PSYCHOLOGY OF SEX
PSYCHOLOGY OF SEX PSY 346K
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marco Wolf on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 346K at University of Texas at Austin taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see /class/181807/psy-346k-university-of-texas-at-austin in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Male Sexual Dysfunction Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Affects 15 of men Typically associated with a medical condition mental health issues or medication side effects 7 hypogonadal 7 depression 7 antidepressant induced Male Erectile Disorder ED DSMIV 7 Inability to attain or maintain adequate erection 7 problem persistent or recurrent 7 caused by psychogenic or combined factors common reason for seeking treatment highly distressing to men prevalence Medical causes 7 vascular diseases most common cause eg hardening ofarteries long term cigarette use 7 diseases affecting the nervous system eg multiple sclerosis alcoholism 7 diseases affecting vascular and nervous system eg diabetes hypothyroidism 7 anything impairing penile vascular andor nervous system surgical or accidental injury old age pharmaceuticals Drugs Associated with ED Alcohol Estrogens Antiandrogens H2 receptor blockers Anticholinergics Ketoconazole Antidepressants Marijuana Antihypertensives Narcotics Bblockers Psychotropics Cigarettes Cocaine Spironolactone Lipidlowering agents NSAle Cytotoxic drugs Diuretics Male Erectile Disorder ED Psychological Causes 7 occasional episode normal eg stress 7 men with ED focus on anxietyworries rather than sexual cues gt negative feedback loop 7 normally functioning men focus on erotic cues gt positive feedback loop Barlow 1986 Treatment 7 Viagra sildenafil also Cialis tadalafil Levitra vardena l 7 injection of vasodilating drugs eg alprostadil 7 vascular surgery 7 vacuum pumps and constrictive devices 7 penile prosthesis or implants Sildenafil Mechanism ofAction 7 Nitric oxide acts through a second messenger cGMP in the normal development of erections 7 cGMP relaxes corpus cavernosal smooth muscle cells promoting blood ow into cavernosal spaces 7 cGMP broken down by PDE the predominant enzyme of this type in the corpus cavemosum is PDE type V 7 Sildenafil is a selective and potent inhibitor of PDE type V Vacuum Pumps and Constrictive Devices for Male Erectile Disorder ED Penile lmplants Two types semirigid and multicomponent in atable Patient satisfaction 81 to 97 Average functional life 7 to 10 years History of Sex Research Greeks to 1900 Early knowledge gained from watching animals 400 BC Aristotle History of Animals Parts of Animals and Generation of Animals 7 foundation ofwestern sexology 7 developed classi cation system reproduction by sexual asexual and spontaneous generation During this period believed male contributed the seed the woman brought to fruition Plato wandering uterus causes hysteria in women 1600 Vesalius 7 discounted wandering uterus theory 7 female anatomy still misunderstood 1653 V lliam Harvey discovered importance of female egg to reproduction by studying animals 1678 Anton van Leeuwenhoek 7 used early microscope to identify sperm as seed 7 compared healthyunhealthy men 7 sperm survived longer in warm environment 7 coined term spermatozoa 7 reasserted idea of male supremacy in reproduction 1873 Eduard van Beneden fertilization the result oftwo half sets of chromosomesjoining to form full set 354430 St Augustine ideal Christian life one of celibacy 16681738 Dutch Hermann Boehaave lnstitutiones Medicae rash expenditure of semen brought on a lassitude a feebleness a weakening of motion ts wasting dryness fevers aching ofthe cerebral membranes obscuring of the senses and above all the eyes a decay of the spinal chord a fatuity and other like evils all nonprocreative sex dangerous fornication betterthan masturbation Doctors expected to give medical advice about sexuality 7 infertility not understood 7 sexual activity potentially dangerous Protestants amp Puritans sex within marriage a source of pleasure One physician published case history 7 the husband had the fatal habit of applying the tongue and lips to his wife s genitals to provoke in her venereal orgasm 7 believed woman s life may be in danger 7 husband may develop cancer ofthe tongue Women must be careful not to enjoy sex 7 women expected to be maternal not sexual 7 diseased women had excessive animal passion Elizabeth Osgood Goodrich Willard 7 coined term sexology 7 humankind must stop the waste of energy through the sexual organs if we would have health and strength of body Just as sure as that the excessive abuse ofthe sexual organs destroy their power and use producing in ammation disease and corruption just so sure it