Psyc 305, week 6 notes
Psyc 305, week 6 notes Psych 305
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 305 at Northern Illinois University taught by Keith Millis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Chapter 6 Observational methods Quantitative approach: includes larger samples not observed as closely. Example: observing people at the mall. Qualitative approach: smaller samples observed closely. Example: case studies, interviewing family members for a paper. Naturalistic observation: also called field work or field observation; making observations in a particular natural setting. This could happen at schools, workplaces, bars, etc. Researchers are expected to describe the settings, events, and people they are observing. They also must analyze their data. Problems with naturalistic observation: o Participation and concealment: Researchers need to decide whether or not to act like a participant, and whether or not to disclose all information. Observers must act like outsiders in a naturalistic observation. Seeing familiar faces can mess with the data. If people know they are being observed they are influenced and act differently. Sometimes participants forget they are being observed. Ex: reality stars forgetting cameras are in their house and revealing personal information. This can cause ethical concerns. Problems with naturalistic observation o Not always convenient. Ex: there may not be many people in a store to observe. o Doesn’t always explain an event in a way the researcher wants it to. Systematic Observation: observing specific behaviors in one place. Ex: watching children play together on the playground. Coding system: used to measure behaviors. o Resident independent behavior: doing something independently. Ex: grooming, sleeping. o Resident dependent behavior: asking for help on a task. o Staff independencesupporting behavior: reward for being independent. Ex: good grade for writing an essay by yourself, rather than copying off a classmate. o Staff dependencysupportive behavior: helping or encouraging other to seek help. Ex: encouraging a depressed person to seek counseling. o Other unrelated behaviors. Methodological issues: o Equipment: some methods still use a human observer, but most studies involve a camera. o Reactivity: knowing the experimenter is there can contribute to altered pattern of behavior. o Reliability: used to see if study results are stable. o Sampling: data taken longitudinally are usually more accurate than shortdata. Case study: research using a few particular individuals. Ex: interviewing family members about their attitudes toward relationships. o Also referred to as a naturalistic observation o Psychobiography: using psych to explain a person’s life. Ex: a famous historical psychologist having a specific way of practicing therapy because of the way they were raised. o Case studies sometime use phone interviews rather than direct observation. Archival research: using existing data rather than collecting new data. Ex: analyzing public records or information already in a computer system. o Analyzes statistical records, surveys, and written documents. Ex: using public records to examine changes in rates of cohabitation (unmarried couples living together). Survey archives: data from surveys stored online for people to use. Written and Mass Communication Records: diaries letters and others showing researchers past behaviors. Content analysis of documents: analysis of existing documents. Requires using coding systems. Ex: using this to address marriage licenses. o Problems: these records may be difficult to get ahold of, and the information may not be accurate.