New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CRM 105-800

by: Sydney Kaydo

CRM 105-800 CRM 105 Online

Sydney Kaydo
GPA 3.67

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover chapter 4 Enjoy (:
Introduction to Criminology
Dr. Randy LaGrange
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Criminology

Popular in Department

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Kaydo on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRM 105 Online at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Randy LaGrange in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.

Similar to CRM 105 Online at UNCW


Reviews for CRM 105-800


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/28/16
Key Terms Important Information to Remember Chapter 4: Police The Development of Police in the United States  First police force formed in London (1829)  Recruiting better­qualified people, stiffing the penalties for official misconduct,  creating a civilian board of control o Suggested to ensure that order was kept in accordance with the rule of law  The English Roots of the American Police o Three major aspects:  Limited authority (powers and duties defined by law)  Local control  Fragmented organization (many types of agencies: constable,  county sheriff, city police, etc.) o Frankpledge: system in old English law in which members of a tithing  (group of ten families) pledged to be responsible for keeping order and  bringing violators of law to court.  Every male person above 12 years = apart of this organization  Tithing was fined if members dud not perform their duties o The statute of Winchester (1285): set up a parish constable system  Constable has power to call entire community into action o Metropolitan Police Act:  Created the London Police Force  Organized like a military unit o Under Peel’s direction, the police had a four­part mandate:  To prevent crime without using repressive force and to avoid  having to call on the military to control riots and other disturbances  To maintain public order by nonviolent means using force only as  a last resort to obtain compliance  To reduce conflict between the police and the public   To show efficiency through the absence of crime and disorder  rather than through visible police actions  Policing in the United States o The development of formal police organizations reflected the social  conditions, politics, and problems of different eras of American history o The Colonial Era and the Early Republic   Adopted the English offices of constable, the sheriff, and night  watchman   Boston’s watch system: practice of assigning individuals to night  observation duty to warn the public of fires and crime that was first introduced to the American colonies in Boston and later evolved  into paid, uniformed police.  Eventually began to have daytime watches  Slave patrols: distinctly American form of law enforcement in  southern states that sought to catch and control slaves through  patrol groups that stopped and questioned African Americans on  the roads and elsewhere in public places  American policing is often described in terms of three historical  periods:  The political era (1840­1920)  The professional model era (1920­1970)  The community era (1970­present) o This is criticized because it only applies to the  urban areas o The Political Era: 1840­1920  Called this because of the close ties that were formed between the  police and local political leaders  Police seemed to work for the mayors political party rather than for the citizens  Ranks in the police force were for sale to the highest bidder  Many officers took payoffs for not enforcing the laws on drinking,  gambling, and prostitution  New York (1845): first full­time, paid police force established  Police devoted time to providing social services  Sheriff: top law enforcement official in county government who  was an exceptionally important police official during the country’s  westward expansion and continues to bear primary responsibility  for many local jails  Local men above age 15 were required to respond to the sheriffs  call for assistance =known as a posse  U.S. Marshals: Federal law enforcement officials appointed to  handle duties in western territories and today bear responsibility  for federal court security and apprehending fugitives. o The Professional Model Era: 1920­1970  Influenced by the progressive movement  The progressives:  Upper­middle class, educated Americans with two goals: o More­efficient government o More government services to assist the less  fortunate  The slogan: “The police have to get out of politics, and  politics has to get out of police.”  