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PSY 456: Week 6

by: Brianna

PSY 456: Week 6 PSY 456

GPA 4.0

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Chapter 6 and Lecture (2/23-2/25)
Sensation & Perception
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 456 at Colorado State University taught by Amberg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Sensation & Perception in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
Visual Attention Scanning a Scene ● Visual Scanning: looking from place to place ○ Fixation ○ Saccadic Eye Movement ● Visual Search: looking for specific target ● Overt Attention: looking directly at the attended object ● Covert Attention: attention without looking What Directs our Attention ● Characteristics ○ Stimulus Salience: areas of stimuli that attract attention due to  their properties ■ ex; color, contrast, orientation, knowledge ● Selections Based on Cognitive Factors ○ picture meaning and observer knowledge ■ Scene Schema: prior knowledge about typical  scenes ● fixations influenced by this,  diversions from schemas ○ Shinoda et al. ■ measured fixations during simulated driving ■ more likely to detect stop signs at intersections ● Knowledge of Placement ○ Task Demands ■ task demands override stimulus saliency ■ eye movements and fixations linked to action  person is about to take ■ Dynamic Environment ● Misic and Hayhoe ○ pedestrians walked  loops ■ Rouge: walks towards other people ■ Risky:  walked randomly ■ Safe:  stayed away from people ○ Results: ■ paid  most attention to rouge What Happens when We Attend? ● Spatial Attention: attention to specific locations ● Posner et al. ○ looked at fixation point, arrow indicated where stimulus might  appear ■ consistent (valid trial) ■ inconsistent (invalid trial) ○ push button when target is seen ○ Results: ■ faster on consistent trials ■ information is processed better where attention is  directed ● Egly et al. ○ viewed 2 rectangles, cued to where target may appear ○ press button when target appeared ○ Results: ■ fastest reaction time at targeted position ■ Enhancement Effect for non­target within same  field as the target rectangle ● Attention can Influence Appearance ○ Carrrasco et al. ■ looked at two grating stimuli ● different contrast or similar contrast ■ indicate orientation of bars with higher contrast ■ small dot flashed quickly on one side before choice ■ Results: ● large difference in contrast: dot had  no effect ● same contrast: reported grating with  dot ● shift of attention led to effect on  perception ● Attention can Influence Physiological Responding ○ O’Craven ■ present house or face ■ moving or stationary face: activity in FFA ■ moving or stationary house: activity in PPA ○ Datta and DeYoe ■ attention maps show directing attention to specific  area of space activates specific brain area ○ Womelsdorf ■ showed that attention can cause a monkey’s  receptive field to shift toward the place where the attention is directed What Happens when We Don’t Attend ● Inattentional Blindness: stimulus not perceived even when looking directly at it ● Simons and Chabris ○ film of passing basketball, told to count passes ○ someone walks through with umbrella or in gorilla suit ○ Results: ■ 46% don’t see the woman/gorilla ■ doesn’t fit schema, not asked to look for it ● Change Detection ○ Change Blindness: don’t notice a change in a scene ■ shown a picture with and without a missing element in alternating fashion ■ Results: ● pictures alternated multiple times  before change is detected ● cued to indicate attention: change  detected more quickly ● assume change isn’t going to  happen unless we act on it ○ Continuity Issues in Films ■ don’t notice because objects in environment don’t  change ● Is Attention Necessary for Perceiving Scenes ○ Li et al. ■ told to look at one point as a task occured ● Central Task: letters flashed on  screen ● Peripheral Task: picture of scene ● Dual Task: same as peripheral but  determine color order on disc ■ Results: ● 90% on peripheral task ● 50% on dual task ● easy to recognize simply things with  covert attention, difficult to see details Distracting Effects of Task­Irrelevant Stimuli ● Task Irrelevant Stimuli: stimuli that doesn’t provide information relevant to the  task ● Foster & Lavie ○ Load Theory of Attention ■ Perceptual Capacity: capacity to do tasks ■ Perceptual Load: amount of capacity needed to  perform a task ■ Low­load tasks have high perceptual capacity ■ High­load tasks have low perceptual capacity ○ less capacity leads to less ability to ignore distractions ■ not able to determine relevant vs. non Attention and Experiencing a Coherent World ● Binding: features are combined to create coherent objects ○ Binding Problem: features of object are processed separately in  different areas of the brain ○ How? ■ experience, knowledge, expectations ● Feature Integration Theory ○ Preattentive Stage ■ feature of objects are separated ■ register salient features automatically ■ low­level processing ○ Focused Attention Stage ■ features are bound into coherent perception ■ complex objects ○ Perceive Object ○ Compare to Memory 


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