Chapter 5: Marine Invertebrates and Heterotrophs
Chapter 5: Marine Invertebrates and Heterotrophs MSCI 302
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heidi Stephens on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI 302 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Dr. Abel in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Marine Biology in Marine Science at Coastal Carolina University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Chapter 5: Microbial Heterotrophs and Marine Invertebrates I. Protozoans— animal-like organisms in Protista A. unicellular and heterotrophic B. Sarcomatigophora 1. have ﬂagella or pseudopodia 2. foraminifera— shelled amoeba a) calcium carbonate b) can form thick oozes c) ciliophoran d) radiolarian— internal silica shell II. Fungi— saprobes A. 1500 species are marine B. mostly studies for fungal diseases III.Invertebrates— 97% of all animals A. Porifera— sponges 1. not well organized— loose federation of cells 2. all are sessile ﬁlter feeders 3. no symmetry or nervous system 4. planktonic larvae 5. ostia— tiny pores 6. collar cells— have small ﬂagella to draw in water 7. osculum— where water enters and exits B. Cnidaria— stinging animals 1. mostly marine with 10,000 known species 2. radial symmetry as either a medusa (jellyﬁsh-like) or a polyp (sessile medusa) 3. Cnidocytes— stinging cells a) nematocysts inside 4. signiﬁcance of radial symmetry— a) better structure and orientation b) tissues can have speciﬁc functions c) active movement and response to external stimuli 5. Classes— a) Scyphozoans— jellies b) Anthozoans— sea anemones and corals c) Hydrozoans— hydra and siphonophores d) Cubozoans— box jellies (1) sea wasps (2) active, visual hunters— have eyes with lenses and retinas (3) directed, rapid swimming 6. Cassiopeia— upside-down jelly 7. reef corals— polyps produce calcium carbonate skeleton a) symbiotic relationships with zooxanthelle— usually how they get their bright colors 8. Gorgonians— sea fans and sea whips a) not reef building because they are very delicate IV. Ctenophore— meaning “possessing cteni” A. exclusively marine with 100 species B. comb jellies— ciliary combs for movement (cteni) C. carnivores D. similar to medusa form E. colloblasts— adhesive stinging cells V. everything after this point has bilateral symmetry and cephalization VI. primitive— acoelomates and psuedocoelomates A. acoelomates— Platyhelminthes, Nemertina, and Gnathostomulids B. advantages of bilateral symmetry— 1. promotes active movement 2. promotes streamlining 3. central nerve center 4. contributes to concentration of sensory organs through scaffolding C. Platyhelminthes— 1. simplest animals with tissues organized into organs 2. acoelomates— highly organized nervous system a) sense organ in front— cephalization b) digestive tract and excretory system VII.Mollusca— soft bodied organisms with a calcium carbonate shell either currently or somewhere in its evolutionary history A. most specious group with 200,000+ species B. shell covered by mantle— thin tissue layer C. ventral, muscular foot D. scraping tongue— radula E. feeding types— 1. deposit feeders 2. carnivores 3. scrape algae or encrusting animals from substrates F. Gastropoda: 1. largest and most varied group 2. could mass or organs enclosed by a shell which rests not he foot 3. head and sensory structures 4. operculum— horny “trap door” covering opening 5. siphon for fresh water to enter G. Bivalve: 1. not all are burrowers— a) mussels secrete threads that stick to substrates— byssal threads b) oyster cement themselves c) scallops are unattached and swim by ejecting water from mantle cavity and ﬂapping shell halves H. Cephalopoda— squid, octopus, cuttleﬁsh, and nautilus 1. most highly evolved mollusks 2. agile swimmers with complex nervous system 3. reduction or loss of external shell00 except nautilus 4. largest of mollusks 5. radula inside and beak-like structure 6. large eyes with acute vision; extremely sensitive to small details 7. pump water into mantle cavity and then force it our, propelling through the water; siphon direction affects movement direction
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