INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY PSY 301
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Virginia Albert Introduction to Psychology 10 1420 10 Positive Expression Neutral Expression Negative Expression 13 different levels of ability in terms of not being able to express emotion number between 1 and 13 1 means good at not expressing emotionil3 not good at hiding emotion those people who didn t try to control their emotions were the most expressive best strategy for hiding emotioncontrolled expression suppressing emotion is NOT related to suppressing thought own theories about how we think can affect the types of strategies we use Question isiare people good at knowing if they re hungry or not How do we know we are feeling disgust or happiness what s going on in the world what s going on inside of us how do you know when you re hungry sick tired What are the cues Stomach growls People are not very good at knowing what s going on inside their body Demonstrated by people are really bad at knowing what their heart rate is Can also be demonstrated by glucose shotsidiabetes is so insidious because can hurt many of your other organs if you don t keep it under control Many people with diabetes don t take insulin shots because think can tell their glucose level Are people more accurate at estimating glucose if outside in real world or in laboratory People are better at estimating their glucose level in the real world because of cues that are signals that tells us what s going on in their bodies Also huge differences between men and women at knowing blood glucose levelimen were great in laboratory Where there were external cues outsideiwomen were better Men and women process information differently We come to know how we feel by looking at our environment and looking at bodily cues 40780 bpmactual heart rate 20740 bpmestimated heart rate Sex and All That It Implies I Emotion sex and gender Emotionregulation His and her theories of emotion men directly pay attention to bodies to know how they re feeling women rely on external cues to tell how they re feeling Sexual desire can measure sexual desire physiologically correlation between how sexually men say they are and how aroused they are according to physiology is perfect In women much more weakly related Psychological and physiological arousal in women are discrepant suggests that you get certain effects in womeniwomen don t pay attention to physiological cues to determine what emotions they re feeling Cindy Mester has done these studiesi people get on exercise bike and pedal as fast they can or run on treadmill for 20 min go into a room with chair and watch erotic arousing Videos or neutral Videos What Mester has found is that those women who have exercised before become more sexually aroused Very similar to the bridges experiment People become physiologically aroused and use sexual stimuli to attribute that to it and determine that they are sexually aroused Question can you feel psychologically sexually aroused without feeling really sexually aroused elsewhere Answer Many males say that biological and psychological feelings of sexual arousal are the same thing For women it is a much more complex story II The basic apparatus Men and women are biologically different Female external vagina clitorisioften Viewed as a parallel organ to the penis clitoral area has a group of sensory of neurons and is hyper sensitive to stimulation and penis Female External Reproductive Organs 2 Chloris Mons pubis Urethr orifice Vaginal orifice Female internal where the penis goes uterus and walls Female Rgproductive Organs 1 Ulerlne lube Ovar Lablum malus Vaginal crlllce Male external Ennllnn beglns inner furzskin llycr a mllus I on shl arean llytr shun skin rc l39NXW luadmdmoh Male internal MagReproductive mtg align Glans penls quot Prepuce g Biological bases Hypothalamus pleasure centerallows us to feel brain When is stimulated by an electrical signal the organism starts having orgasms and feels sexually aroused and behaves in a sexually aroused way autonomic nervous system for sexual arousal to occur parasympathetic nervous system must be stimulated Allowed for males getting hard Orgasm is associated with sympathetic nervous system activity hormones hypothalamus is adjacent to pituitary glandiduring sexual arousal releases hormones like crazy and oxytocin orgasms men and women experience orgasms in different ways Men s orgasmsimale becomes sexually aroused and are involved in sex sex starts then POW orgasm Lasts for about 2 4 seconds Then guy cannot have another orgasm for quite some time refractory period compares differently to femalesifemale orgasm Nature of orgasm in women is variable among women Orgasm can last for 4 seconds 15 seconds or 30 seconds or even minutes Fact and women have different biology in terms of what causes sexual arousal how long arousal takes how long orgasm lasts and how long takes before next orgasm Age differences of orgasms per week Males start having orgasms right after puberty after age 13 or 14 masturbationhigh rates across cultures and times Peak around ages 15 l6 l7 and decrease in lifetime With males could be once every days to many times a day Once males reach 80 number drops to once a week Women start off at lower rate of orgasm per week masturbate at lower rates in younger years increase masturbation as women get older 2730 is peak age for female masturbation In terms of sexual interest and behavior as people get older sexual behavior drops off around 50 2 groups Those who continue having sex and those who stop having sex Rule is 7 Use it or lose it Once stops having sex hard to start again The beginning of sexual activity and orgasm ranges between men averages from 4 to 5 minutes Women it s between 5 and 30 minutes averaging about 720 minutes Question will we have to know the different parts of the Vagina and penis for the test III Love and hormones and sex is a many splendored thing Hormones Oxytocin neurotransmitterifound in female important in friendship and trust vasopressin male equivalent to Oxytocin 3 occasions when Oxytocinvasopressin released Consistent with what many people describe as bonding or love 1 ORGASM a sex is involved with reproduction and making love iimportant for the pairs of the couple to have both parties around to help bring up the offspring Need a psychological mechanism to make these two individuals stay togetherithat s why Oxytocin is released during sex and orgasm 2 CHILDBIRTH a Pregnant and have a babyicrucial to not wander off after have baby bonding is important to have baby in order for it grow up and be successful Those who are in love have higher levels of Oxytocin circulation 3 WHEN A WOMEN S NIPPLES ARE STIMULATED Love is an emotion that has a function Volesi Larry Young studied One of major differences between voles is one is monogamous and one is not and has different mates What Larry Young has done in his research is find that higher levels of oxytocin in the pleasure areas of the brain in the monogamous voles If put oxytocin in nonmonogamous vole parts grow up to become monogamous LOVE does have a function IV Evolutionary Psychology the application of evolutionary ideas including the importance of behavioral and mental adaptiveness over millions of years to help explain human behavior Parental Investment Theory men and women have to make different minimal investments in order to produce offspring women 9 months men 15 seconds2 minutes the different amount that women and men invest result in different levels of choosinessiwomen are much choosier about who they mate with In contrast men don t need to be so choosy because the investment is so much smaller The different payoffs result in a different mate selection strategy Idea behind this raising a child for women is quite difficult Consequently humans are monogamous Women need a man to be aroundiso each different qualities look for different characteristics Mate selection strategies A Age and status Men and women start having children at different agesiwomen tend to marry men who are about 1 12 years older than they are Age gap changes between different times and culture Women are more attracted to older men depending on economic prosperity how likely they are to be able to provide for them in the next couple of years Ifthe country is poor or is going through a difficult time women pick older men because they look for someone who is more stable The poorer the country the greater disparity in age between male and female when have children Men are sensitive to sexual infidelityiworst thing that could happen is another man gets woman pregnant Jealousy and murder Heterosexuality versus homosexuality OAE digit ratio androgen exposure Homosexuality is possible from a biological perspective because it exists in most mammalsidogs cats chimpanzees and humans across all cultures Rates amongst humans are similar from culture to culture There is a clear biological base to homosexuality in both men and women Social factors can affect it We see evidence for it in terms of brain mechanisms early experience and genetics OAEiottoacoustic emissionDiscovered a group of women who had different patterns of OAE all lesbian As a scientist it was nothing he was interested in found a similar thing in homosexual men Started looking at other animals mountain sheepi30 are homosexual other interesting biological differences between heterosexual and homosexual exposure to androgen in the womb Androgen exposure associated with Digit ratio controversial topic Ratio between 2quotd and 43911 digit re ect androgen exposure The normative difference for men is to have fourth digit slightly longer than 