August Vollmer = leading advocate of professional  policing—initiated use of motorcycle units, handwriting  analysis, and fingerprinting  Six elements of professional policing:  o The force should stay out of politics o Members should be well trained, well disciplined,  and tightly organized o Laws should be enforced equally o The force should use new technology o Personnel procedures should be based on merit o The main task of the police should be fighting crime  Refocusing attention on crime control and away from  maintaining order = biggest factor to change the nature of  American policing  O.W. Wilson = leading advocate of professionalism o Became chief of police in 1928 o Promoted the use of motorized patrols, efficient  radio communication, and rapid response  International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) –  1902  Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) – 1915 o The Community Policing Era: 1970­Present  Move away from the crime­fighting focus and toward greater  emphasis on keeping order and providing services to the  community  Three findings of research:  Increasing the number of patrol officers in a neighborhood  had little effect on the crime rate  Rapid response to calls for service did not greatly increase  the arrest rate  Improving the percentage of crimes solved is difficult  James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling:  Based on their approach on three assumptions: o Neighborhood disorder creates fear. Areas with  street people, youth gangs, prostitution, and drunks  are high crime areas. o Just as broken windows are a signal that nobody  cares and can lead to orderly behavior is a signal  that the community does not care. This also leads to worse disorder and crime.  o If the police are to deal with disorder and thus  reduce fear and crime, they must rely on citizens for assistance  Community policing: approach that emphasizes close personal  contact between police and citizens and the inclusion of citizens in  efforts to solve problems, including vandalism, disorder, youth  misbehavior, and crime  Problem­oriented policing: community strategy that emphasizes  solving problems of disorder in a neighborhood that may  contribute to fear of crime and crime itself.  Office of community oriented policing services (COPS Office) =  provides grants for hiring new officers and developing community  policing programs  In 1980s = critics questioned whether the professional model really ever isolated police from community residents  The Next Era: Homeland Security? Scarce Resources? o After 9/11 homeland security and antiterrorist efforts became two of the  highest priorities for federal government o Federal money for state and local police agencies moved toward supplying emergency preparedness training, hazardous­materials gear, etc.  o Some observers believe that a shift toward homeland security may appeal  to traditionalists in law enforcement who prefer to see themselves as  heroically catching “bad guys” o Budget issues may limit their ability to fulfill their ideal vision of policing Law Enforcement Agencies  Four functions of police agencies (at all levels): o Enforcing the law o Maintaining order o Preventing crime o Providing services to the community  Police Agencies include the following: o 12,501 municipal police departments o 3,063 sheriff’s departments o 50 state police departments o 135 Native American tribal police agencies o 30 federal agencies that employ 100+ full­time officers authorized to carry firearms and make arrests  Local units generally exercise the broadest authority   Federal Agencies o Part of executive branch o Investigate specific crimes defined by Congress o The FBI  Has the power to investigate all federal crimes not placed under the jurisdiction of other agencies  Established in 1908­ prominence under Hoover  FBI special agents: sworn law enforcement officers in the FBI  who conduct investigations and make arrests.  FBI’s priorities:  Protect the U.S. from terrorist attack  Protect the U.S. against foreign intelligence operations and  espionage  Protect the U.S. against cyber­based attacks and high  technology crimes  Combat public corruption at all levels  Protect civil rights  Combat transnational and national criminal organizations  and enterprises  Combat major white­collar crime  Combat significant violent crime  Support federal, state, county, municipal, and international  partners  Upgrade technology to successfully perform the FBI’s  mission  Also provides valuable assistance to state and local law  enforcement through its crime laboratory, training programs, and  databases of fingerprints, stolen vehicles, and missing persons o Specialization in Federal Law Enforcement  DEA, IRS, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives  (ATF), also U.S. Marshals Service  Because of the FBI’s increased emphasis on terrorism, its agents  are now less involved in the pursuit of fugitives  Some other agencies of the executive branch, such as the National  Parks Service, have police powers related to their specific duties  State Agencies o All state forces regulate traffic on main highways and two­thirds of the  states have also given them general police powers o The operate only in areas where no other form of police protection exists  or where local officers ask for their help o In many states, the crime lab is run by the state police as a means of  assisting local law enforcement agencies  County Agencies o Responsible for policing rural areas o Sheriff often serves as an officer of the court; may operate jails, serve  court orders, and provide the bailiffs who maintain order in courtrooms  Native American Tribal Police o Native American tribes are separate, sovereign nations and have a  significant degree of legal autonomy o Have power to enforce tribal criminal laws against everyone on their lands  Even non Native Americans  o Police on some reservations face especially daunting problems due to high rates of unemployment, poverty, and crime  Municipal Agencies o Police departments of cities and towns have general law enforcement  authority o Five largest city police departments  New York City  Chicago  Los Angeles  Philadelphia  Houston o The city and each suburb buy their own equipment and deploy their  officers without coordinating with those of nearby jurisdictions.  