it that a less amount of abuse in the same relative proportion injures the parental function ofthe organs and impairs the health and strength ofthe whole system Abnormal action is abuse Preventative measures 7 perforated foreskin ofthe penis 7 applied ointments that severely increased sensitivity 7 applied hot irons to the innerthighs Homosexuality amp Sex Research 1825 Karl Ulrichs 7 argued that homosexual men had female element gt homosexual activity acceptable 7 argued homosexuality was congenital 18401902 KrafftEbing 7 viewed sexual behavior as pathological 7 Psychopathia Sexualis coined terms for homosexuality fetishism sadism masochism 7 Sadism named after Marquis de Sade 7 Masochism named after Leopold von SacherMasoch 18571911 Alfred Binet 7 emphasized early childhood experience 18541900 Oscar Wilde prosecution for homosexuality brought widespread public attention 18211890 Richard Burton translated the Kama Sutra Magnus Hirschfeld Early sexuality researcher Homosexual amp transvestite Argued that most people born bisexual Conducted sex surveys 1903 Reported 22 homosexual Proposed that secretions responsible for sexual feelings endocrinology 1921 helped organize the International Conference of Sexual Reform Based on Sexual Science importance of secretions discussed Havelock Ellis Sex reformer 18961928 Studies in the Psychology of Sex individual and cultural relativism w sex Believed deviations from normal were harmless Believed sexual experimentation part of adolescence Believed homosexuality was genetic bisexuality the norm Nonscienti c methods used second hand accounts used historical and crosscultural data Argued for greater contraceptive information marriage reform rights for women and minorities Sigmund Freud Sex researcher and reformer Studied physiology and medicine Early theories 7 anxiety the result of masturbation 7 nocturnal emissions dangerous Later theoriesbeliefs 7 every neurosis had a speci c sexual cause 7 dreams are disguised fulfillment of unconscious sexual desires 7 children have sexual feelings 7 developed the theory of the Oedipus complex 7 all people bisexual 7 perverse sexual drives common Sex in America Many early sex researchers were women Early research inspired by concerns about prostitution pornography sexually transmitted diseases alcoholism women s rights and the role of virtuous women Clelia Mosher 18631940 professor at Stanford 1910 7 surveyed married women 48 subjects 7 ignorance about sex upon marriage the norm 7 35 reported sexual desire 7 34 reported experiencing orgasms 7 absence of orgasm bad even disastrous nerve wracking 7 findings published in 1974 Robert Latou Dickinson 18611950 7 signi cant contribution to female sexuality 7 first wide scale data base compiled data on 5000 cases broad range of data physical drawings selfreport longitudinal data 7 Findings married women masturbated more than single women frequency of intercourse 23 week in married sample 11 once a year or less 7 first to examine female sexual response examined women as they masturbated to orgasm demonstrated that female orgasm also involved physiological changes Katharine Bement Davis 18601935 7 on board ofthe Bureau of Social Hygiene 7 Warden at a reformatory for women primarily prostitutes 7 advocated assessment of prostitutes prior to sentencing 7 1912 laboratory formed to study prostitutes 7 later involved in the study of sexuality in women in general subjects drawn from women s colleges ndings 7 71 reported sex before marriage 7 93 reported having at least 1 abortion Bureau of Social Hygiene provided funding explosion in sexuality research Alfred Kinsey 1948 Published the Kinsey Report on sexual practices in the US based on extensive interviews 7 concerned with validity of ndings used checks for consistency 7 concerned with bias by interviewer used multiple raters 7 15 hours to 17 hours with a pedophile 7 used likert scale regarding homosexualityheterosexuality Findings 7 37 of males had one homosexual experience 7 4 subjects identi ed as exclusively homosexual Criticisms 7 subjects not randomly selected subjects primarily Midwesterners 7 subjects volunteers William Masters amp Virginia Johnson One of the first to study the sexual act in the laboratory 1950 s lnitially used prostitutes Sexual Response Cycle 7 measured heart rate respiratory functions muscle tension breast response etc 7 observed changes in female sex organs vaginal lubrication sweating on vaginal walls 1030 seconds after sexual stimulation extension of vaginal barrel lifting of uterus darkening of vaginal walls orgasmic contractions 7 Four phase description 1 excitement 2 plateau 3 orgasm 4 resolution Contraception 1860 rubber condoms sold prevent vd contraceptive 1870 rubber diaphragm available