2quotd digit for men For females the heterosexual difference is to have 2quotd digit slightly longer than 4Lh digit Introduction to Pscyhology Sept 30 2010 Memory How soon we Forget flashbulb memories memories that we have that happen when there s really important salient emotional events Often record in great detail things about the place where we were what was going on in our lives We remember longer Memory and Language The question that pscyhologists try to address in the world of language how can we transform the sounds of others into meaningful sounds and constructs with words Language is common way across cultures for communications In the beginning humans committed nonverbally Nonverbal communication is very rich psychologically distancing themselves crossing their arms ifjury covers their mouth doesn t believe what lawyer is telling them Psychological bubblespersonal space Depending on people s feelings towards one another will stand further and closer apart In the earliest periods animals conveyed concepts through verbalization Example chimpanzees have specific words for different types of predators If you look at evolution of human brain huge parts of it are devoted to our ability to comprehend language to speak it and to write it Question do we need to have words in orderto rememberthings and perceive things Benjamin Whorff came up with Whorff hypothesis the words that we have determine how we see the world Whorff experiment English speakers have a lousy color vocabulary so just pick one color that s easiest What you remember is what you write down not what you experience The words you use to describe things change your memories Language and the Brain 1 The frontal lobe Broca s area 2 Temporal lobe Wernicke s area One area is associated with the content of speech the other is associated with the style of speech People whosewernicke s area is working use nouns and some adjectives Some people who have a working broca s area use prepositions auxillary verbsetc two different areas process different parts of the brain Don t have that many function words in the English language 200 words Function words serve as a window to our soul Men and women use language differently Women use more Men and women use WE same rate Men use articles more than women No difference with article words Cognitive and social words used more by woman means women use words differently humans are far more complex than objects and things so need to have more cognitive words Articles are required for nouns Memory Ways to record memory 1 Encode that information take stimulus from the world and encode it and send it to our brain 2 Store information 3 Retrieve information when we want to retrieve it 3 types of memory 1 Sensory Memory a Has enormous capacity takes in virtually every stimulus but has a duration ofjust a split second 2 Short Term Memory a How things go from the iconic state to long term memory interesting Demonstrated in yield sign whole class thought was red 3 Long Term Memory The magic number7 plus or minus 2 The capacity in the shortterm memory is 7 plus or minus 2 Remembering things that didn t exist Spreading activation Selected words all of which have a semantic connection relevant to a phenomenon in crimescenes If you can create things that weren t there this can cause all kinds of problems ldea studied by Elizbaeth Loftus retroactive interference You can change how you can remember something by something that comes afterthe memory even according to word choice lnfluence how you remember things by idea of words People can change how you remember things by putting in subtle suggestions Can you get someone to create an entity just by putting in enough associations with that entitity 101910 Stress Coping and Disclosure 0 Dealing with upheavals 0 2030 of firstyear college students are depressed 0 Stress cycle I Event break phone etc9 attentionsuppression interpretation biological response behavior I Bring about changes at each level in order to deal with dress 0 Attention and regulation strategies Attending to something other than the thing that is upsetting us distraction How you interpret an event Relaxation techniques Lowlevel mood manipulation music I Sending signals to other I To feel think a certain way Snackers social snacks I Photos I Meet emotional needs I Stave off loneliness I Buffer from feelings O O OO O o Decorate spaces to evoke certain feelings o Create space 0 Some spaces allow you to think and feel a certain way I Different vibes I Associated with different feelings and different people who go 0 We naturally sort ourselves into likeminded people I quotTribe I Tearing the country apart because its separating o Suppression trying not to think about it I Ineffective I The act of trying not to think about stressful things is in itself stressful I Keeping secret 0 Having a traumatic experience is traumatic not only because of the severity but because of the secretness 0 Having a big secret is a massive stress 0 Psychologically distances people from others 0 Physical health 0 Find meaning 0 People who find meaning are better able to handle the world around them I Religionorganizations Test 4 Notes Abnormal behavior Deviant Maladaptive Personal distress deviant malaptive or personally distressful behavior over a long period oftime different from what we see as normal Ex a woman washes her hands 34 times an hour interferes with one s ability to function effectively in the world Ex a man who believes breathing can endanger others goes to great lengths to isolate himself has maladaptive behavior bc affects his functioning behavior causes person to worry and find own behavior troubling Ex woman who makes herself throw up after every meal will experience great deal of shame and personal distress Theoretical Approaches to Psychological Disorders The Biological Approach psychological approach sociocultural approach attributes psy Disorders to organic internal causes Evident in the Medical model a view that psychological disorders are medical diseases with a biological origin mental illnesses treated by doctors for patients 039 emphasizes the contributions of experiences thoughts emotions and personality characteristics in explaining personality disorders example focuses on childhood experienes or cognitions in the course of psychological disorders emphasizes the social contexts in which a person lives including gender Biopscyhosocial model DSMIV Classi cation System Criticisms of the DSMIV anxiety disorders generalized anxiety disorder ethnicity socioeconomic status family relationships and culture Ex anorexia common in US Windingo of Algonquin lndian hunters fear of being bewitched and turned into a cannibal abnormal behavior can be in uenced by biological factors genes psychological factors childhood experiences and sociocultural factors such as gender often act in combination with one another No one factor is more important than other The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition the major classification of psychological disorders in the United States Five axes Axis 1 All diagnostic categories except personality disorders and mental retardation AXIS 2 Personality disorders and mental retardation Axis 3 General medical conditions Axis 4 Psychosocial and environmental problems Axis 5 Current Level of functioning doesn t take into account environmental factors re ects only the medical model focuses strictly on problemsweaknesses disabling uncontrollable and disruptive psychological disorders that feature motor tension hyperactivity and apprehensive expectations and thoughts psychological disorder marked by persistent anxiety for at least 6 months and in which the individual is unable to specify the reasons for anxiety causes of gen anxiety disorder panic disorder causes of panic disorder phobic disorder social phobia Phobias genetic predisposition deficienty in neurotransmitter GAB respiratory system abnormalities harsh selfstandards overly strict and critical parents automatic negative thoughts when feeling stressed a history of uncontrollable traumas or stressors anxiety in which the individual experiences recurrent sudden onsets of intense terror often without warning and with no speci c cause American women are 2x more likely than men to have a panic attack hormonesneurotransmitter women cope differently genetic predisposition autonomic nervous system that is overly active may stem from problems with GABA and norepinephrine anxiety disorder characterized by an irrational ovenNhelming persistent fear of a particular object or situation ex fear of snakes fear becomes a phobia when a person goes to excessive lengths to avoid situation type of phobic disorder in which a person has an intense fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in social situations Carly Simon and Barbara Streisand begin in childhood Serotonin plays a role Neural circuit for social phobia with thalamus amygdala and cerebral conex Learned theorists see phobias as learned fears obsessive compulsive disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder Mood disorders Depressive disorders Major depressive disorders anxiety in which the individual has anxietyprovoking thoughts that will not go away andor urges to perform repetitive ritualistic behavior to prevent or produce some future situation most common checking cleansing and counting genetic component neurological links low levels of serotonin and dopamine amygdala is smaller anxiety disorder that develops due to an exposure to a traumatic event severely oppressive situation cruel abuse or a natural or unnatural disaster psychological disorders the main types of which are depressive disorders and