CRM 105-800 CRM 105 Online
Popular in Introduction to Criminology
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Kaydo on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CRM 105 Online at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Randy LaGrange in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.
Reviews for CRM 105-800
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/28/16
Key Terms Important Information to Remember Chapter 4: Police The Development of Police in the United States First police force formed in London (1829) Recruiting betterqualified people, stiffing the penalties for official misconduct, creating a civilian board of control o Suggested to ensure that order was kept in accordance with the rule of law The English Roots of the American Police o Three major aspects: Limited authority (powers and duties defined by law) Local control Fragmented organization (many types of agencies: constable, county sheriff, city police, etc.) o Frankpledge: system in old English law in which members of a tithing (group of ten families) pledged to be responsible for keeping order and bringing violators of law to court. Every male person above 12 years = apart of this organization Tithing was fined if members dud not perform their duties o The statute of Winchester (1285): set up a parish constable system Constable has power to call entire community into action o Metropolitan Police Act: Created the London Police Force Organized like a military unit o Under Peel’s direction, the police had a fourpart mandate: To prevent crime without using repressive force and to avoid having to call on the military to control riots and other disturbances To maintain public order by nonviolent means using force only as a last resort to obtain compliance To reduce conflict between the police and the public To show efficiency through the absence of crime and disorder rather than through visible police actions Policing in the United States o The development of formal police organizations reflected the social conditions, politics, and problems of different eras of American history o The Colonial Era and the Early Republic Adopted the English offices of constable, the sheriff, and night watchman Boston’s watch system: practice of assigning individuals to night observation duty to warn the public of fires and crime that was first introduced to the American colonies in Boston and later evolved into paid, uniformed police. Eventually began to have daytime watches Slave patrols: distinctly American form of law enforcement in southern states that sought to catch and control slaves through patrol groups that stopped and questioned African Americans on the roads and elsewhere in public places American policing is often described in terms of three historical periods: The political era (18401920) The professional model era (19201970) The community era (1970present) o This is criticized because it only applies to the urban areas o The Political Era: 18401920 Called this because of the close ties that were formed between the police and local political leaders Police seemed to work for the mayors political party rather than for the citizens Ranks in the police force were for sale to the highest bidder Many officers took payoffs for not enforcing the laws on drinking, gambling, and prostitution New York (1845): first fulltime, paid police force established Police devoted time to providing social services Sheriff: top law enforcement official in county government who was an exceptionally important police official during the country’s westward expansion and continues to bear primary responsibility for many local jails Local men above age 15 were required to respond to the sheriffs call for assistance =known as a posse U.S. Marshals: Federal law enforcement officials appointed to handle duties in western territories and today bear responsibility for federal court security and apprehending fugitives. o The Professional Model Era: 19201970 Influenced by the progressive movement The progressives: Uppermiddle class, educated Americans with two goals: o Moreefficient government o More government services to assist the less fortunate The slogan: “The police have to get out of politics, and politics has to get out of police.” August Vollmer = leading advocate of professional policing—initiated use of motorcycle units, handwriting analysis, and fingerprinting Six elements of professional policing: o The force should stay out of politics o Members should be well trained, well disciplined, and tightly organized o Laws should be enforced equally o The force should use new technology o Personnel procedures should be based on merit o The main task of the police should be fighting crime Refocusing attention on crime control and away from maintaining order = biggest factor to change the nature of American policing O.W. Wilson = leading advocate of professionalism o Became chief of police in 1928 o Promoted the use of motorized patrols, efficient radio communication, and rapid response International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) – 1902 Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) – 1915 o The Community Policing Era: 1970Present Move away from the crimefighting focus and toward greater emphasis on keeping order and providing services to the community Three findings of research: Increasing the number of patrol officers in a neighborhood had little effect on the crime rate Rapid response to calls for service did not greatly increase the arrest rate Improving the percentage of crimes solved is difficult James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling: Based on their approach on three assumptions: o Neighborhood disorder creates fear. Areas with street people, youth gangs, prostitution, and drunks are high crime areas. o Just as broken windows are a signal that nobody cares and can lead to orderly behavior is a signal that the community does not care. This also leads to worse disorder and crime. o If the police are to deal with disorder and thus reduce fear and crime, they must rely on citizens for assistance Community policing: approach that emphasizes close personal contact between police and citizens and the inclusion of citizens in efforts to solve problems, including vandalism, disorder, youth misbehavior, and crime Problemoriented policing: community strategy that emphasizes solving problems of disorder in a neighborhood that may contribute to fear of crime and crime itself. Office of community oriented policing services (COPS Office) = provides grants for hiring new officers and developing community policing programs In 1980s = critics questioned whether the professional model really ever isolated