to women IUD 7 first recorded use by Arab camel drivers put stones in camel s uterus 7 widespread use in 1920 wire IUD developed by Ernst Grafenberg Hormonal contraceptives 1936 experiment on rats demonstrated that daily progesterone injections inhibited estrous cycle The Pill 7 1960 FDA approved Enovid 7 contained progestin and estrogen Paraphilias DSMIV 6months recurrent intense sexually arousing fantasiessexual urges fantasiesurges involve a specific act involving 7 nonhuman objects 7 suffering or humiliation of oneself or another 7 children or nonconsenting persons cause significant distress or impairment Paraphilias Fetishes Transvestic fetishism Voyeurism Exhibitionism Frotteurism Sadismmasochism Pedophma Fetishes Sexual arousal by 7 using orthinking about an inanimate object 7 viewing a particular part of the body 7 Common items womens clothing shoe stockings underpants bras feet Fetishes Characteristics 7 male 7 25 homosexual Causes 7 temporal lobe abnormalities 7 learned behavior classical conditioning 57 men conditioned to become sexually aroused to a knee length leather boot 37 generalized to other shoes Rachman amp Hodgson 1968 7 women not classically conditioned Letourneau amp O Donohue 1997 Meston amp Rachman 1994 Fetishes Dear Dr E l39m dating a man with a foot fetish He has never asked me to do anything with my feet but he watches foot fetish videos Is this healthy J St Louis Dear J You39re in a better position to answer your question than lam How are you and your friend getting along Does his fascination with feet interfere with your relationship How well does he function at work and at home If he39s functioning well and you39re getting along you probably don39t have anything to worry about Some people get aroused by eyes some by breasts some by lags What do you have against feet Transvestites amp Transvestic Fetishism Sexual arousal by dressing in clothes of the opposite sex crossdressing Characteristics 7 broad age range 7 broad religious af liation 7 well educated 7 in committed relationships 7 parents 7 heterosexual 7 began before age 10 Causes 7 Family positive paternal role model negative maternal relationship 7 associated with learning disabilities 7 temporal lobe abnormalities Sex Offenders Voyeurism Exhibitionism Frotteurism Preferential Rape Pattern Pedophma Psychopathic Sexual Sadism Courtship Disorders Voyeurism 7 peeping tom 7 sexual arousal by observing nude individuals without their knowledge or consent 7 intense urges and recurrent behavior Exhibitionism sexual arousal by exposing genitals to unsuspecting strangers typically in inappropriate settings Frotteurism sexual arousal by rubbing one s genitals against others in public Preferential rape pattern prefer rape over consensual sex Voyeurism Characteristics 7 youngest child 7 few sisters 7 good relationship with parents 7 parents with poor relationship 7 underdeveloped socially later 1st sexual experience less likely to marry Voyeurism Females 7 rare 7 peeping fantasies not uncommon Friday 1975 Exhibitionism Characteristics 7 almost exclusively male 7 timidunassertive 7 undeveloped social skills 7 uncomfortable with angerhostility 7 more likely to be raised in puritanical background Females 7 do not derive pleasure 7 motivation money eg strippers or attention eg Mardi Gras Frotteurism Characteristics 7 comorbidity 79 7 Average number of acts 849 Abel et al 1987 7 in females molestation secondary to erectile failure low desire Sarrel amp Masters 1982 Sadism amp Masochism Sadism sexual arousal by in icting pain on another Masochism sexual arousal by having pain in icted upon oneself History 7 masochist 1886 KrafftEbing after Leopold von SacherMasoch 7 sadist 1700s after Marquis de Sade Sadomasochism S amp M Major vs minor sexual sadism Sadomasochism S amp M 7 predetermined acts 7 activities amp themes Arndt 1991 Weinberg et al 1984 agellation bondage water sports urophilia coprophilia mysophilia penis and nipple torture master amp slave severe boss and naughty secretary queen and many slaves arrest militarytraining Characteristics 7 predominantly male 7 female 25 prostitutes 7 meet through S amp M magazines 7 come from all walks oflife SES educ etc 7 13 heterosexual 13 bisexual 13 homosexual Major Sexual Sadism Seto amp Kuban 1996 7 sadistic rapist nonsadistic rapist controls 7 penile volume changes 7 Five films nonviolent nonsexual w female consensual sex w female nonsexual violence against female rape violent rape Seto amp Kuban 1996 continued 7 both types of rapist equally aroused by different types of sex 7 controls differentiated between consensual and nonconsensual sex Temporal lobe abnormalities Langevin et al 1988 Psychopathic Sexual Sadism DSMIV 7 sexual sadism 7 antisocial personality disorder