FOUNDATIONS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
FOUNDATIONS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY PSY 394V
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marco Wolf on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 394V at University of Texas at Austin taught by James Pennebaker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/181800/psy-394v-university-of-texas-at-austin in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
The Language War Robin Tolmach Lakoff 2001 Robin Lakoff is a Linguist trained as a humanistinterested in the hermeneutic potential of TGG Transformational Generative GrammarNoam Chomsky Wanted to determine from their super cial form what sentences really met at a deeper level why people made the choices they made and what those choices signi ed about ourselves Very interested in the connection between language and thought Linguistics is seen as the window into the mind Meaning becomes visible in discourse De nes discourse as connected language use for a purpose It can take several forms 0 a conversational turn 0 a how to manual 0 a courtroom cross examination 0 a novel 0 or any of the innumerable linguistic action we engage in regularly The book focuses on the social and political construction of narratives Who makes our stories and how do they develop over time and through an assortment of media venues De nes language as the transference of meaning from mind to mind We use language to make and change public and private meaning Lakoff discusses who certi es the interpretation of meaning the speakerwriter the hearerreader or an objective uninvolved interpreter concludes that without some form of participant observation the meaning is lost The greater the objectivity the greater the unreliability It is almost never true that an utterance has only one meaning Interpretive community is a model for the way speakers participate in discourse We understand what we encounter based on shared context and experiences When competent speakers engage in any kind of discourse they form ideas in their mind about what it means and respond accordingly Meaning is made by consensus the original speaker contributes form the original audience response the analysis an explanation linking the two There is seldom a need for or a possibility of complete overlap of intention and understandinggeneral sense of cohesion suf ces for most human purposes In a literary society 7 meaning is negotiated through a wide array of communicative channels written language and oral public and private formal and informal spontaneous and constructed direct and mediated All of these together create our identity The book focuses on several stories that pass the UAT Undue Attention Test Each of these stories is different but they share the similarity that we hate to let them go In addition they are about language who has the ability and the right to make meaning for everyone Language based controversies are about who gets to make the meaning for all of us to create and de ne culture Culture is the construction of shared meanings The ght over Political Correctness The Anita Hill Clarence Thomas hearings The David Mamet play Oleana The role of Hilary Rodham Clinton The 0 Simpson saga The Ebonics controversy The death of Princess Diana Sex or whatever in the oval of ce Language makes Reality Utterances Constative descriptive of reality the sky is blue I like artichokes Judge by either true or false Performative declarative in form but do not describe an externally determinable reality By their utterance they bring into being or perform the situation they represent Must all contain a rstperson presenttense verb of linguistic activity I order you to leave I promise to pay you within a week Not subject to veri cation procedure J L Austin 7 concludes that performative sentences have worldchanging properties and declares that all utterances are performative even those that look constative Battles over language are fought over performatives who can use which ones to whom under what conditions Apologies are an example of perfomative it changes the world for the participants in terms of their relative status power differences and their future relationship Since apologies are painful they are bound to be made indirectly When an ambiguity is uttered and it involves either positive or negative interpretation the literal surface reading is generally the positive interpretation The Identity Crisis Recent discourse fad o The use of the third person for selfreference successful use seems to be con ned to those in power 0 The erosion of our trust in personal memory that creator of the cohesive ego that we con dently refer to a I The culture as a whole has a problem with gray areas Memories are suspect 0 Increasing nervousness within a diverse society about who we are is there really a we and if so how is it created The right to interpret any one of us as an individual includes 0 Cohesive entity Collective past Similarities of outlook A common language Common interest 0000 We can never expect to understand fully one another Words don t mean the same thing under all conditions for everyone Context where by whom and in what tone words are utteredcount Language is not just words It enables us to establish our selves and ourselves as individuals and as members of groups it tells us we are connected to one another who has power and who doesn t Gender is a grammatical category subject to marking Masculine are unmarked feminine are marked women doctor not male doctor The choices a language