police from community residents The Next Era: Homeland Security? Scarce Resources? o After 9/11 homeland security and antiterrorist efforts became two of the highest priorities for federal government o Federal money for state and local police agencies moved toward supplying emergency preparedness training, hazardousmaterials gear, etc. o Some observers believe that a shift toward homeland security may appeal to traditionalists in law enforcement who prefer to see themselves as heroically catching “bad guys” o Budget issues may limit their ability to fulfill their ideal vision of policing Law Enforcement Agencies Four functions of police agencies (at all levels): o Enforcing the law o Maintaining order o Preventing crime o Providing services to the community Police Agencies include the following: o 12,501 municipal police departments o 3,063 sheriff’s departments o 50 state police departments o 135 Native American tribal police agencies o 30 federal agencies that employ 100+ fulltime officers authorized to carry firearms and make arrests Local units generally exercise the broadest authority Federal Agencies o Part of executive branch o Investigate specific crimes defined by Congress o The FBI Has the power to investigate all federal crimes not placed under the jurisdiction of other agencies Established in 1908 prominence under Hoover FBI special agents: sworn law enforcement officers in the FBI who conduct investigations and make arrests. FBI’s priorities: Protect the U.S. from terrorist attack Protect the U.S. against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the U.S. against cyberbased attacks and high technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights Combat transnational and national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major whitecollar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state, county, municipal, and international partners Upgrade technology to successfully perform the FBI’s mission Also provides valuable assistance to state and local law enforcement through its crime laboratory, training programs, and databases of fingerprints, stolen vehicles, and missing persons o Specialization in Federal Law Enforcement DEA, IRS, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF), also U.S. Marshals Service Because of the FBI’s increased emphasis on terrorism, its agents are now less involved in the pursuit of fugitives Some other agencies of the executive branch, such as the National Parks Service, have police powers related to their specific duties State Agencies o All state forces regulate traffic on main highways and twothirds of the states have also given them general police powers o The operate only in areas where no other form of police protection exists or where local officers ask for their help o In many states, the crime lab is run by the state police as a means of assisting local law enforcement agencies County Agencies o Responsible for policing rural areas o Sheriff often serves as an officer of the court; may operate jails, serve court orders, and provide the bailiffs who maintain order in courtrooms Native American Tribal Police o Native American tribes are separate, sovereign nations and have a significant degree of legal autonomy o Have power to enforce tribal criminal laws against everyone on their lands Even non Native Americans o Police on some reservations face especially daunting problems due to high rates of unemployment, poverty, and crime Municipal Agencies o Police departments of cities and towns have general law enforcement authority o Five largest city police departments New York City Chicago Los Angeles Philadelphia Houston o The city and each suburb buy their own equipment and deploy their officers without coordinating with those of nearby jurisdictions. Special Jurisdiction Agencies o University police, twoyear college police o Enforce laws as conservation officers and police in parks and recreation settings o Must coordinate and communicate with state and local officials and agencies that have general law enforcement responsibilities in the immediate vicinity Who are the Police? People granted the authority to carry firearms and make discretionary decisions about arrests, searches, and even ending the stressful, fastmoving events that may confront police officers Biggest attraction: the variety of tasks that fill an officers day Recruitment o All agencies refer to a list of requirements regarding education, physical abilities, and background. o A typical list of basic requirements for a career in law enforcement includes: Be a U.S. citizen Meet age requirements. The minimum age is normally 21, although some federal agencies place the minimum at 23. The maximum age for hiring in federal agencies ranges from 36 (FBI & DEA) to 39 (Border Patrol), depending on the agency Have a high school diploma. Increasingly, state and local agencies require some college coursework Posses a valid driver’s license Have a healthy weight in proportion to height, body frame, and age Rest of list on page 121 o Law enforcement certification: preservice training required for sworn officers in many states includes coursework on law use of weapons, psychology, and police procedures. Police departments for state and large cities often run training programs—police academies—for their own recruits o Federal agencies offer higher salaries and better benefits: Require higher levels of education and experience Typically look for college graduates and often require special skills —foreign language and knowledge of financial accounting—or graduate degrees The Changing Profile of the Police o Look at table 4.1 on page 123 o For most of history, almost all officers were white men o Equal Employment Opportunity Act (1972): Bars state and local governments form discriminating in their hiring practices o Since the 1970s the percentage of minority group members and women working in policing has doubled o Most city police forces have mounted campaigns to recruit more minority and female officers o Minority Police Officers Minority officers = 40% African Americans = 12% Latino =10% Asian, Pacific Islander, Native American, and Multiracial = 3% In bigger cities the above numbers change The extent to which the police reflect the racial composition of a city is believed to affect policecommunity relations and thus the quality of law enforcement o Women on the Force Been police officers since 1905 Lola Baldwin became an Officer in Portland, Oregon Prior to Lola Baldwin, women dealing in the law enforcement circuit were called “police matrons” Court decisions opened up police work for women by prohibiting job assignments by gender 1970 = 1.5%, 2007 = 12% Many male officers were upset