Binet amp Simon purpose of early IQ tests 0 End of 19th century the French government called on psychologists and physician Theodore Simon to develop a test that would allow educators to develop remedial programs for those children who lagged behind their peers O Binet amp Simon set out to develop an objective test that would provide an unbiased measure of a child s ability tasks that could distinguish the best and worst students and thus predict a future child s success in school 0 They designed their test to measure a child s aptitude for learning independent of the child s prior educational achievement and it was in this sense that they called theirs a test of natural intelligence Results from Scottish mental survey early IQ and longevity gender differences 0 Performed by Deary and colleagues 0 IQ of over 80000 children tested at age 11 in 1932 O They ve followed their health outcomes until present day 0 Men lowest IQ quarter Men highest IQ quarter same chance of still being alive from age 20 50 due to WWII then lowest IQ declines quicker 0 Women highest IQ quarter gt Women lowest IQ quarter 0 Possible Mechanisms 0 Association remains after controlling for child hood social class 0 Intelligence a better health related behaviors eg diet exercise smoking 0 Intelligence a better occupational environments eg professional jobs vs manual labor 0 Intelligence is a marker of system integrity Prodigy savant genius O Prodigy A person of normal intelligence who has an extraordinary ability O Savant A person of low intelligence who has an extraordinary ability 0 Example A 5 year old with autism has the mental age of a 3 year old but is a regular Picasso Gifted vs very gifted relation between IQ and life outcomes at top end of the distribution 0 People who score in the top 1 of General Cognitive Ability at age 13 tended to have more doctorates etc Development Developmental Psychology is the study of continuity and change across the lifespan Prenatal Development Stages 0 The 2 week period that begins at conception is known as the germinal stage 0 The one celled zygote begins to divide into two cells then four then eight and so on 0 During this stage the zygote migrates back down the fallopian tube and implants itself on the wall of the uterus Half of all zygotes don t make it Male zygotes are especially unlikely not to make it although no one knows why 0 Fertilization occurs 2 weeks after the lst day of the woman s last menstrual cycle 0 The embryonic stage is a period that lasts from the second week until about the eighth week 0 Occurs when the zygote implants itself on the uterine wall The zygote continues to divide becomes an embryo Male embryos begin to produce testosterone without testosterone the embryo continues developing as a female At this stage it already has a beating heart and other body parts like arms and legs 0 The fetal stage is a period that lasts from the ninth week until birth Has a skeleton and muscles that make it capable of movement During the last three months the size of the fetus increases rapidly Fetal origins hypothesis 0 In utero conditions shape susceptibility to physical disease and also psychological outcomes personality intelligence mental health Maternal Weight Gain and Obesity 0 Mothers who gained excess weight during pregnancy had children who were more likely to be ovenNeight at age 3 0 Compared children born after successful weight loss surgery with siblings born prior to surgery 0 Post surgery children were 52 less likely to be obese than their siblings born pre surgery Famine and Antisocial Personality Disorder ASPD 0 Definition persistent pattern of manipulating exploiting or violating the rights of others 0 Symptoms repeat criminality impulsivity failure to honor workfamily obligations lack of remorse aggressiveness deceitfulness O In the general population 1 3 of men 0 In prisons 70 of prison inmates PAH exposure and I O Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH particles released in combustion of fossil fuels cigarette smoke Urban minorities have disproportionate exposure to PAH industrialtransportation sources 249 Black and Dominican women non smokers age 18 35 no diabetes or H Personal air monitoring during 3rd trimester Intelligence measured using the WPPSI R at age 5 years Children with high prenatal exposure to PAH had lower IQs at age 5 4 5 points 0 Analysis controlled for maternal IQ observing rating of home environment dietary sources of PAH Tempera ment O characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity Jean Piaget Ordered sequence in which infants and children learn to think 0 Post Birth Cognitive Development 0 Three developmental tasks 1 Understand how the physical world works baby physics 2 Understand how their mind represents the world baby psychology 3 Understand how other minds represent the world baby empathy O Piaget s Four Stages of Cognitive Development 1 Sensori motor period from birth until age 2 0 Behavior is organized around its sensory or motor effects 0 Culminates in attaining the