bipolar disorder in which there is a primary disturbance of mood prolonged emotion that colors the individuals entire emotional state mood disorders in which the individual suffers from depression an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life psychological disorder involving a major depressive episode and depressed characteristics such as lethargy and hopelessness for at least two weeks 59 Symptoms which must be present to define a depressive episode depressed mood most ofthe day reduced interest or pleasure in all or most activities significant weight loss or significant decrease or interest in appetite trouble sleeping or sleeping too much pscyhomotor agitation fatigue or loss of energy worthless feelings problems in thinking concentration or making decisions recurrent thoughts of deathsuicide no history of manic episodes Dysthmic Disorder mood disorder that is generally more chronic and has fewer symptoms than major depressive disorder 2 years 26 ore more symptoms which must be present poor appetite or overeating sleep problems ow energy or fatigue ow selfesteem poor concentration or dif culty making a decisions feeings of hopelessness biological factors in depression genetic in uence ow level of brain activity in a section of the preforontal cortex involved in generating actions problems in neurotransmitter not enough receptors for sertonin and norepinephrine subtance P psychological factors in depr earned helplessness an individuals acquisition of feelings of powerlessness when he or she is exposed to aversive circumstances such as prolonged stress over which that individual has no control thoughts and beliefs depressed people think they re worthless the way people think ruminate depressed people think about bad stuff over and over again people s attributions events have internal causes stable causes and global causes essentially pessimistic style sociocultural factors poor individuals more likely to develop depression than those who are from a higher socioeconomic status women are more likely to develop depression than men bipolar disorder suicide biological factors in suicide Psychological factors in suicide Sociocultural factors in suicide Anorexia nervosa a mood disorderthat ls characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania an overexcited unrealistically optimistic state depression and mania cycles for a month ortwo at a time factors genetics twins decrease in metabolic activity in the brain during depression and increase during mania high levels of norepinephrine and low levels of sertonin 90 of individuals who commit suicide have a diagnosable mental disorder most common depressionanxiety depressed also more likely to attempt suicide more than once 11th highest cause of death in us family history ex Hemingways low serotonin levels poor physical health Substance abuse Mental disorders and traumas Tax person s ability to deal with life s problems Immediately and highly stressful circumstances Ex failing out of school Less likely sense of belonging people will miss them chronic economic problems varies from country to country Hungry Austria are among nations with highest suicide rates women are 3 X more likely to attempt suicide than men highest suicide rate 85 white males eating disorder that involved the relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation 4 main characteristics of AN bulimia nervosa causes of bulimia and anorexia binge eating disorder dissacoative disorders Physical changes thinning of bones and hair low blood pressure severe constipation Damage to heart and thyroid Highest mortality rate of any psychological disorder Key obstacle patients deny something is wrong Begins in teenage years High achieving perfectionists from middleupper class educated families white 1 Weight less than 85 what s normal 2 intense fear of gaining weight 3 distorted body image 4 lack of menstruation in girls who have reached puberty an eating disorder in which an individual typically a girl or woman consistently follows a bingeandpurge eating pattern kidney problems gastrointestinal disorders sexual and physical abuse in childhood genes personality characteristics perfectionism thinness impulsvitiy and behaviors restricting eating regulation of serotonin eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food during which the person feels a lack of control over eating most common eating disorder genes more likely to perceive events as stressful endocrine system that are overactive psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change of identity dissociative amnesia dissociative fugue disassociative identity disorder Schizophrenia Symptoms of Schizophrenia hallucination delusions referential thinking extreme memory loss that is caused by extensive psychological distress ex Orion except with stress a dissociative disorder in which the individual not only develops amnesia but also travels away from home and sometimes assumes a new identity Runs awayll Middle school teacher ran away and found face down in NY harbor multiple personality disorder a disassociative disorder in which the individual has two or more distinct personalities or selves each with its own memories behaviors and friendships ex Fight Club Common with high rates of sexual abuse or physical buse during early childhood severe psychological disorder characterized by highly disordered thought processes referred to as psychotic because they are so far removed from reality Ex A Beautiful Mind Positive a hallucinations b delusions c thought disorders d disorders ofmovement sensory experience that occur in the absence of real stimuli false unusual and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual s culture giving personal meaning to completely random events catatonia Negative symptoms of schiz Cognitive symptoms of schiz Biological factors in schiz Psychological factors in schiz Sociocultural factors in schiz Personality disorders Antisocial personality disorder Pscyhopaths state of immobility and unreponsiveness lasting for long periods of time fat effect Display of littleno emotion Lack in ability to read emotions No goal orientated behavior Lack of positive emotional experience in daily life Dif culty sustaining attention problems holding info in memory and inability to interpret information and make decisions Genetic factors Structural brain abnormalities Enlarged ventricles Small frontal cortex Excess dopamine production Diathesis stress model A combination of biogenetic disposition and stress causes schizophrenia Individuals living at poverty Western nations are more supportive chronic maladaptive cognitive behavioral patterns that are thoroughly integrated into an individual s personality a psychological disorder characterized by guiltlessness law breaking exploitation of others irresponsibility and deceit Ex John Wayne Gacy jr Heritable remorseless predators who engage in violence to get what they want Ex serial killers Borderline personality disorder biological therapies antianxiety drugs benzodiazepines antidepressant drugs Tricyclics Structural abnormalities in the amygdala hippocampus and brain structure a personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships selfimage and emotions and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts Prone to wild mood swings nonstop rollercoaster see the world in black and white splitting More common in women than men Causes biological factors childhood experiences childhoodsexualphysical abuseneglect irrational beliefs hypervigilance always on alert treatments that reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects of body functioning drug therapy most common commonly known as tranquilizers drugs that reduce anxiety by making individuals calmer and less excitable offer greatest relief although addictive Xanax Valium and Librium fastacting regulate mood Three main kinds A Tricyclics Elavil B Monoamine Oxidase lnhibitor Nardil C Selective Seronin Reuptake Inhibitors prozac works by increasing the level of certain neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and serotonin Take 24 weeks to work Reduce symptoms in 6070 of cases MAO inhibitors Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Lithium Antipscyhotic Drugs Neuroleptics Tardive dyskinesia Atypical antipsychotic medication Side effects memory dif culties faintness sleepiness restlessness work by blocking the enzyme monamine oxidase breaks down neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain Believe that this allows neurotransmitters to stick around and regulate mood prescribed when tricyclics don t work side effectweird interaction with fermented foods that could cause a stroke target serotonin and work mainly with interfering with the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain ex Prozac paxil and Zoloft useful for anxiety mood and eating disorders side effectsinsomnia anxiety reduced sexual functinoing element used to treat bipolar disorder In uences norepinephrine and sertonin powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior reduce tension decrease hallucinations improve social behavior and produce better sleep patterns in individuals who have a severe psychological disorder in particular schizophrenia most extensively used class of antipsychotic drugs Reduce schizophrenic symptoms block dopamine action in the brain possible side effect of neuroleptic drugs Involuntary twitching newer antipsychotic drugs that influence dopamine and serotonin Clorzaril and Risperdal infl Schiz s symptoms Electroconvulsive therapy Psychosurgery Psychotherapy Pscyhodymanic therapies Pscyhoanalysis Free association shock therapy a treatment commonly used for depression