INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY PSY 301
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marco Wolf on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by James Pennebaker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/181801/psy-301-university-of-texas-at-austin in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Methods In Psychology1 8302011 82400 PM o How do you measure love o operational definition translating an emotional idea into measurable terms o love is measured by 0 years of marriage 0 number of days you can bear to be apart 0 of neurons firing hormones released o bringing scientific method to understanding psychology o Most common method of gathering facts selfreport o Problems with selfreports o people can lie 0 Impression management deliberately trying to create a positive false impression o Malingering deliberately trying to create a negative false impression o approach findings with a critical eye many reports use faulty method of assessment o sometimes its better to ask someone who knows you rather than you yourself o reason to doubt the self delusion none of us want to think negatively about ourselves o Informant reports getting the opinion of others who know you well o Use one method to make up for the deficiencies of other methods o Don t ask subject observe behavior o At what level to you analyze it o What is the basis of extroversion How do you measure laughter Methods in Psychology 2 8302011 82400 PM Case study in depth study of a single individual detailed description o Anna Oh one of Freud s early cases helped him develop theory of psychoanalysis She had paralysis in shoulder Freud learned that she used to take care of her deceased father by holding him in her arm Talking to her relieved her of the paralysis correlation research mainly descriptive experimental research descriptive and causational more accurate must get broad perspective in order to get more accurate causes amp effects Experimental Thinking o Causation Levels of Analysis o An Experimental Interlude o The experiment Building Blocks 0 Independent vs dependent variables 0 Experimental vs control groups 0 Random selection and generalizability make statements about broader groups must randomly select from all of that group broadermore accurate 0 Random assignment randomly determine who is in certain groups only way you can be sure there aren t preexisting differences between groups o Types of experiments 0 lab controlled experiment 0 fieldgoing out into the real world and see if findings apply 0 natural something is happening already and you take advantage of it already happening if kids were already told to use more nouns psychologists can go and observe Looking for Problems o Experimenter effects way the experimenter may unconsciously influence the outcome of a study 0 double blind study experimenter doesn t know who is in which group o Replication o Ecological Validity the extent to which the study you are doing reflects the real world writing exercise o Group A control group Groups BampC experimental groups o dependent variable scores on the test o independent variable instructions o control group can only differ from experimental group in one way Brain amp Nervous System 8302011 82400 PM brain function general or localized o case study 0 serves as existence proof 0 serves as a starting point for future investigation 0 Charles Whitman Aug 1 1966 Tower Shooter had tumor putting pressure on amygdala o lesion studies done on animals amp sometimes when accidents happen to humans o Stimulation o epilepsy electrical storm in a part of the brain research led by Wilder Penfield he used stimulation to find out where sensory parts of the brain were located electrically stimulated the parts of the brain and asked patient what they experienced o Olds psychologist of memory and cortex drilled a hole in skulls of rats and would drop a needle into a particular area amp cement it to their skulls if rats were zapped when running through a maze rats should be able to remember Skinner box example discovered pleasure center in hypothalamus 0 Health similar to Olds but on humans if people pushed the pleasure center they enjoyed it but not as much as the rats sexuality is dependent on other parts of the cortex not as intense as in the rats people pushed the button attached to the hippocampus more than the rats something on the tip of your tongue feeling 0 o Imaging 0 MRI looking for parts of the brain that are metabolizing glucose at high rates working harder o fMRI is able to isolate those groups of neurons shut eyes and think about favorite song find that temporal lobe lights up thinking about visual scene occipital lobe lights up The Brain o cerebral cortex processing o limbic systems emotions and reactions o brain stem oldest part of the brain o Reptilian Brain brain that reptiles have primarily attention rxn and keeping the animal awake and asleep 0 not many emotions o reticular formation related to sleep and activity brain s alarm clock send info throughout brain waking it up o Old Mammalian Brain limbic system 0 hypothalamus brain s thermostat monitors blood stream and glucose monitors damage to the body bacteria virus immune reaction stress autonomic nervous system fight or flight sex pleasure center general feelings of misery and pain pituitary gland master gland gets signals from hypothalamus and send signals to other glands o hippocampus memory and inhibition no hippocampus no new memories 0 amygdala most studied nucleus links outside sensory experiences with internal emotional stress associated with learning anxiety and stress o New Mammalian Brain 0 frontal lobe differentiates humans and animals Phineas Gage after frontal lobe damages his personality changed from