concept of object permanence 0 Object permanence understanding that objects have a continued existence when they disappear from view 0 Infants begin to construct schemas theories about or models of the way the world works 2 Pre operational stage from 2 6 0 Characterized by egocentric thought 0 Children cannot adopt alternative viewpoints they cannot think from another person s perspective 0 A child learns about physical or concrete objects 3 Concrete operational stage 6 12 0 Children are able to adopt alternative viewpoints 0 Conservation task pour water from short wide glass into tall thin one 0 Concrete operational child understands the amount of water stays the same 0 The child learns how various actions or operations can affect or transform those objects 4 Formal operational stage 12 and up 0 Child is not limited to concrete thinking 0 Child can reason abstractly and logically 0 he ability to generate consider reason about or otherwise operate on abstract objects is the hallmark of formal operations Object Permanence O The idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible Conservation of Physical Properties 0 Quantitative properties number volume are the same even if the appearance of any object changes Theory of Mind 0 The idea that human behavior is guided by mental representations My perception of the world may differ from your perception of the world False Belief Test 0 Joint attention 0 Social referencing O Imitation 0 Motor development Reflexes 0 Specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation Cephalocaudal rule a the quottop to bottomquot rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet Proximodistal rule 0 Schemas assimilation vs accommodation O Assimilation the process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations 0 Accommodation the process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information 0 Harlow s monkey 0 Attachment style and the strange situation Effect of nonmaternal care 0 NICHD study of early child care and youth development 0 Amount of time in non maternal care is not significantly associated with attachment style BUT long exposure 10 hours to poor quality care unresponsive mother insecure attachment Secular changes in time spent with children 0 Despite women s increasing involvement in labor force average time spent on child careactivites has increased Father s time on childcare and housework has also increased Working models 0 Kernber sta es of moral development 0 O Self regulation and the marshmallow test Predictive Validity O Puberty Gonadarche O HGA axis Stimulates the release of sex linked steroid hormones testosterone boys and estradiol girls 0 Onset of spermatogenesis and ovulation 0 Sex hormones trigger development of secondary sex characteristics breast development adiposity body shape voice changes facialbody hair muscle mass 0 Puberty Ad renarche O Stimulation of HPA axis to release and rogens steroid hormones 0 Causes the onset of pubic hair sweat composition skin changes 0 Linked to onset of sexual attraction 0 Personality change in adolescence O Protracted decrease in impulsivity through adolescence and early adulthood 0 Initial increase in sensation seeking in early adolescence followed by leveling off 0 Puberty adolescence and gray matter density in brain 0 Initial increase in gray matter cell bodies of neurons right before puberty Protracted pruning og gray matter throughout adolescence Brain is becoming more efficient O Pubertal timing and pubertal tempo Pubertal Timing How old are you when you begin puberty Are you more pubertally advanced than other kids your age 0 Pubertal Tempo How fast do you go through puberty Did the changes happen all at once or did you go through them very gradually an range from 1 9 years Effects On Mental Health in Boys and Girls 0 Effectiveness of abstinence only education and abstinence pledges O Adolescents who received comprehensive sex education are significantly less likely to report a pregnancy 0 Abstinence only sex education is not associated with reduced likelihood of sexual intercourse or pregnancy 0 Abstinence pledgers are not less likely than matched adolescents to have sexual intercourse than non pledgers O Adolescents who pledge abstinence are substantially less likely to use birth control at first sex 0 STD rates are higher in communities where more adolescents take an abstinence pledge 0 Teen pregnancy rate in US versus other nations Birth rate for US girls age 15 to 19 is the lowest it s ever been since the gov t started tracking the statistic in 1940 It s still pretty high for a developed country though 0 86 of the decline in teen birth is due to increased contraception use 0 Emerging adulthood and adulthood O In modern industrial society transition to adulthood is characterized by disorganization and delay 0 Characterized by identity exploration self focus and instability with neither the constraints of childhood or the responsibilities of traditional adulthood


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