has available to its speakers the distinctions and markings it imposes on reality must affect the speakers perception of reality For example English requires all verbs to be assigned a tense this encourages time to be seen as crucially important as compare to Native American languages which encourages its speakers to see time as uid Frame defined as a body of knowledge that is evoked in order to provide an inferential base for the understanding of utterance The ability to recognize the frames in which we find ourselves is comforting reframing is traumatic To communicate is to share meaning make them common to all participants in the discourse To express ideas obscurely is to fail to communicate except to those who are already adepts in the arcane So obscure communication is either pointless or redundant except as a power play Commonsense what is commonsense is also mainstream and therefore moderate All these words describe a position well within a predefined frame away from the marked periphery Class difference race and gender affect rhetorical style hence commonsense rules of credibility might reach false conclusions Gennifer Flowers Paula Jones Kathleen Willey Most people have a desired to be in the majority to exist in the unmarked we Speaking the standard reinforces the feeling of being one of us and their not speaking it gives us a good reason to ignore them Worrying about how people talk allows us not to worry about what they say Language both creates a message through devices like framing and presuppositions and uses that message winning the uncommitted by assuming the normality and neutrality of the speakers position Since wars are at the forefront of our persuasive efforts controlling meaning brings victory in the continuing war for hearts and minds by de ning our cultural values and personal identities Many contested words addictive baby fetus sexual harassment are associated with frames representing controversial or problematic attitudes or behaviors The greater the power of the issuer to make good on the threat the greater the likelihood it will be expressed indirectly The speaker knows the target will be able to derive the I will from context When lines are crossed when the properties of two kinds of discourse are confused problems arise Woman are readily generalized It is easy to see them en masse without the individual traits that evoke empathy and understanding Because they are not us we make sense of them and not vice versa As a woman speaking in public Anita Hill is markedianything she sounded odd and inappropriate Clarence Thomas was permitted more gap length before the end of his statement and the next utterance by a committee member Question to Hill took the forms of a tag more frequently A tag is a sentence type that has the form and function of a combined declarative plus question John s your brother isn t he You didn t eat that did you Most of the remaining questions to Hill were declarative functioning as question Like tags they signal the power of the speaker over the addressee Thomas was permitted a number of authoritative devices that Hill was not Thomas was asked more questions that permitted terse response and Hill was encourage to go on at length This led to over interpretation of her performance which took language out of her control Mad Bad or Had 7 are ways of characterizing a woman who is peaking out of turn where she has no right to be Hillary Rodham Clinton shares many traits with the stereotypical male She is direct and precise She is nonspontaneous She plans or schemes she is carefully controlled and seeks to control her environment Hillary has become a symbol of all our fears social change intellectual indeterminacy loss of national purpose loss of individual initiative and morality loss of parental control over children and male control over female Narratives can be subjected to analytic techniques analogous to those used for lower levels of language We can look at choices of words at sentence structures at the presuppositions and frames assumed at the speech acts that are chosen at the levels of directness or indirectness the narrator chooses at what is said what is implied and what is absent All of these and more make the story what it is and allow maker and hearer to collaborate in a coherent meaning Penelope Eckert Professor of Linguistic Professor by Courtesy in the Department of Cultural and Social Anthropology and Director of the Program in Feminist Studies at Stanford s Center on Adolescence Jocks amp Burnout Social Categories and Identity in the High School received wide acclaim New Ways of Analyzing Changeeditor chap Social Polarization and Choice of Linguistic Variants Linguistic Variations as Social Practice 2000 Ethnography study of the social motivations of linguistic change Sociolinguitics Two yearshanging around common areas of the school hallways courtyards etc not classrooms Gathered information through observation of normal activities and interaction through participation in independently occurring activities and interactions and through brief encounters and long and short discussion with groups and individuals Ask student to Trace friendship from childhood to present Linguistic change is defined as a constant and regular process which gives rise over the short term to regional dialects or accents and over the long term to language families How Latin changed into modern Romance language Adolescents lead their communities in sound change in our societies She chose adolescent in a High School in the Detroit areaibecause high