that sets off a seizure in the brain Used to treat severe depression nowadays as compared to previous uses As effective as cognitivedrug therapy a biological therapy with irreversible effects that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue Prefrontal lobotomy dev by Moniz Used in last resort Walter Freeman s lobotomobile a nonmedical process that helps individuals with psychological disorders recognize and overcome their problems Used in conjunction with biological therapy Desirable course of treatment stresses the importance ofthe unconscious mind extensive interpretation by the therapist and the role of early childhood experiences in the development of an individual s problems Grew out of Freud s psychoanalytic theory Goal gain insight into the unconscious that is the root of many problems Freud s therapeutic technique for analyzing an individual s unconscious thoughts Many problems come from childhood expenences involves encouraging individuals to say aloud whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing Catharsis the release of emotional tension a person experiences when Interpretation Dream analysis Transference Resistance Humanistic therapies Clientcentered therapy revealing an emotionally charged and con icting experience a pscyhoanalyst s search for symbolic hidden meanings in what the client says and does during therapy a psychoanalytic technique for interpreting a person s dreams Dreams contain information about thoughts wishes and conflicts venue for these thoughts Manifest and latent content the psychoanalytic term for the person s relating to the analyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the individual s life EX talking to therapist as if a lover the psychoanalytic term for the client s unconscious defense strategies that prevent the analyst from understanding the person s problems Occurs because it s painful to bring certain experiences into conscious awareness Major goal of analyst is to break through resistance treatments unique in their emphasis on people s selfhealing capacities that encourage clients to understand themselves and to grow personally also called Rogerian therapy or nondirective therapy a form of humanistic therapy developed by Rogers in which he therapist provides a warm supportive atmosphere to improve the client s selfconcept and to encourage the client to gain insight into problems Goal help client understand his or her own deep feelings Uses re ective speech Re ective speech Behavior therapies Classical conditioning techniques Operant conditioning techniques Cognitive therapies Rationalemotive behavior therapy Must enter into an authentic relationship with the being You are a good person but your actions are not a technique in which the therapist mirrors the client s own feelings back to the client based on the behavioral and social cognitive theories used principles of learning to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior EX eliminate symptoms instead ofWHY desensitization flooding patterns can be unlearned Applied behavior analysis emphasize that cognition thoughts are the main source of psychological problems and they attempt to change the individual s feelings and behaviors by changing cognitions Cognitive restructuring changing thoughts Focuses on unconscious thoughts a therapy based on Ellis assertion that individuals develop a psychological disorder because of irrational and self defeating beliefs and whose goal is to get clients to eliminate these beliefs by rationally examining them 3 basic needs musterbating 1 I must perform well and win the approval of other people 2 Other people must treat me kindly and fairly 3 My life conditions but should be enjoyable People who fail to meet these conditions if adopted have problems Successliving in reality where life is tough and bad things happen sometimes Beck s cognitive therapy psychological problem such as depression exists when people think irrationally about world Individuals make connections between patterns of thinking and emotional responses Emotions are a process of cognitions Many different techniques Cognitivebehavior therapy a combination of cognitive and behavior therapy with the goal of developing self ef cacy key to successful therapy Self instructional methods and reinforcing selfstatements used in Panic disorder PTSD depression depressive disorders integrative therapy a combination of techniques from different therapies based on the therapist s judgment of which particular methods will provide the best guaranteed results for the client DBT mindfulness training Group therapy a sociocultural approach to the treatment of psychological disorders that brings together individuals who share a particular psychological disorder in sessions that are typically led by a mental health professional Features that make group therapy successful Information receive info about problems Universality Altruism support for one another Experiencing a positive family group Development of social skills Interpersonal learning DWACDNA Familycouples therapy Techniques used in family therapy selfhelp support groups community mental health The effectiveness of psychotherapy Health bene ts and wellness bene ts wellbeing therapy the therapeutic alliance a person might have psychological symptoms that are a function ofthe family or couple relationships 1 Validation Expresses an understanding of each family member s beliefs 2 reframing problems are seen as FAMILY problems instead of as individual problems 3 structural change family restructures the coalitions in the family 4 detriangulation shifts con ict away from child to parents voluntary organizations of indivuals who get together on a regular basis to discuss topics of common interest conducted by a paraprofessional ex AA movement born in the 1960 s individuals with disorders ought to remain within society with their families helps people with mental disorders works No one therapy works better than others depression associated with coronary disease may have benefits for physical health pscyhotherapy PREVENTS physical problems too a shortterm problem focused direct therapy that encourages clients to accentuate the positive the relationship between the therapist and the client Important in success built on trust in therapist client factors social psychology social cognition person perception physical attractiveness ste reoty pe self fulfilling prophecy attribution theory internalexternal causes Stableunstable cause quality of client s participation is important actively engaged the study of how people think about influence and relate to other people the area of social psychology that explores how people select interpret remember and use social information the way in which individuals think in social situation the processes by which we use social stimuli to form impressions of others important social cue in people is their face incl in elections better adjusted friendly likeable likely to achieve superiorjob performance but could be due to selffulfilling prophecies and better treatment a generalization about a group s characteristics that does not consider any variations from one individual to another expectations cause individuals to act in ways that serve to make the expectations come true ex late bloomers study the children who were randomly told they were late bloomers did better in a years time the view that people are motivated to discover the underlying causes of behavior as part of their effort to make sense ofthe behavior internal include causes inside and speci c to the person such his or her traits and abilities External include causes outside the person such as social pressure and the weather is the cause permanent or temporary Controllableuncontrollable causes Attribution theory Fundamental attribution error Heuristics False consensus effect Positive illusions we have power over some causes but not others the person who produces the behavior to be explained is the actor The person who offers an explanation is the actor observers overestimate the importance of internal traits and underestimate the importance of external situations when they seek explanations of an actors behavior Ex Hurricane Katrina victims were said to be foolish to not get out in time but in reality the situation the storm itself had something to do with it as well cognitive shortcuts that allow us to make decisions rapidly Stereotypes are a type of heuristic Availability heuristic the tendency to conuse the probability of an event s occurrence with the ease to which you can imagine it Ex having never met an African American medical student another African American wouldn t consider premed as a major the overestimation of the degree to which everybody else thinks or acts the way we do Ex ifa person makes a racially offensive remark and everyone else is silent person will interpret the silence as agreement favorable views of selfthat are not necessarily rooted in reality We think we are more trustworthy and attractive than actually are Related to heightened wellbeing Selfserving bias Stereotype threat Social comparison Leon Festinger s theory of social com Attitudes Attitudes can predict behaviors when cognitive dissonance theory the tendency to take credit for our successes and deny responsibility for our failures an individual s fastacting selffulfilling fear of being judged based on a negative stereotype ex African Americans perform more poorly on tests when have to check a box with their ethnicity Also effects math tests with women and menwomen perform more poorly the process by which we evaluate our thoughts feelings behaviors and abilities in relation to others Helps us to evaluate