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Gen Psych Week 5 Notes

by: Marie Fong

Gen Psych Week 5 Notes PSYC 1001 - General Psychology

Marie Fong
University of Memphis
GPA 4.0

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These notes cover personality, self-esteem, eating disorders, and sexual disorders.
General Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, personality, Self-Esteem, Eating Disorders, Sexual Disorders
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marie Fong on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 - General Psychology at University of Memphis taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 02/28/16
Psychology of Personality • Character: personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated • Personality: a person’s unique and relatively stable behavior patterns; the consistency of who you are, have been, and will become Personality Traits • Stable qualities that a person shows in most situations • Typically inferred from behavior • Can be used to predict future behavior Personality Types • Personality Type: people with several traits in common (EX: executive type, motherly type, etc) • Two personality types (Carl Jung) –Introvert: shy, self centered person whose attention is focused inward –Extrovert: bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward Self Concept (based on yourself) • Your ideas, perceptions, and feelings about yourself; mental “picture” of your own personality • Can affect behavior and mental adjustment Self Esteem (based on others) • Based on self appraisal of strengths and weaknesses; regarding oneself as a worthwhile person • High self esteem: confident, proud, self respecting • Low self esteem: insecure, lacking in confidence, self critical • Based on success - different cultures may define success differently Personality Theories: An Overview • Personality Theory: concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles proposed to explain personality • Four perspectives: 1. Trait theories 2. Psychodynamic theories 3. Behavioristic and social learning theories 4. Humanistic theories Personality Theories: Trait Approach • Traits: stable dispositions that a person shows in most situations • Biological dispositions: a hereditary readiness of humans to behave in particular ways • Trait approach attempts to analyze, classify, and interrelate traits • Knowing how you rate on one dimension can allow prediction of behavior in a variety of settings • Classifying traits: • Gordon Allport (1961) identified different types a. Common Traits: characteristics shared by most members of a culture b. Individual Traits: describe a person’s unique qualities c. Cardinal Traits: so basic that all of a person’s activities can be traced back to the trait - few people have cardinal traits d. Central Traits: core qualities of a personality e. Secondary Traits: inconsistent or superficial aspects of a person • Raymond Cattell and Traits a. Surface Traits: features that make up visible features of personality, often appeared in groups b. Source Traits: underlying traits of a personality, each reflected in a number of surface traits i. Identified 16 through factor analysis: Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)--personality test that produces a trait profile, gives a “picture” of an individual’s personality • “Big Five” Personality Factors: reduces 16 factors to 5 universal dimensions 1. Extroversion 2. Agreeableness 3. Conscientious 4. Neuroticism 5. Openness to Experience **Pros and cons associated with each dimension Psychoanalytic Theory • Psychodynamic theories learn what drives, conflicts, and energies motivate us. • Believe actions based on unconscious thoughts, needs, and emotions • Both psychodynamic and trait theorists believe human personality is based on bio. predispositions • Freud thought his patients’ problems were more emotional than physical • began his work by using hypnosis and eventually switched to psychoanalysis • had many followers; e.g., Jung and Adler • used cocaine and tobacco and died from oral cancer • 100+ years later, his work is still influential and very controversial ***Table 10.2 in book = key Freudian concepts • Structure of Personality a. Id i. made up of innate biological instincts and urges ii. works on Pleasure Principle iii. wishes to have its desires satisfied now, regardless of the consequences iv. self serving, irrational, and totally unconscious v. provides energy for the entire psyche ~ Libido: from life instincts (Eros); underlies efforts to survive, sexual desires, pleasure seeking ~ Thanatos: comes from death instincts; produces aggressive and destructive urges (b) Ego i. executive ii. directs energies supplied by id iii. partially conscious and partially unconscious iv. works on Reality Principle; delays action until it is practical and/or appropriate v. system of thinking, planning, problem solving, and deciding (c) Superego i. judge or censor for thoughts and actions of the ego ii. acts as “internalized