ASPD Serial murderer 7 arousal from in icting pain 7 arousal from killing Characteristics 7 Lack of guilt or compassion for victim 7 Euphoria during murder 7 mentally disturbed rarely psychotic Geberth amp Turco 1997 7 387 serial murders 7 248 sexually assaulted victims 7 68 met criteria for sexual sadism amp ASPD childhood aggressiveness childhood antisocial behavior killing involving sexual violence humiliation domination and control derived pleasure from killing 7 examples Ted Bundy Gary Ridgeway Pedophilia Sexual fantasies urges or behavior involving children under 14 years old prevalence CharacteristicsCauses 7 40 homosexual high maternal age low IQ developmental disorder 7 history of childhood sexual abuse 49 by a male abuser Development of Paraphilias Pedophilia Physiological characteristics 7 higher baseline cortisol prolactin body temperature 7 stronger cortisol response 7 disturbance in serotonin regulation gt OCD Freund et al 1991 7 showed slides of nude male and female children 7 pedophiles and controls 7 measured penile volume changes 7 Results pedophiles less differentiation between slide types Treatment of Paraphilias 1900 castration psychosurgery CognitiveBehavioral Therapy Aversion Therapy 7 effective in lowering arousal 7 relapse high Pharmaceutical Sexual Anatomy amp Physiology The Nervous System Central nervous system brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system 7 Somatic nervous system all the bodies skeletal muscles voluntary movement 7 Autonomic nervous system involuntary movement internal organs and glands svmpathetic nervous system r r body to use energy increases heart rate blood pressure parasympathetic nervous system stimulates the processes that restore and conserve body s energy CNS Brain Regions Brainstem 7 may be involved in inhibiting orgasm Hypothalamus 7 involved in identifying potential sexual partners 7 connections to the brainstem and other areas ofthe limbic system 7 paraventricular nucleus stimulation elicits erection in rats active during copulation in female rats during sexual arousal and orgasm stimulates the posterior pituitary to release oxytocin Amygdala 7 controls sexual motivation in males in rats 7 plays a role in female sexual behavior in rats Hippocampus 7 stimulation can elicit penile erection in rats Temporal lobes 7 right lobe active in right handed males presented with visual sexual stimuli 7 bilateral removal results in hypersexuality 7 temporal lobe epilepsy or tumor can result in hypersexuality Cerebral cortex 7 involved in sexual fantasies etc o What brain regions are active during sexual stimulation Stoleru et al 1999 PET Study 7 healthy males presented with visual sexual stimuli 7 Findings bilateral activation of temporal cortex visual association areas activation of frontal cortex and paralimbic areas 7 areas involved in processing of sensory information and motivational states 7 areas involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine function The Endocrine System Gonadal hormones 7 ndrogens produced by Leydig cells oftestes male adrenal glands male and female testosterone produced by testes required for production of sperm 7 strogen produced by follicle in the ovaries testes estradiol affects developmentmaintainance female reproductive organs secondary sexual characteristics 7 progesterone produced by corpus luteum of the ovary small amounts present in males Nervous amp Endocrine Systems The nervous system and endocrine system are highly interconnected NT activity affects hormone activity Hormone activity affects NT activity For further reading Hull et al 1999 Hormoneneurotransmitter interactions in the control of sexual behavior Behavioural Brain Research 105110516 Sexual DesireDrive subjective experience wishes fantasies measured by behaviors eg masturbation that arise as a result of wishes and fantasies sexual desire involves activity within the central nervous system and endocrine system Sexual Desire Nervous System Serotonin 7 important for sexual desire in both men and women 7 Common side effect of SSRls eg Prozac is diminished sexual desire Dopamine 7 important for sexual desire in men and women 7 increased dopamine levels eg medication for Parkinson s disease associated with increased sexual desire 7 dosage and duration of use dependent Sexual Desire Endocrine Functions Testosterone 7 Men amp Women necessary for sexual drive in both men and women threshold level required above threshold testosterone levels not associated with degree of sexual desire taking supplemental testosterone not shown to increase sexual drive in those with normal levels of testosterone 7 m above threshold testosterone levels not associated with degree of sexual desire 7 exception handful of studies found levels