ourselves when we lack objective means to evaluate our opinions and abilities we compare ourselves with others we are more likely to compare ourselves with others who are similar to us our feelings or opinions about people objects and ideas 1 Person s attitudes are strong 2 shows awareness of his or her attitudes and rehearses them 3 person has vested interest an individual s psychological discomfort caused by 2 inconsistent thoughts we feel uneasy if what we believe and what we do aren t the same change in 2 ways change our behavior to fit our attitudes or change our attitudes to fit our behavior individuals who had to lie for 1 dollar and say they liked a test experienced cognitive dissonance and believe they actually liked the test as compared to individuals who were paid 20 dollars effort justification selfperception theory Persuasion Elaboration likelihood model Altruism Homoeconomicus Reciprocity Egoism Happy people more likely to help type of dissonance reduction rationalizing the amount of effort we put into something working hard to get into something such as Alpha Phi orthe Marines changes our attitudes about it individuals make inferences about their attitudes by perceiving their behavior exercise every morning so I must like it trying to change someone s attitude and behavior as well Teachers lawyers speechwriters Communicator depends on charac Message emotional or rational Medium TV is more powerful than print Target younger people change attit identi es 2 ways to persuade a central and a peripheral route Central engaging someone thoughtfully with a sound logic argument Peripheral nonmessage factors source s credibility attractiveness and emotional appeals Good when people aren t paying attention TV uses an unselfish interest in helping another person assumption that each person is out for his or her own gain key aspect of altruism giving to another person to ensure reciprocity gain self esteem present oneself as powerful competent or caring avoid social and selfcensure failing to live up to one s social expectations Empathy a person s feeling of oneness with the emotional state of another Men more likely to help in situations of anger and competent to help women with nurturing abilities will help The bystander effect Aggression Biological factors of aggression physiological factors of aggression confo rm ity Asch s Experiment Informational social influence Normative social in uence Obedience the tendency for an individual who observes an emergency to help less when other people than when the observer is alone social behavior whose objective is to harm someone physically or verbally evolutionary certain stimuli release innate aggressive responses genetics aggressive behavior results when limbic system are stimulated by electric currents frontal lobes murder ower levels of serotoninaggressive behavior testosterone relates to aggression frustration aversive experiences cause aggression aspects of the environment reinforcement and observational learning a change in a persons behavior to coincide more closely with a group standard people conform 35 ofthe time the in uence other people have on us because we want to be right the in uence others have on us because we want them to like us the behavior that complies with the explicit demands of the individual in authority Nazi Germany and jews Deindividuation Social contagion Social facilitation Social loa ng Risky shift Group polarization effect Groupthink Social identity Five forms of social identity Social identity theory the reduction in the personal identity and person ofthe sense of personality responsibility when one is in a group imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior emotions and ideas an individual s performance improves because of the presence of others a person s tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort the tendency for a group decision to be riskier than the average decision made by the individual group members the solidification and further strengthening of an individual s position as a consequence of group discussion the impaired group decision making that occurs when making the right decision is less important than maintaining group harmony EX NAZI GERMANY Occurs when people prefer conformity over accuracy the way we define ourselves in terms of our group membership Can be religious country social org Assumes commonalities with others ethnicity and religion Political affiliation Vocations and avocations Personal relationships Stigmatized groups our social identities are a crucial part of our selfimage and a valuable source of positive feelings about ourselves ln groupour group vs outgroup others Ethnocentrism Prejudice Why people develop prejudice discrimination sexual harassment how to improve intergroup relations mere exposure effect attraction evolutionary approaches to attraction the tendency to favor one s own ethnic group over other groups Asserting superiority over ethnic groups an unjusti ed negative attitude toward an individual based on the individual s membership in a group Sex age religion ethnicity competition between groups cultural learning boost self esteem an unjusti ed negative or harmful action toward a member ofa group simply because the person belongs to that group a form ofdiscrimination unwelcome behavior or conduct of a sexual nature that offends humiliates or intimidates another person everyone is equal an authority figure sanctions personal relationships friendship can emerge from interaction the more we encounter someone or something the more likely we are to start liking the person orthing even ife do not realize we have seen it before like people similarto us like people we see a lot consensual validation explains why we like people similarto us procreate men like younger women youth indicates woman s fertility men search for youth and beauty women for stability and tangible resources romantic love affectionate love social exchange theory investment model love with strong components of sexuality and infatuation often predominates in the early part of the relationship in love men fall in love quickly and easily companionate love the type of love that occurs when an individual has deep caring affection for another person and desires to have that person near romantic love at rst then affectionate love based on the notion of social relationships as involving an exchange of goods equityboth partners feel as though they re doing their fair share we keep a mental check sheet with our partner a model of longterm relationships that examines the way that commitment investment and the availability of attractive alternative partners predict satisfaction and stability in relationships will work when both parties commit and invest a lot and when there are not many other partners around Lecture Notes 1 141 O l The problems ofdiagnosis DSMIV ll Anxietyrelated disorders Anxiety disorders Phobias panic OCD Dissociative identity disorder multiple personality Questionnaire Break Ill Personality disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder IV Major mood and thought disorders Depression Unipolar Bipolar Schizophrenia Simple Paranoid Catatonic Case Studies Illustrate point that context of culture must be considered when dealing with case studies and mental illness Case Studies 4 Example of GOD person with obsessions and compulsions 35 year old male went out window to make sure no one was lurking kept running to make sure that no one is there then goes to work every 20 steps looks and makes sure there s no one there OCD did this every day for past several years Always certain there s someone around but there isn t paranoid south sea islands in the 1930s a tribe that everybody in the tribe was paranoid and behaved the same way this tribe did If you weren t paranoid you were mentally deranged 29 year old female goes to a fancy restaurant and orders a lot of food eats food quickly vomits food up eats a lot of food vomits it all up eating disorder binge eating vomitorium in the ancient roman days 42 year old female married 2 children feels selfcon dent asks to see the manager in bank gets an audience with a manager and wants to take out a loan to take out her own business Convinced that there s something wrong with her missouri in early 1900 s where women rst were not allowed to get bank loans and given time period woman was deranged bc behaved opposite cultural beliefs 18 year old male wakes up in the morning alcoholic day of a big spring festival mental health and mental disorders must be looked at within the context of the culture only person who is institutionalized was the woman who went to the bank How is this possible Any group of experts would agree that this person has the biggest issue During the 1900 s when women s roles were different than they are today Rosenham Study Classic study by David Rosenham in 1973 SITUATION Hired people went to hospitals saying that they ve heard voices saying the words dull and quotinsanequot Other than that gave the psychologists real events about their life All were admitted to the mental hospital19 were paranoid schizophrenics as soon as they were in the hospital they behaved in a normal way Rosenham questioned how long would it take to spot them RESULTS Never identi ed as being normal by the hospitals Easy to fool professionals Patients were objecti ed dramatized and exaggerated behaviors in reports Everything then was seen through the lens of insanity It s difficult to tell sane behavior from insane behavior AFTERMATH Months later hospitals thought there were sane people they had accidentially admitted How we define things is largely a social construction in terms ofthe madness