responsible to impulsive 0 Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System o Somatic nervous system nerves going to skeleton and muscles o Autonomic nervous system 0 Sympathetic nervous system SNS activation fight or flight response 0 Parasympathetic nervous system PNS relaxation vegetative system Neurons o bodysoma o branches dendrites imputs to the neuron o action potential sending electrical charge down the axon o myelin sheath insulator o synapse space between axon of one neuron and dendrites of another o epinephrine norepinephrine adrenaline and noradrenaline o neurotransmitter substance that goes from one neuron to the next o dopamine sleepiness o serotoninhappiness o oxytocin released during childbirth when mothers are breastfeeding etc 0 about bonding and close relationships 0 process of attachment Neuroscience study of the nervous system particularly the CNS brain and spinal cord PNS carries instructions for actions from spinal cord to effector organs Brain is made up of glial cells and astrocytes and neurons specialized cells that conduct electrical impulses along their processes Neurons o about 100 billion neurons in brain each neuron is connected to 1000 other neurons electrical impulseegeneration of electrical discharge known as action potential nerve impulse o absence of myelin sheath multiple sclerosis o How do neurons conduct impulses by using action potential they have different concentrations of certain ions pump out positively charged sodium ions and pump in positively charged potassium ions at rest neurons are negatively charged and polarized This difference in the concentrations of ions on either side of the membrane gives rise to the membrane potential and the membrane is said to be polarized O O O O O O O O Membrane potential switches to action potential when sodium comes in and potassium goes out sodium channels have a refractory period after activation can t open again which ensures that the impulses only travel in one direction big axonshigh transmission rates Myelin is the fatty membranes of cells called Oligodendroglia CNS and Schwann Cells PNS Na amp K ions between the myelin sheath are at sites called Nodes of Ranvier Neurons communicate at structures called synapses in a process called synaptic transmission sending neuron presynaptic neuron when action potential reaches a synapse there is an influx of calcium ions small packet of neurotransmitter to released into a small gap between the cells synaptic cleft neurotransmitter diffuses along synaptic cleft and interact with receptors going to the postsynaptic terminal excitatory increases possibility of postsynaptic neuron firing an action potential opp is inhibitory Sensation amp Perception 8302011 82400 PM o psychophysics is a discipline within psychology that quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they effect c Gibson think of senses as part of perceptual system c vestibular cues inner ear o sensory cues body cues o sound o it s easy to change people s perception by activating sensory stimuli o sensation where sensory cells take in physical information o transduction process by which that information becomes neural information o perception that information is processed brain makes sense of AA 0 Eye o Retina back of eye o rods light amp dark o cones responsible for color vision 0 concentrated towards the center of the retina o towards edge of the retina many receptors are going to the same bipolar cell can t discriminate as well o Pictorial cues o overlap o height in field of view 0 below horizon nearer objects are lower in the plane o linear perspective parallel lines tend to converge o Atmospheric pressure fact that things farther away are fuzzier o object lose form bigger picture on retina than objects that are farther away o familiar size o shadows and brightness o Ocular motor cues using muscles in eye to figure out where things are c convergence looking at something far o accommodation when you have to look at something close thick lens Stress Illness and Psychosomatics 8302011 82400 PM o Is illness a psychological phenomenon o The Biology of Stress o The HPA axis hypothalamuspituitaryadrenal glands o hypothalamus and pituitary are connected h sends chemicals to p when stressed and can stimulate or inhibit every gland in the body thymus gland immune system t cells amp bone marrow b cells adrenal cortex stimulated directly by hormones from the pituitary gland cortisol suppresses immune system amp releases glucose into the body if you re under stress your immune system is suppressed bc body doesn t need immune system right then cortisone shots aren t good bc it allows your body to be susceptible to illness o time course of illness immunity and perceived health 0 sometimes you feel the sickest when your immune system is working the best o Personality of Stress o Neuroticism sensitivity and vulnerability to stress people who are very prone to worry to have negative emotions easily ruffled woody allen o emotional stability carefree chill the dude big lebowski o conscientiousness if people follow rules responsibility engage in goodhealth related behaviors o Type A behavior hard driving competitive certain degree of hostility higher risk of being prone to heart disease anger o Dealing with stressors The Stress Cycle o AttentionSupressione Interpret stimulus as threateninge biological response initiate and drive9 behaviore o Resolutions 0 try not to pay attention to the stressor 0 try to control thoughts thought suppression does not work 0 O control interpretation level change the way you think about a stressor relaxation methods get people to move past negative thoughts stimulates parasympathetic nervous system 8302011 82400 PM
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