of testosterone associated with frequency of sexual thoughts initiation of sexual activities in males 7 possible reason sexual thoughtsfantasies may stimulate testosterone production 7 Women above threshold testosterone levels not associated with degree of sexual desire 7 inconsistent findings T levels associated with masturbation frequency T levels associated with intercourse frequency initiation of intercourse T levels associated with drive levels in postmenopausal women 7 As with males sexual thoughtsfantasies may stimulate T production play minimal role in normal males administration of high levels of E may inhibit sexual desire 7 Women play only minimal role administration of E does not affect desire Progesterone 7 m very little research 7 Women play only minimal role Oxytocin may promote sexual desire by promoting positive mood Sexual Arousal subjective arousal female turned on tingling warm sensation most women unable to accurately estimate level ofvaginal lubrication male turned on tingling warm sensation erection physiological arousal female vaginal lubrication male erection lnvolves activity in the central and peripheral nervous systems and endocrine system Sexual Arousal 0 Male parasympathetic cholinergic nerves mediate erection acetylcholine vasoactive intestinal polypeptide nitric oxide synthase stimulates secretions from seminal vesicles prostate Cowper39s glands Andersson et al 2000 Female sympathetic nervous system involved in sexual arousalvaginal lubrication 7 Meston amp Gorzalka 1996 o 36 healthy women engaged in vigorous exercise activating SNS and no exercise prior to watching an erotic film vaginal responses monitored with vaginal photoplethysmography Finding 7 viewing erotic film produced greater vaginal vasocongestion if preceded by exercise versus no exercise Sexual Arousal Nervous System Serotonin 7 may be involved in regulation of blood ow to the genitals Dopamine 7 important for erectile functioning 7 medications that increase D produce erections eg Parkinson s medication 7 medications that decrease D may inhibit erections or produce prolonged erections eg antipsychotic medication 7 dosage and duration of use dependent Sexual Arousal Nervous System Epinephrine 7 m maintains penis in accid state involved in detumescence 7 Women active as women become physiologically sexually aroused 7 increase priorto viewing erotic film 7 increase with masturbation levels remain elevated for up to 23 hours following sexual activity activities that stimulate sympathetic nervous system function such as exercise promote physiological sexual arousal Norepinephrine 7 m blood levels positively correlated with arousal and erection during masturbation and intercourse medications that increase NE levels less likely to cause erectile problems 7 Women blood levels increase in anticipation of intercourse blood levels increase with masturbation Sexual Arousal Endocrine Function 0 Testosterone Men may help enhance subjective sexual arousal in men threshold level required to achieve erection in men when levels normal supplements do not improve erection Women mixed ndings some studies show greater vaginal blood ow response among women with higher T other studies find no relationship Estrogen 7 Women necessary for maintenance ofthe vaginal tissue necessary for vaginal lubrication indirectly affect subjective experience le increased depression pain affects sexual pleasure Oxytocin 7 oxytocin levels increase during sexual arousal for both men and women Orgasm Orgasm 7 Male subjective pleasure physical response spinal cord reflex rhythmic muscular contraction ejaculation detumescence veins dilate and blood ows out of penis lnvolves activity in the central and peripheral nervous system and endocrine system Orgasm Male sympathetic nervous system involved in ejaculation of semen stimulates contractions of smooth muscles in the vas deferens seminal vesicles and prostate gt semen into urethra stimulates rhythmic contractions of bulbocavernosus and ischiocavernosus gt semen ejected out of urethra Orgasm 7 Female subjective pleasure physical response spinal cord reflex 7 rhythmic synchronized vaginal anal and uterine contractions Masters amp Johnson 1966 vaginal blood volume VBV drops during orgasm VBV returns postorgasm to approx 12 levels preorgasm 10 minutes postorgasm VBV remain elevated above baseline levels rhythmic contraction dipping sucking cervix 7 Gspot and female ejaculation lnvolves activity in the central and peripheral nervous system and endocrine system Joseph R Beck physician 1872 upon examining a women with uterine prolapse who warned the physician to be careful as she could reached orgasm very easily even with the pressure of his finger separating the labia with my left hand so