in that society Big problem once a person is stigmatized with label it s hard to escape with label Seen in the case of the Rosenham study Many types of treatments work for some kids of disorders and not for others 1 DSMIV 0 Give group of symptoms names to different problems 0 Next year will be the release of DSM V heavily political o PICA lobbies for different disorders bc if doesn t make handbook people won t get reimbursed for it 2 Anxiety Related Disorders 0 Anxiety can be crippling our mind has the ability to manipulate anxieties in different way Anxiety that is transferred to an object you have a fear or phobia about X Case Study Phobia developed out of nowhere Lady had a sharp fear of being cut and knives phobia was so intense that she demanded that her husband take out all knives o Feared she would hurt her own child Panic attacks Surprisingly common 0 Classic example an individual is waking out of no where a feeling of intense anxiety comes over person Panic attackattack of anxiety sweatingshaking ladu s case 1St panic attack after trauma Interesting bc can be threatening Agoraphobiafear of outside Panic attacks and phobias ARE treatable Narcissism People think rules don t apply to them Have grandiose sense of power and importance Derives from Greek myth of Narcissus Think world revolves around them Example videotaping engaging in group interaction aftenNards scientists how well participants think they did in the interactions narcissists said they were at head of table at round tablell Love watching themselves on tape Most people when they see videos of themselves think that they weren t as clever weren t as coherent as they thought they were Obsessed with image and beauty like how they look Look at themselves a lot have loads of photos of themselves around Scientists Counted number of times people checked themselves out in mirror Soak up compliments ex You re the best I knowll 0CD 2 components obsessions things you can t stop thinking involving cleanliness checking behavior compulsions irresistible impulse to engage in active compulsions sometimes obsessions change into compulsions a guy in the dept with a neat structured shirt who always washed his hands constantly had obsessive sexual thoughts controlling disgusting tried to clean dirty thoughts by compulsively washing his hands often extensive ritualistic cleaning develops by the age of 25 disassociative disorders essentia idea is escape when there s something you have no control over Amnesia is a form Disassociate identity disorder people have different personalities Gradual chanqe sudden from 1 person to another Brought out in stress therapy High percentage ofthem occur among women who had a high rate of sexual abuse when young Powerfu way for people incl young women to protect self VIDEOfamous case study Amnesia can t remember Tony has 53 different personalities days when he can t be himself too many selves to deal with Can t remember own wife In therapy session personalities are drawn out Personality change can be subtle or wrenching cough hand to head MPD brains characteristics personality patterns are different for each personality Depression miss work major problems in relationships costly problems 2 Types A Unipolar a Goes from normal depressed mood state infl by events in the world most common weak link to genetics major upheavals in a person s life f 40 of students have depression during first year B Bipolar Heavily genetic Symptoms manic and depression Manic delusions fast speech patterns Powerful disorder Most people commit suicide have bipolar disorder b c d e meom Nov 9 2010 Lecture Notes Schizophrenia most common thought disorder ifa person is diagnosed with schiz can be crippling major problems in relationships employment onsets don t occur until a person is in their twenties associated with stress inks to biological factors in terms of neurotransmitter deficits in the brain Types of Schizophrenia A Simple most common characterized by a atness of affect no emotional reaction major problems in emotionally connecting with others in recognition and understanding real problems in displaying affect and in reading emotions in others most people are able to work in the real world so major problems in relationships incl those in work B Paranoid famous because of striking symptoms changes in individual s thinking patterns Common themes of delusions 1 delusion of referencepeople with paranoid schizophrenia are convinced they are the center of the universe 2 delusion of grandeurpeople are convinced that they are really important people such as Jesus Hitler President figures can be negative or positive 3 delusion of persecutionpeople are convinced that others are out to get them are talking about them trying to control their mind People become obsessed because the other person has invaded them in some way ex woman thought she was controlling the world by writing in her notebook shows delusions C Catatonic people will go through extended periods of time where they shut down months weeks incapable of experiencing the world Show laxi exibility won t move body until muscles give out Once come out of periods of laxi exibility are relatively normal but will say that they were living in a fantasy world usually institutionalized has the most striking symptoms and is most easily treatable major disruptions in work and relationships and in terms of people s lives Basic Underlying Assumptions of Therapy ook at whether therapy treats symptoms or causes similar to how you treat a cold or a flu to how you treat a strep throat of mental disorder quotthe answer is not clear Patientrelationship most often examined carefully in the context of inside methods esp in pscyhoanalysis Idea what is critical to your adult personality are your childhood experiences had a longlasting impact on who you are today pscyhoanalytic method takes something that s blank and allows you to project onto it Examines the relationship between the therapist in the client as a crucial window into the way in which people relate to one another Transference Transferring one relationship how you related to a parental figure a sibling and you transfer it to a new context in this case the therapeutic context focused on to know what happened in important relationships earlier in life Countertransference the feelings that the therapists has towards the client A psychoanalytically therapist would try to distinguish their own feelings from the feelings appears to be having towards them in the way that they re relating towards them What the therapist tries to do is to draw interpretations I seem to notice that you re angry with me in the hopes that would begin to lock the keys to how individuals relate to individuals in the future Transference in the making let s say you are angry with your mother for her bad gift giving and someone else who has power over you gives bad gifts so you find yourselfangry with that person That s transference in the making Pennebaker s example he became head of the psychology department When his friend deals with anyone who has power over him he sees in father in the making Pscyhotherapy according to some psycholog s doesn t work unless there is some transference Insight strategies humanistic and psychoanalytic TYPES OF THERAPY ILLUSTRATED BY ACTOR AND TEACHERS Humanistic therapist focuses on her recent issues that could feed into depression but getting patient to figure out what problems are change her moods feelings thoughts right now persona explore the issue positive Psychoanalyst digging deeply on childhood idea is that by change relive early experiences to change the way her personality is put together aiming for a more profound personality change relive some of relationships idea is that by reliving some of the experiences you can successfully explore and resolve issues that may not have been successfully explored early on the therapist is out of sightallows the patient to fantasize about what therapist is doing Whatever it is the setup allows whatever s going on in the person s head to come out and be a focus for discussion more impersonal focuses more on early childhood experiences assumes people are bad explores dreams and symbols in dreams is about seeing through to what therapists believe are the underlying issues about seeing where the person is coming from Behavioral Therapist therapists interested in xing your problems don t care about what causes them or childhoodONLY what s the problem how can we change it finds concrete small problems that they can x and works to correct those rewarded for behaving in a way that is more active and punishing for in a way that is more passive problem if person is too lazy set up a system increase behavior by X percentage and will get reward If you decrease behavior by X percent will be punished set up so engineer life all this approach does is to fix problem Only 34 sessions traditional strategies grew out of behavion39sts 15 Basic Reinforcement strategies behavior modification biofeedback 2nd conditioning strategies counterconditioning desensitization implosion 3rd cognitive techniques thought analysis and change techniques CHT you attempt to change the behaviors as well as thoughts idea is that people harbor illogical thoughts and if you can systematicall change the way people think and their behaviors you can effectively treat a large number of issues Medical proceduresdrugs says doesn t have much time prescribes medication after little knowledge there is something biological that s the problem and all we need to do is x the biology Medical Strategies Triphening do NOT try this at home one of most effective low cost methods for psychotherapy driing a