schools bring together adolescents from a variety of socia backgrounds in such a way as to force them to interact with and react to each other Category af liation social network orientation and gender have turned out to be the major and intricately interacting social parameters that determine participation in sound change in the adolescent community Focus on social polarization between the classbased social categories the locks and the Burnouts Differentiation begins in middle school junior high schoo The Burnouts working class home enrolled primarily in general and vocational courses smoked tobacco and pot took chemical drank beer and hard liquor skipped classes and may have had occasional run in with the police Counter school culture adversarial relationship with the school The Jocks middle class and college bound played sports for the school participated in school activities got respectable grades and drank beer on weekends The termed jock may be an athlete but on a broader base it can be used for someone whose lifestyle embraces a broader idea associated in American culture with sports Cooperative relationship with the school Share the goals of the school Center their social lives around the schoo lock and Burnout categories re ect opposing relations to the school the single institution that dominates the life of the adolescent age group Adults do not impose their class system and ideologies on adolescent39 they provide the means by which adolescent can do it themselves The lock and Burnout represent opposing ways of existing within the school they both endorse school The essence of the polarization between the locks and the Burnouts lies in the act that they are in competition to define their life stage and to set norms of community interactions Symbol of Category Membership The HangoutCourtyard or Locker Smoking Clothing 7 Sports Linda Summers Notes from Penelope Eckert locks and Burnouts Language Vocabulary greetings and grammatical patterns function as a relatively conscious level of difference between the locks and the Burnouts Speakers under the age of 20 appear as the phonologically most innovative speakers in community studies Burnouts used more frequent and public use of obscenities and specialized vocabulary such a drug related slang Greeting Burnouts How ya doin Jock Grammar Burnouts speak ungrammatically Use of multiple negative is greater among Burnouts then oc s In addition there are differences in patterns of pronunciation Backing of the vowels etc vowels in lunch launc Punch paunch But bought Cut caught Children acquire their dialects from their peers rather than their parents Clearest indication that these linguistic features are acquired as a function of category affiliation is the fact that while they correlate statistically with category affiliation they do not correlate with parents socioeconomic class Linda Summers Notes from Penelope Eckert locks and Burnouts EvaMaria Gortner Oct 15 2001 Articles and Discourse Comprehension Gernsbacher is interested in discourse comprehension and how mental structures are built during discourse Her specialty in discourse study is mapping 7 the identi cation of recurring concepts during discourse and their mental interrelation The de nite article the serves as the basis for the cognitive process of mapping It is a cue for discourse coherence Why is the de nite article the a marker of discourse coherence It signals repeated reference and thus interrelatedness and coherence Previous research evidence with de nite articles Sentences are read more rapidly when using the de nite article Sentences are recalled in a more integrative fashion often combining 2 or more sentences into one and using pronouns Sentences are rated as more coherent When sentences were presented with inde nite articles subjects were more likely to interpret them as independent sentences that referred to multiple people and unconnected events When sentences were presented with de nite articles subjects are more likely to interpret them as a coherent story in which the same persons and events were referred to repeatedly The de nite article the has a facilitative effect when comprehenders build their mental structures Procedure in Experiment This study manipulated the de nite article the to isolate the cognitive process of mapping during discourse comprehension from lowerlevel sentence 7comprehension processes e g letter recognition word identi cationParticipants read sentences while their brain function was mapped with fMRI Sentences either started with an inde nite or a de nite article A Brief Summary of What Motives Are and How They Work Implicit Motives as conceptualized by McClelland Atkinson Winter McAdams and others function in a similar way as physiological needs Implicit Motives are inherently affectdriven they aim at gaining pleasure from the consummation of a motivespecific incentive Motives are aroused by situational cues that predict the availability of a motivespecific incentive in a given situation and subsequently recruit and fuel behavior aimed at attaining the incentive As individualdifference measure motives refer to the extent that a person can get motivated by such situational cues and gain pleasure from the consuming the motivespecific natural incentive For example Having impact on others usually goes with a feeling of strength and dominance Certain situational cues signal that this is a situation that would potentially allow to have impact and experience these kind of feelings Via emotional learning probably conditioning people develop