that the os was brought clearly into view in the sunlight now swept my right fore nger quickly three or four times across the space between the cervix and the pubic arch when almost immediately the orgasm occurred lnstantly the height ofthe excitement was at hand the os opened itself to the extent of fully and inch as nearly as my eye could judge made ve or six successive gasps as it were drawing the external os into the cervix each time powerfully and it seemed to me with a regular rhythmical action at the same time losing its former density and hardness and becoming quite soft to the touch All the phenomena occurred within the space of twelve seconds of time certainly and in an instant all was as before At the near approach of the orgastic excitement the os and cervix became intensely congested assuming almost a livid purple color but upon the cessation ofthe action as related the os suddenly closed the cervix again hardened itself the intense congestion was dissipated the organs concerned resolved themselves into their normal condition Joseph R Beck How Do Spermatoxoa Enterthe Uterus St Louis Medical and Sergical Journal 9 September 1872 449 Orgasm Do women ejaculate Darling et al 1990 7 surveyed 1230 professional women 2282 yrs 7 Findings 40 reported ejaculation at orgasm following stimulation to the gspot women who reported ejaculation indicated greater sexual responsiveness no difference in sexual satisfaction ls female ejaculate merely urine expelled during orgasm Belzer et al 1984 7 7 women who reported that they ejaculate at orgasm 7 collected urine samples and ejaculate samples 7 Finding the urine sample and ejaculate sample markedly differed Orgasm Nervous System Serotonin 7 important for orgasm in both men and women 7 Common side effect of SSRls eg Prozac is delayed orgasm inability to reach orgasm Dopamine 7 medications that increase D may increase or decrease latency to orgasm 7 medications that decrease D increase latency to orgasm andor inhibit orgasm in men and women 7 dosage and duration of use dependent Orgasm Nervous System Epinephrine 7 Women levels peak at orgasm diminish to baseline levels within minutes oforgasm Noregineghrine 7 m up to a 12fold increase at orgasm in men return to baseline levels within 2 minutes post orgasm medications that increase NE levels less likely to cause erectile problems 7 Women levels peak at orgasm slowly decline after orgasm levels remain elevated up to 23 hours after intercourse Orgasm Endocrine Function O yt 39 39 x ocm 7 levels increase during orgasm in both men and women 7 related to myotonia rhythmic orgasmic contractions For Further Reading Meston C Frohlich P 2000 The Neurobiology of Sexual Function Archives of General Psychiatm 57 10121030 Sexual Anatomy amp Physiology Note These notes contain only the text from lecture Please refer to PowerPoint slides for pictures Female External Genitalia Vulva everything that is externally visible mons pubis labia majora labia minora clitoris urethral ori ce vaginal vestibule perineal body mons pubis mound of fatty tissue above the pubic bone labia ma39ora large outer fatty folds of skin tissue labia minora inner folds of skin and erectile tissue clitoris small highly sensitive organ glans tip of the clitoris prepuce clitoral hood loose tting fold of skin covering the clitoral glans Female External Genitalia vaginal vestibule the cleft containing the vaginal and urethral openings Skene s glands group of small mucous glands that open into vaginal vestibule near urethra Bartholin s glands two glands that open into vaginal vestibule on either side of the vaginal opening thought to provide some lubrication may emit a pheromone hymen thin mucous membrane partially covering the vaginal opening perineum tissue between the genital and anus Female Internal Genitalia Vagina tubular organ connecting external genitals with uterus Grafenberg spot gspot 7 mass oferectile and glandular tissue surrounding the urethra just below the bladder 7 some women report that simulation to gspot produces sexual arousal and orgasm uterus hollow muscular organ purpose to nurture developing fetus cervix small lower portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina cervical os small opening in the cervix allowing passage of uids between the uterus and vagina myometrium layers of smooth muscle comprising the uterus endometrium inner lining of the uterus that builds a rich blood supply and sloughs off the lining each month if conception does not occur ovaries female gonads containing the immature female reproductive cells ovum female reproduce cell fallopian tubes thin flexible muscular structures connecting the ovaries with the uterus passageway for the ovum to travel to the uterus tiny hairlike projections