by the entry of women into what they viewed as a male world In Atlanta, Portland, Boston, and Detroit, a small number of women have rise to the top ranks of police departments Training o Not based solely on the types of people recruited but also shaped by their training o Training academies range from twoweek sessions that stress the handling of weapons to fourmonth programs followed by fieldwork o Many departments require new officers to ride with experienced ones for certain period of time o Socialization: process by which the rules, symbols, and values of a group or subculture are learned by its members o All patrol officers are under direct supervision, and their performance is measured by their contribution to the group’s work The Police Subculture Subculture: the symbols, beliefs, values, and attitudes shared by members of a subgroup of the larger society Helps define the “cops world” and each officers role in it Four key issues in our understanding of the police subculture: o The concept of the “working personality” o The role of police morality o The isolation of the police o The stress involved in police work The Working Personality o There is a relationship between one’s occupational environment and the way one interprets events o Working personality: set of emotional and behavioral characteristics developed by members of an occupational group in response to the work situation and environmental influences. o Two elements: The threat of danger The need to establish and maintain one’s authority o Danger Because they often face dangerous situations, officers are keenly aware of clues in people’s behavior, body language, or in specific situations that indicate that violence and law breaking may be imminent. Officers are never off duty The message: even minor offenses can escalate into extreme danger. Many onthestreet interrogations and arrests can lead to confrontation o Authority Police officers must establish authority through their actions If they try too hard during hostile reactions, officers may cross the line and use excessive force Procedural rules and the structure of policing are overshadowed by the need to exert authority in the face of potential danger in many contexts Police Morality o Three aspects of modern policing create dilemmas: The contradiction between the goal of preventing crime and the officers’ inability to do so The fact that officers must use their discretion to “handle” situations in ways that do not strictly follow procedures “The fact that they invariably act against at least one citizen’s interest, often with recourse to coercive force that can maim or kill” o Justifying their actions in moral terms helps officers lessen the dilemmas of their work. o Police morality can also be applauded: Officers work long hours and are genuinely motivated to help people and improve citizens lives Police Isolation o Many officers feel that people look on them with suspicion in part because they have the authority to use force gain compliance o Isolation from public made worse by the fact that many officers interact with the public mainly in moments of conflict, emotion, and crisis o One result: Officers cannot separate their job from other aspects of their lives. Job Stress o Can affect the way the officer treats citizens and the officer’ heath o One study found police officers just behind coal miners as carrying out one of most stressful occupations o Four kinds of stress officers face: External stress Organizational stress Personal stress Operational stress Descriptions on page 129 Police Functions Maintain order Enforce the law Prevent crime Community service Classified into three groups: o Order maintenance o Law enforcement o Service Order Maintenance o Order Maintenance: a broad mandate to prevent behavior that either disturbs or threatens to disturb the peace or involves facetoface conflict between 2+ people o Laws regulating disorderly conduct deal with ambiguous situations o Patrol officers are not subject to direct control Law Enforcement o Law enforcement: function of controlling crime by intervening in situations in which the law has clearly been violated and the police need to identify and apprehend the guilty person o Although the patrol officer may be the first officer at the scene of a crime, for serious offenses a detective usually prepares the case for prosecution Implementing the Mandate o The catching of lawbreakers is the most important function of police o Public support for police budgets is greatest when the crimefighting function is stressed Organization of the Police Police bureaucracy: organizational description of police departments’ design and operations that seek to achieve efficiency through division of labor, chain of command, and rules to guide staff Bureaucratic Elements o Look at figure 4.2 on page 132 o Division of Labor Patrol units: The core operational units of local police departments that deploy uniformed officers to handle the full array of police functions for service, order maintenance, and law enforcement o Chain and Unity of Command Chain of command: organizational structure based on a military model with clear definition of ranks to indicate authority over subordinates and obligations to obey orders from superiors Operational Units o Perform the basic tasks of crime prevention and control o Special Units: deploy officers, often in plan clothes if not assigned to the traffic unit, who are dedicated to a specific task, such as investigation, or type of crime, such as narcotics enforcement The Police Bureaucracy and the Criminal Justice System o Four issues arise: The police are the gateway through which information and individuals enter the justice system Police administration is influenced by the fact that the outcome of a case is largely in the hands of others Police officers are expected to observe rules and follow the orders of superiors while at the same time make independent, discretionary judgments The organization and operation of police are affected by economic conditions and budgetary pressures Police Policy Police policies may reflect the preferences and values of police executives Watchman style: emphasizes order maintenance and tolerates minor violations of law as officers use discretion to handle small infractions informally but make arrests for major violations Legalistic style: emphasizes strict enforcement of laws and reduces officers’ authority to handle matters informally Service style: officers cater to citizens’ desire for favorable treatment and sensitivity to individual situations by using discretion to handle minor matters in ways that seek to avoid embarrassment or punishment.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'