hole on the side ofthe head effective because is much like being in a car wreck you psychologically float the next day phenomenon that is associated with massive assault to the body First noticed in 1930 s and 1940 s noticed that when a pig got an electric shock before it went to the slaughterhouse it was much happier before being slaughtered Electroconvulsive Shock ECT major form of therapy in the US in 1950 s downsides patients would break a huge number of bones in body because would cause muscles to contract tightly Frequently people s brains would burn and people would suffer serious memory loss However still used today in a controlled way muscle relaxants s hocks For people who have had therapy and nothing has worked this is effective drugs and medication antianxiety antidepressants antipsychotics focused on treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia effective quick Different therapies Results different models relationships strategies each one is different others work for other people why certain methods work is not entirely clear what is emotional root of problem well trained therapists look for discontinuityin conversation and thought becomes those discontinuities come from inside and are possible issues ex woman asks RANDOMLY how old are you to some person without any mention of age in the conversation She had a problem with age Carl Rogers Parroting preeminent humanistic therapist who developed parroting method one of most profound methods ever seen wonderfu strategy for you in dealing with other people repeat back what your friends say in every day conversation allows people to see profound issues in their life methods used in different approaches can be used in every day life Ill Therapy effectiveness Most modern good therapists use techniques from all strategies You want to look for someone who uses different strategies Much of psychotherapy works because it s a placebo the patient believes in the doctor the medication and treatment Trust and like are 2 most important characteristics when you look for a therapist 1 Nature of groups Role of communication Dunbar gossip Evolution from tribes to networks Demonstration l 7 postquestionnaire II The individual versus the group Brainstorming Demonstration 2 7 postquestionnaire III The dawn of social media Google thinking Google search and the Flu Facebook and identity Twitter and social movements IM IV Group processes Humans are grouporiented species We live in groups that are much bigger in those that we evolved Robin Dunbar the scientist his major theory is to have a successful social group you must maintain a connection with others in the group to decide trustworthiness Nonhuman primates accomplish this in grooming one another They spend more time doing this than is needed from a health point of view they just do this to maintain their connection with one another EX monkeys picking each other s fur The trouble with grooming it s only possible to groom one individual at a time Language changed social groups so we can maintain a connection with a larger group one ofthe main functions ofgossip is maintain social connections with others in addition to establishing social norms Effective groups today don t get bigger than 100 people the maximum we can meaningfully sustain Technology with Communication dea behind facebook walls it s a very basic social psychological need Our social circles are now dispersed which explains the massive popularity behind social websites Facebook is all about satisfying the basic needs of connecting with others In the past decade our ability to communicate with huge numbers of people has been transformative in the way we think about relationships People in the other class liked the group similar to their personality more But the second class liked the second random group more Organization How do you organize things fyou ask your parents they used le drawers Early email was built that way Google and others changed email by tagging you can tag something as relevant to multiple different ideas What that means is when people organize they think differently We are now in a world where we structure things differently Google world has started to do this Google trends picks up where peoplesearch for symptoms on the days when the people were starting to get sick google was weeks ahead of scientists on picking up the outbreak of u Social media and Identity Changes the way that individuals relate to each other 1a new way to communicate express identity before industrial revolution everyone knows you in every context work family leisure no separate identities with the IR people left home to go to work and have different identities in different contexts since the IR there has been trend which has ledto a greater fragmentation of our different selves Social media has allowed the trend to reverse people have to be themselves because facebook allows parents to see their children s activities so there is no longer a fragmentation of self in different contexts l 1 1610 Introductory Psychology Lecture Notes I Group dynamics Exploring class interactions 11 Social physics III Situational dynamics attractors IV Interpersonal dmamics IV Cognitive dissonance Writing Assignment 4 posted today at 600 Read 400409 in the book Get feedback use to try to get to work effectively Goal develop a system to get groups to work together more effectively Drawing for lpad will take place next Tuesday Do 80 or more of the next three assignments by next week and need to be there in class next Tuesday Group processes 1 Interacting online with random people a Mixed even contrasting personalities ofdifferent people has the function of balancing the discussion 2 Interacting online with people who are similar to our personality a When you have people in the different groups people with similar personality get exacerbated High in extroversion talked more Agreeable talked twice as much as low agreeable groups High conscientious didn t talk much High neuroticism talked a lot Males and females talked the exact same amount When people make decisions in groups a number of things happen in groups that makes people decide in a way other than they would as individuals low accountability you can kind ofdisappear you didn t know who else was in the groupterm39 social loa ng Tquot39DQOC39 deindividuation people lose identity and are no longer an accountable individual some people had mob mentality in group common experience when people feel they are deindividuated and are anonymous they engage in behaviors they wouldn t othenNise Deindividuation project done at Swarthmore interested in how people talk to others they don t know talk to strangers in a completely dark room people in the room talked in a very quiet voice talked about what their family was like relationships opened up in incredible way pretty soon started touching and making out things got hot and heavy when people are deindividuated they behave in different ways seen the same thing in the groups even though we were online people behaved in deindividuated ways What happens when you combine introverts and extroverts in group difference in personalities with introverts and extroverts introverts are generally more quiet than extroverts in groups don t get along well Reason making attributions for others behavior extroverts think they are carrying on whole conversation and see introverts as jerks in conversation in many groups initial forms of conflict when combine introverts and extroverts aggravated effects when isolated social physics the application of laws of physics to social behavior partyll once people were in the group no one really wanted to leave far away from the group essentially in a little area wanted to be in space because of security if came out of space would be vulnerable people liked music at parties because you have to be closer to one another to communicate forces closer social communications people s backs were facing away security deal ots of different hand movements crossed arms hands in pockets hand movements suggesting awkwardness students who were the same height approached one another people talk with people who look like them dark people with dark people girls with girls boys with boys You look for people who look like you people looked around a lot because they were uncomfortable in groups that are unstable people scan the environment to see who else they can talk to superficia conversation at parties where you don t know anyone people feel selfconscious ook at how groups work Situational Forces A Social gravity metaphor G M1M2l 1 The more attractive the object the greater the pull 2 The closer individuals are to an attractive force the greaterthe pull 3 How attractive charming strong physically attractive are examples of social masses B De ning mass or an attractor a Objects b Needs c Other people C Examples 1 2D for a sale for a swim 2 birds on a wire people at the beach 3 3D seating in a classroom 4 rites of spring party 78000 people came to party band beer bathrooms took timelapsed photography high density of people around band beer and bathrooms people break off mathematically attractive forces are the weakest in the middle ofthe eld people attracted to one another but their attractive force in that setting can t compete with beer slopm quot39D one thing that changes from class to class are the teachers You know how good the teacher is looking at the distribution of where they re sitting The higher the density toward the front more towards the front The more they dislike the teacher the more they ll be in the back Distribution of people according to Big 5 characteristics higher in conscientiousness closer towards