that line the fallopian tubes and propel the ovum towards the uterus mbriae fringelike projections that reach out to the ovary to draw a released ovum into the fallopian tube Sexual Response Response to sexual stimulation involves Masters amp Johnson 1966 7 vasocongestion 7 myotonia Female Internal Genitalia Muscles Pelvic floor muscles lschiocavernosus acts to drive blood into the body ofthe clitoris bulbocavernosus helps to maintain the structure of the pelvic tissue and serves as a vaginal sphincter Female Internal Genitalia Nerves 0 Sexual arousal stimulation to tactile and temperature receptors on the genitalia breasts etc 0 Orgasm genital re ex governed by the spinal cord Male External Genitalia penis male copulatory organ frenulum underside of the penis between shaft and glans glans enlarged conic structure at the tip ofthe penis corona raised rim or ridge oftissue that separates the glans from the shaft prepuce forskin loosefitting retractable casing of skin that forms over the glans smegma accumulation of secretions on the penile glans from glands of foreskin circumcision surgical procedure involving removal ofthe prepuce scrotum skincovered pouch containing the testes Male Internal Genitalia corpora cavernosa two large and uppermost cylindrical masses of penile tissue corpus spongiosum lower smaller cyhlindrical mass oftissue in the penis contains the urethra crura tapering part of the corpora cavernosa forms the connection to the pubic bone Testes oval glandular organs contained in the scrotum produce sperm secrete male hormones spermatic cord suspends the testes contains arteries nerves veins vas deferens seminiferous tubules tightly packed convoluted structures in testicles produce sperm interstitial cells Leydig s cells located between seminiferous tubules produce androgens epididymis tightly coiled tube lying along the top of each testis stores spermatozoa vas deferens structure that transports spermatozoa from testes to urethra e39aculatom ducts short tubes that pass through prostate to urethra passageway for semen and uid from seminal vesicles urethra tube fortransporting urine and semen seminal vesicles secretory glands prostate gland secretes thin milky slightly alkaline uid rich in nutrients into the seminal fluid these secretions protect spermatozoa from acidic environment male urethra vagina cowper s gland contribute alkaline uid to semen sperm male reproductive cell spermatogenesis process of sperm production spermatozoon single sperm spermatozoa sperm plural acrosomal cap covering ofthe head ofthe spermatozoon contains enzymes that penetrate the outer cover of the ovum semen contains spermatozoa sperm plural seminal uid contains secretions from seminal vesicles prostate gland Cowper s gland and epididymis Sexual Response Cycle Masters and Johnson FourStage Model 7 excitement 7 plateau 7 orgasm 7 refractory period Sexual Response Cycle Excitement For both males and females excitement leads to an increase in pulse heart rate blood pressure and muscle tension Similarly both sexes experience increase blood flow to the genitals and nipples In females the vagina becomes naturally lubricated lengthens and widens whilst the labia swell In males erection of the penis is the most obvious sign of excitment Sexual Response Cycle Plateau Further increases in circulation and heart rate occur in both sexes sexual pleasure increases with increased stimulation muscle tension increases further At this stage females show a number of effects The areolae and labia further increase in size the clitoris withdraws slightly and the Bartholin39s glands produce further lubrication Males may start to secrete seminal uid and the testes rise closer to the body Sexual Response Cycle Orgasm Orgasm is the conclusion of the plateau phase in a release of sexual tension Both males and females experience quick cycles of muscle contraction of the anus and lower pelvic muscles with women also experiencing uterine and vaginal contractions Males ejaculate approximately 510ml of semen Sexual Response Cycle Resolution The resolution stage occurs after orgasm and allows the muscles to relax blood pressure to drop and the body to slow down from its excited state Generally males experience a refractory period meaning orgasm cannot be achieved again until time has passed The penis meanwhile returns to a accid state Females may not experience this refractory period and further stimulation may cause a return to the plateau stage OthenNise signi cant changes may also occur such as the opening of the cervix and the reduction of blood flow to the genitals and nipples Sexual Response Cycle Kaplan threestage model 1974 sexual desire sexual excitement orgasm
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