natural preferences for different kind of emotional experiences Some inherently like having impact whereas others desperately try to avoid personal impact because it makes them feel bad A person high in n Affiliation would never put a personal relationship at risk risk of not experience feelings of closeness 7 for the chance of having impact eg acquiring status McClelland Koestner amp Weinberger 1989 coined the term implicit motives because these motives are supposed to work outside of a person s immediate awareness Why are we not aware of it Because conditioning is not necessary a purposive act We are socialized into a certain value system Our family might traditionally on a verbal level appreciate success in business but we might have consistently experienced nonverbally early in life that feelings of closeness are more gratifying Thus 7 despite adopting an explicit value system e g achievement 7 on a deeper physiological level we developed a strong need to consummate affection Since values are cognition based and motives are affect based motives are conceptualized as implicit and thought to be not adequately assessable via selfreports In fact implicit and explicit measures of motives usually turn out to be statistically independent King 1995 Schultheiss amp Brunstein 2001 Assessing implicit motives with a research version of the TAT The idea behind is that if people have a disposition towards a certain implicit motive they have a lower threshold for situational motivespecific arousal That means that motivespecific cues should more readily arouse the respective motivation in people that are dispositionally high in this motive How do you measure motive arousal If a motive selects is a preoccupation with a certain natural incentive eg to do better or to have impact then the presence of motive specifrc cues should elicit more motiverelevant thoughts imagery in people who are high in this motive For example If a situational cue like a tricky math problem hits a person high in need for achievement the person should start thinking How can I solve this This is tricky I can t get my mind off that problem I gotta find a solution This is the kind of imagery that the TAT scores People are usually given 5 minutes to write stories to five or six pictures Among the most common pictures are architect at desk ship captain couple by river trapeze artists and nightclub scene the pictures are taken from Smith 1992 and McClelland 1975 It is 1 important to create a relaxed test atmosphere that not in and on itself arouses achievement motivation The good thing is that 7 over and beyond scoring TAT stories you can score presidential speeches children s books movie scenes and any other spoken or written material That can tell you a lot about a president a group of people or even a society as a whole Scoring motive imagery in running text The Winter1991 System Compared to other available systems the WinterSystem has the advantage that it offers a solution for offering all three motives 7 n power n af liation and n achievement 7 simultaneously In its scoring it combines the sometimes separate n intimacy and n af liation in one score Other researchers sometimes combine n power and n af liation into an agency score and contrast it with a communion score n intimacy amp n af liation according to Bakan s dichotomy N Power Natural incentive to have impact on other people or the world at large Reinforcing affect Feeling of strength and dominance Coding Categories 1 Strong impressive actions that by nature have impact on other people or the world at large eg We will erase terrorism from this planet 2 Control or regulation eg We will follow Bin Ladin wherever he puts his feet 3 Attempts to influence someone manipulate someone eg The dad wants to get his son interested in playing the violin 4 V39 O Providing unrequested help advice support eg I can help you with that To impress others references to prestige status reputation e g He wants to appear smart Any intense positive or negative emotional reaction from a person group nation in response an action of a person group nation e g The audience was amazed by the presentation she gave N Achievement Natural incentive to do something better improving on a task Reinforcing affect Feeling of Pride Coding Categories 1 Adjectives that evaluate a performance good better best excellent e g Our government has to strive for the highest ideals 2 Goals performances or actions that are presented or evaluated in a positive way eg The surgeon had to work fast and awless 3 M entioning success or successful competing against others e g Our company has managed to make higher profits than our competitors 4 Failure bad results or other deficits negative feelings about a performance obstacle e g She was mad that the bad weather hold her back from running faster 5 Unique achievements eg She is about to develop a remedy against cancer N Affiliation Natural incentive to have close friendly contacts with others Reinforcing affect Feeling of interpersonal warmth love Coding Categories 1 Expression of positive friendly or intimate feelings about a person a nation etc e g Two old friends from highschool were glad to see each other again Sadness or other negative feelings about separation or the end of a relationship or the 2 will to reestablish it eg He felt lonely after she left him 3 A liative friendly actions e g After dinner they all set together talked and laughed 4 friendly nurturing acts eg She tried to comfort her friend in these hard times
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