front value achievement more extroverts in the back and front attracted to people neurotocism sit on the aisles and exits try to be places where they don t have to venture too far in and can get out easily Interpersonal Dynamics A attractors and group size a status at a conference 39 high status person will walk the least bc other people come up to the person Entertains the lowest status people i lower status people bounce from place to place ii39 status varies from conference to conference b negative attractors social bombs i people come in and break up group B Group movement and size a Walking speed 39 When you walk with a group the bigger it gets the slower you walk A large group cannot walk quickly bc you talk more you interact more no one wants to leave one another behind In an army people march because it ensuresthey walk at a fast pace iv Is a cell phone the equiv ofanother human being 1 lfa person is the phone they walk slower b Group instability i You can predict when a group is going to fall apart or when one person will leave by looking at who moves the most c Individual movement and group stability IV Cognitive Dissonance one ofthe most important ways of understanding why people join groups and do things in groups wouldn t othenNise do first brought to attention in an experiment done in the 1950 s experimenter says welcome engage in this boring task All you have to do is take little wooden knobs and twist in a quarter ofa turn etc do for 45 minutes Then the experimenter asks if you ll be research assistant lie and tell the next person the task they re about to do is really interesting The experimenter gives you 1 or 20 Then you run into a person who asks if you liked the experiment or not The 1 person enjoyed the experiment more because the person had to make their attitudes consistent with their actions so changed their attitudes and come to believe it was interesting 111810 I Cognitive dissonance Foot in the door People s Temple and Cults Effort justification Insufficient justi cation ll When bystanders intervene and when they don t Diffusion of responsibility In the lab In nature Deindividuation Ill How to optimize helping at the beach IV Next class Cognitive Dissonance the dissonance between our feelings attitudes and our behaviors we rationalize our behaviors used in Effort Justification we justify the amount of work we put into something study at UT people watched a brief movie people reported the liking the movie they had to walk across campus more the more work you put into something the more you like it Justification idea people need to justify their efforts aso used in InsufficientJustification intrinsic motivation wiped away because guy playing tennis has been paid for it and notjust for fun when stop getting paid stop playing tennis Foot in the Door Technique two groups of houses group A the experimenters knocked on the door of houses and asked if residents would put a notecard on the door group B they don t even disturb the people Experimenters wait 2 weeks and go back to both sets of houses Say we have a huge drive carefully sign and ask if it s ok to put in front yard A very large percentage ofthe people who had previously had the little card agreed to have the big sign in their front yard The people who had not had the sign they said it wasn t okay to have the sign in their yard Because they ve done one thing which is consistent with driving safely they will put another one They think their attitudes have changed They bring their attitudes into line with their actions can be used in the area of sales Pennebaker s example foot in the door idea is used for sales salesperson asked for glass of water came in then tried to sell Saved by his parents methods for selling encyclopedias looked sad selfdepricating did the whole glass ofwatertrick with ice asked to go to their living room compliment their living room asked to move chair and tablesto enhance their living room knew if she could get them to move the sofa she could get them to do the sofa get somebody to do a little bit for you and now they ll do a lot more of you Jim Jones and People s templeexample of Cognitive dissonance used free dinners weekend retreats slightly escalated commitment piece by piece including in monetary matters foot in doortechnique 1St monetary offers voluntarythen 10 income contributionthen 25then everything temple in Oregon California moved cult to Guyana build village in Guyana where would build utopian place demanded obedience from people building in Guyana California congressman tried to save people from Guyana was shot got everyone to assemble in main area to create huge vats of koolaid which they laced with cyanide and barbituates Asked 909 people to commit suicide which they did Bystander Intervention Kitty Genovese murder left for dead March 13 1984 in queens NY repeatedly stabbed with knife screamed out loudly for help screams left murderer to retreat got hat searched and no one came to help her stabbed her again screamed and eventually somebody leaned out window and said leave her alone called police arrived within minutes but got there too late remarkable because the attack lasted 45 minutes 38 people reported hearing her screams people didn t call because they thought somebody else would diffusion of responsibility had a woman laying on the oor outside of classroom Some year gave away zero slip with recogntition that people had asked to help her we all think we would stop and help but often we wouldn t Diffusion of Responsibility assumes that in any given situation the odds of someone helping is 1the of people around we re in a situation we look around and figure nobody else is doing anything so we gure that s what we should be doing Lab setting seen In nature everyone looks at other people and see that they aren t upset so assume other people shouldn t be upset either after about 2 or 3 people the smoke comes in and looks at questionnaire and see other people not doing anything the smoke is so smoky so assume nothing is wrong 1 person takes 2030 seconds to respond Predictors of tips the more people at the table the smallerthe tip in our minds we all diffuse responsibility even at restaurants Cost ifthere s any cost that people have to incur people might be dissuaed people would rather not help than incur cost study done in seminary students people you would assume would help need to go across to other part of campus to give a sermon about good Samaritan someone who stops to help someone as the students are crossing see someone falling over and in a lot oftrouble first group said had plenty oftime Second group rushed for time found the difference between the 2 groups 60 of people in rst group stopped to help person in the doonNay 10 of people in second group stopped to help the person in the doonNay Deindividuation in an individuated state a person feels responsible know that others recognize them Most of us have this we don t have a sense of who we are beliefthat we are invincible no one can recognize us we feel free and liberated when people are in deindividuated states behave in odd ways Way to get deindividuated 1 dress in a way that other people won t recognize you masks 2 go to a place where no one knows you when people are not identifiable THE DARK SIDE COMES OUT seen in Klu Klux Klan sense of responsibility is zero How to make helping more likely focus on one person at a time in a group setting make them feel responsible 1 12310 1 Talking about psychology Science Breakquot or try the online version 11 Obedience III Perception and g judgment The Asch paradim have a seat IV The Big Picture Thanksgiving and beyond Announcements last exam is next Tuesday Movie shows basic human motive in following the dictates of others deals with obedience study done in 1961 65 of participants went all the way all the data suggests that today we would get the same results recent studies have been given shocks to cute little puppies TV shows where people about 60 give shocks all the way huge ethical ramifications should it be done Raises profound ethical questions Migram shock experiment gives it an insight into obedience because interested in what happened in Nazi Germany with mass executions Obedience led to mass executions how could something like Nazi Germany happen in a civilized culture Can happen anywhere We have a natural inclination to obey others One of lessons to be aware of Humans are obedient under the correct circumstances Blue forms compete shams that got people who stood up with group Asch identified 2 forms of conformity 1 Social informational Conformity a You conform with the group because you think they have information to do that 2 Normative Conformity a People go along with the group because they want to fit and be liked by the group when people are not in a group they get it right 99 ofthe time When people are in a group 40 ofthe people go along with the group and get the wrong answer Even having one people to not conform to give the person iscense to get it right each time Conformity in action Elevator Experiment where all three subjects face the wall all subjects turn all the way to the wall Have a Seat males move more than females IV The Big Picture memory how will you remember Thanksgiving how are you thinking about your life about college this year will be the year you rememberthe most will remember shooting incident the rest of your life autobiographical memory we tend to remember those things that occur between the ages of 1425 old people will list things between ages of 1425 parents will say the best music is when they were 1525 want you to remember pscyhology
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