Special Jurisdiction Agencies o University police, two­year college police o Enforce laws as conservation officers and police in parks and recreation  settings o Must coordinate and communicate with state and local officials and  agencies that have general law enforcement responsibilities in the  immediate vicinity Who are the Police?  People granted the authority to carry firearms and make discretionary decisions  about arrests, searches, and even ending the stressful, fast­moving events that may confront police officers  Biggest attraction: the variety of tasks that fill an officers day  Recruitment o All agencies refer to a list of requirements regarding education, physical  abilities, and background. o A typical list of basic requirements for a career in law enforcement  includes:  Be a U.S. citizen  Meet age requirements. The minimum age is normally 21,  although some federal agencies place the minimum at 23. The  maximum age for hiring in federal agencies ranges from 36 (FBI & DEA) to 39 (Border Patrol), depending on the agency  Have a high school diploma. Increasingly, state and local agencies  require some college coursework  Posses a valid driver’s license  Have a healthy weight in proportion to height, body frame, and age  Rest of list on page 121 o Law enforcement certification: preservice training required for sworn  officers in many states includes coursework on law use of weapons,  psychology, and police procedures. Police departments for state and large  cities often run training programs—police academies—for their own  recruits o Federal agencies offer higher salaries and better benefits:  Require higher levels of education and experience  Typically look for college graduates and often require special skills —foreign language and knowledge of financial accounting—or  graduate degrees  The Changing Profile of the Police o Look at table 4.1 on page 123 o For most of history, almost all officers were white men o Equal Employment Opportunity Act (1972):  Bars state and local governments form discriminating in their  hiring practices o Since the 1970s the percentage of minority group members and women  working in policing has doubled o Most city police forces have mounted campaigns to recruit more minority  and female officers o Minority Police Officers  Minority officers = 40%  African Americans = 12%  Latino =10%  Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, and Multiracial = 3%   In bigger cities the above numbers change  The extent to which the police reflect the racial composition of a  city is believed to affect police­community relations and thus the  quality of law enforcement o Women on the Force  Been police officers since 1905  Lola Baldwin became an Officer in Portland, Oregon  Prior to Lola Baldwin, women dealing in the law enforcement  circuit were called “police matrons”  Court decisions opened up police work for women by prohibiting  job assignments by gender  1970 = 1.5%, 2007 = 12%  Many male officers were upset by the entry of women into what  they viewed as a male world  In Atlanta, Portland, Boston, and Detroit, a small number of  women have rise to the top ranks of police departments  Training o Not based solely on the types of people recruited but also shaped by their  training o Training academies range from two­week sessions that stress the handling  of weapons to four­month programs followed by fieldwork o Many departments require new officers to ride with experienced ones for  certain period of time o Socialization: process by which the rules, symbols, and values of a group  or subculture are learned by its members o All patrol officers are under direct supervision, and their performance is  measured by their contribution to the group’s work The Police Subculture  Subculture: the symbols, beliefs, values, and attitudes shared by members of a  subgroup of the larger society  Helps define the “cops world” and each officers role in it  Four key issues in our understanding of the police subculture: o The concept of the “working personality” o The role of police morality o The isolation of the police o The stress involved in police work   The Working Personality o There is a relationship between one’s occupational environment and the  way one interprets events o Working personality: set of emotional and behavioral characteristics  developed by members of an occupational group in response to the work  situation and environmental influences. o Two elements:  The threat of danger  The need to establish and maintain one’s authority o Danger  Because they often face dangerous situations, officers are keenly  aware of clues in people’s behavior, body language, or in specific  situations that indicate that violence and law breaking may be  imminent.  Officers are never off duty  The message: even minor offenses can escalate into extreme  danger.  Many on­the­street interrogations and arrests can lead to  confrontation o Authority  Police officers must establish authority through their actions  If they try too hard during hostile reactions, officers may cross the  line and use excessive force  Procedural rules and the structure of policing are overshadowed by the need to exert authority in the face of potential danger in many  contexts  Police Morality o Three aspects of modern policing create dilemmas:  The contradiction between the goal of preventing crime and the  officers’ inability to do so  The fact that officers must use their discretion to “handle”  situations in ways that do not strictly follow procedures  “The fact that they invariably act against at least one citizen’s  interest, often with recourse to coercive force that can maim or  kill” o Justifying their actions in moral terms helps officers lessen the dilemmas  of their work. o Police morality can also be applauded:  Officers work long hours and are genuinely motivated to help  people and improve citizens lives  Police Isolation o Many officers feel that people look on them with suspicion in part because they have the authority to use force gain compliance o Isolation from public made worse by the fact that many officers interact  with the public mainly in moments of conflict, emotion, and crisis o One result:  Officers cannot separate their job from other aspects of their lives.  Job Stress o Can affect the way the officer treats citizens and the officer’ heath o One study found police officers just behind coal miners as carrying out  one of most stressful occupations o Four kinds of stress officers face:  External stress  Organizational stress  Personal stress  Operational stress  Descriptions on page 129 Police Functions  Maintain order  Enforce the law  Prevent crime  Community service  Classified into three groups: o Order maintenance o Law enforcement o Service  Order Maintenance o Order Maintenance: a broad mandate to prevent behavior that either  disturbs or threatens to disturb the peace or involves face­to­face conflict  between 2+ people o Laws regulating disorderly conduct deal with ambiguous situations o Patrol officers are not subject to direct control  Law Enforcement o Law enforcement: function of controlling crime by intervening in  situations in which the law has clearly been violated and the police need to identify and apprehend the guilty person o Although the patrol officer may be the first officer at the scene of a crime,  for serious offenses a detective usually prepares the case for prosecution  Implementing the Mandate o The catching of lawbreakers is the most important function of police o Public support for police budgets is greatest when the crime­fighting  function is stressed Organization of the Police  Police bureaucracy: organizational description of police departments’ design and operations that seek to achieve efficiency through division of labor, chain of  command, and rules to guide staff  Bureaucratic Elements o Look at figure 4.2 on page 132 o Division of Labor  Patrol units: The core operational units of local police  departments that deploy uniformed officers to handle the full array  of police functions for service, order maintenance, and law  enforcement o Chain and Unity of Command  Chain of command: organizational structure based on a military  model with clear definition of ranks to indicate authority over  subordinates and obligations to obey orders from superiors  Operational Units o Perform the basic tasks of crime prevention and control o Special Units: deploy officers, often in plan clothes if not assigned to the  traffic unit, who are dedicated to a specific task, such as investigation, or  type of crime, such as narcotics enforcement  The Police Bureaucracy and the Criminal Justice System o Four issues arise:  The police are the gateway through which information and  individuals enter the justice system  Police administration is influenced by the fact that the outcome of  a case is largely in the hands of others  Police officers are expected to observe rules and follow the orders  of superiors while at the same time make independent,  discretionary judgments  The organization and operation of police are affected by economic  conditions and budgetary pressures Police Policy  Police policies may reflect the preferences and values of police executives  Watchman style: emphasizes order maintenance and tolerates minor violations  of law as officers use discretion to handle small infractions informally but make  arrests for major violations  Legalistic style: emphasizes strict enforcement of laws and reduces officers’  authority to handle matters informally  Service style: officers cater to citizens’ desire for favorable treatment and  sensitivity to individual situations by using discretion to handle minor matters in  ways that seek to avoid embarrassment or punishment.  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.