parent” iii. TWO parts ~ Conscience:reflects actions for which a person has been punished; source of guilt ~ Ego Ideal: reflects behavior one’s parents approved of or rewarded; source of pride • Ego is always caught in the middle of battles between superego’s desires for moral behavior and the id’s desires for immediate gratification • Neurotic Anxiety: caused by id impulses that the ego can barely control • Moral Anxiety: comes from threats of punishment from the superego • Ego defense mechanisms lessen internal conflicts Levels of Awareness • Unconscious: holds repressed memories and emotions and the id’s instinctual drives • Conscious: everything you are aware of at a given moment • Preconscious: material that can easily be brought into awareness Personality Development • Develops in stages; everyone goes through same stages in same order • Core of personality is formed before age 6 • Erogenous Zone: area on body capable of producing pleasure; serves as main source of pleasure, frustration, and self expression • Fixation: Unresolved conflict or emotional hang up caused by overindulgence or frustration Personality Development: Oral Stage (Ages 0-1) • Most of infant’s pleasure comes from stimulation of the mouth . • If a child is overfed or frustrated, oral traits will develop. • Oral Dependent Personality: gullible, passive, need lots of attention • Oral aggressive Personality: adults who like to argue and exploit others • Expressions: nail biting, gum chewing, smoking, kissing, overeating, alcoholism Personality Development: Anal Stage (Ages 1-3) • Attention turns to process of elimination. • Child can gain approval or express aggression by “letting go” or “holding on”. • Anal Retentive Personality: harsh toilet training; stubborn, stingy, orderly, compulsively clean • Anal Expulsive Personality: lenient toilet training; disorderly, messy, destructive, or cruel Personality Development: Phallic Stage (Ages 3-6) • Adult traits: vanity, exhibitionism, sensitive pride, narcissism • Child now notices and is physically attracted to opposite sex parent. • Can lead to one of two conflicts • Oedipus Conflict (for boys only): boy feels rivalry with his father for his mother’s affection; boy may feel threatened by father (castration anxiety). ~ To resolve, boy must identify with his father (i.e., become more like him and adopt his heterosexual beliefs) • Electra Conflict: for girls only; girl loves her father and competes with her mother. ~ Girl identifies with her mother more slowly because she already feels castrated; widely rejected today by most psychologists Personality Development: Latency Stage (Ages 6-Puberty) • Psychosexual development is dormant, same sex friendships and play occur here Personality Development: Genital Stage (Puberty-on) • Sexual urges re-awaken, realization of full adult sexuality occurs here, ends with mature capacity for love Psychoanalytic Theory: Contributions • Pioneered idea that early life was influential in shaping adult personality • Identified critical events in personality formation • First stage theorist Psychoanalytic Theory: Criticisms • Latency period as unimportant for personality development • Role of the father in conscience formation • Overemphasis of sex. • Freud’s disbelief of child molestation andrape • Freud’s theory is impossible to verifyscientifically; leads to few predictions Learning Theories of Personality • Behavioral Personality Theory: model of personality that emphasizes learning and observable behavior, acquired through conditioning principles • Learning Theorists: believe that learning shapes our behavior and explains personality, personality comprises learned responses • Emphasize Situational Determinants: External conditions that influence behaviors Learning Theories: How Situations Affect Behavior • Behavior is the product of both prior learning and situations • Personality predicts we will respond fairly consistently to certain types of situations Learning Theories: Social Learning Theory (Rotter) • Self-efficacy: capacity for producing a desired result • Self-reinforcement: praising or rewarding oneself for having made a particular response (getting a good grade) Learning Theories: Behavioristic View of Development • Like Freud, Miller and Dollard agreed first six years were critical • Time of urgent drives, rewards, punishments, frustrations, and social reinforcement Four Critical Childhood Situations 1. Feeding 2. Toilet or cleanliness training 3. Sex training 4. Learning to express anger or aggression Learning Theories: Personality and Gender • At birth, children are labeled boy or girl, and encouraged to learn sex appropriate behavior • Identification: child’s emotional connection to admired adults, especially to those providing love and care • Imitation: Desire to act like an admired person with whom one identifies Learning Theories: Personality and Gender • Boys/Males: encouraged to engage in instrumental (goal-directed) behaviors, to be directly aggressive, hide emotions, prepare for work world • Girls/Females: encouraged to engage in expressive (emotion- oriented) behaviors, socialized for indirect aggression, prepared for motherhood • Androgyny: Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) - consists of 60 personal traits, 20 each for “masculine,” “feminine,” and “neutral” • 50% respondents fell into gender-specific category • 15% scored higher on traits of opposite sex • 35% scored high on masculine and feminine traits • Having both masculine and feminine traits in a single person • Masculine: primarily independent and assertive, related in high self-esteem • Feminine: nurturing and interpersonally oriented, seek and receive social support Androgyny • Rigid gender stereotypes can restrict behavior, especially in males • Androgynous individuals are more flexible in difficult situations • Tend to be more satisfied with their lives • Have an adaptive balance of traits Humanistic Theories of Personality • Approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals • Reaction to rigidity of traits: pessimism of psychoanalytic theory, rejection of the battleground for instincts and unconscious forces, mechanical nature of learning theory • Emphasis on view that human nature is inherently good • Free Choice: ability to choose that is NOT controlled by genetics, learning, or unconscious forces • Subjective experience rather than prior learning Humanistic Theories: Self-Actualization • Abraham Maslow: interested in people who were living unusually effective lives (e.g., Einstein, Roosevelt) • Became interested in self-actualization: process of fully developing personal potentials, continuous search for personal fulfillment Characteristics of Self-Actualizers 1. Efficient perceptions of reality 2. Comfortable acceptance of self, others, nature 3. Spontaneity 4. Task centering 5. Autonomy 6. Continued freshness of appreciation 7. Fellowship with humanity 8. Profound interpersonal relationships 9. Comfort with solitude 10. Nonhostile sense of humor 11. Peak experiences Ways to promote self-actualization 1. Be willing to change 2. Take responsibility 3. Examine your motives 4. Experience honestly and directly 5. Make use of positive experiences 6. Be prepared to be different 7. Get involved 8. Assess your progress Traits and Situations: Do We Inherit Personality? • Temperament: hereditary aspects of personality, biological predispositions to be sensitive, irritable, and distractible, typical mood • Personality starts to stabilize around age 3; continued to “harden” until age 50 • Behavioral genetics: study of inherited behavioral traits and tendencies • Twins and trait: Minnesota Twin Study has been studying identical twins growing up in different homes, twins show many similarities even when reared apart • Heredity may contribute 25% to 50% of variation in personality traits • Trait-Situation Interactions: when external circumstances influence the expression of personality traits Personality Assessment: The Interview • Face-to-face meeting designed to gain information about someone’s personality, current psychological state, or personal history • Unstructured Interview: conversation is informal, and topics are discussed as they arise • Structured Interview: follows a prearranged plan, using a series of planned questions • Benefits: can observe person’s body language • Limitations: preconceptions might sway interviewers, interviewer’s own personality, or gender, may influence a client’s behavior, people may try to deceive interviewers, halo effect • Overall, good first step; should be supplemented by other measures Personality Assessment: Direct Observation & Rating Scales • Direct Observation: more careful “people watching” • Limitations: misperceptions, rating scales are used to objectify behaviors Personality Assessment: Behavioral Assessment • Recording the frequency of specific behaviors • Observers record actions, not the traits they think someone has Personality Assessment: Situational Testing • Real life situations are simulated so that someone’s spontaneous reactions can be recorded • Reality TV shows Personality Assessments: Questionnaires • Paper-and-pencil test consisting of questions that reveal personality aspects • More objective than interviews or observation • Have standardized scores unaffected by bias • Reliability: does a test give close to the same score each time it is given to the same person? • Validity: does the test measure what it claims to measure? • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2(MMPI-2): widely used objective personality questionnaire • Individuals respond to True/False statements • Measures 10 major aspects of personality • Can be used to compare results with known profiles • Validity is influenced by honesty of responder Personality Assessments: Projective Tests • Psychological tests that use ambiguous or unstructured stimuli • Person needs to describe the ambiguous stimuli or make up stories about them Projective Tests: Rorschach Inkblot Test • Developed by Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach • Contains 10 standardized inkblots (the “inkblot” test) • A person is shown the inkblot and asked to describe what he or she sees in it Projective Tests: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • Developed by Henry Murray, personality theorist; projective device consisting of 20 drawings (black and white) of various situations • People must make up stories about the people in it • Central themes are examined and interpreted • Good at revealing feelings about a person’s social relationships Projective Tests • Limitations: popular, but validity is lowest of the tests, objectivity and reliability are low for different users of TAT and Rorschach, of value if used as part of a larger battery Chapter 9: Motivation and Emotion Motivation: dynamics of behavior that initiate, sustain, direct, and terminate actions A Model of Motivation - Model of how motivated activities work - Need: eternal deficiency; causes - Drive: energized motivational state (e.g., hunger, thirst) - Response: action or series of actions - Goal: target of motivated behavior A Model of Motivation • Incentives – Incentive Value: “pull” of a goal, goal’s appeal beyond its ability to fill a need • Types of Motives • Primary Motives (Biological Motives): Innate (inborn) motives based on biological needs we must meet to survive • Stimulus Motives: Innate needs for stimulation and information • Secondary Motives (Learned Motives): Based on learned needs, drives, and goals Biological Motives and Homeostasis • Biological drives are essential • Maintain homeostasis – Body equilibrium; balance • Disequilibrium drives us to fill needs to restore homeostasis Circadian Rhythm • Cyclical changes in bodily function and arousal levels • Vary on approximate 24 hour schedule • Most noticable after changes in schedules – Shift Work – Jet Lag • Disturbance from traveling 4+ time zones • Easier to adapt when flying west; flying east takes much longer – “College lifestyle” Hunger: Internal Factors - Where does hunger come from? • Cannon and Washburn investigated stomach contractions; “hunger pangs” are associated with hunger • People who have had stomachs removed still feel hunger Hunger: Internal Factors • Brain Mechanisms – Hypothalamus • Brain structure • Sensitive to blood sugar • Receives messages from liver and stomach • Brain Mechanisms – Lateral Hypothalamus • If turned on, an animal will begin eating, if destroyed, an animal will never eat again • Activated by ghrelin –Hormone produced by stomach lining • Ventromedial Hypothalamus - stops eating behavior - if destroyed, animal will overeat • Brain Mechanisms – Paraventricular Nucleus • Part of hypothalamus • Keeps blood sugar levels steady by starting and stopping eating – Sensitive to Neuropeptide Y (NPY) »Substance in the brain that initiates eating –Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) »Substance in brain that terminates eating Your Brain’s “Fat Point” • Set Point – Proportion of body fat that is maintained by changes in hunger and eating – point where weight stays the same when you make no effort to gain or lose weight - Leptin • Released by fat cells • Signals hypothalamus to eat less Hunger: External Factors • External Eating Cues • Taste • Emotional Eating • Cultural Factors Dieting • Not just about losing weight • Defined by types and amount of foods eaten • Some diets encourage overeating • Dietary content influences eating – Fat content, sweetness, variety – Supersizing • Yo-yo dieting – repeatedly losing and gaining weight – Alters body’s metabolism Behavioral Dieting • Weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating habits and not on temporary self-starvation • Some keys: 1. Be committed to weight loss 2. Exercise 3. Observe yourself; keep an eating diary 4. Learn to weaken your own personal eating cues Behavioral Dieting 5. Count calories, but don’t starve yourself 6. Develop techniques to control the act of eating 7. Avoid snacks 8. Chart your daily progress 9. Set a “threshold” for weight control Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa • Active self-starvation or sustained loss of appetite that seems to have psychological origins • Control issues seem to be involved • Very difficult to effectively treat • Affects adolescent females overwhelmingly Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa (Binge-Purge Syndrome) • Excessive eating (gorging) usually followed by self-induced vomiting and/or taking laxatives • Difficult to treat • Prozac and Zoloft approved by FDA to treat bulimia nervosa • Affects females overwhelmingly Causes of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa • Anorexics and bulimics have exaggerated fears of becoming fat; they think they are fat when the opposite is true! • Bulimics are obsessed with food and weight; anorexics with perfect control • Anorexics will often be put on a “weight-gain” diet to restore weight Eating Disorders: Men • Eating disorders is on the rise among men • Want less body fat; more muscle • 10% anorexics are males • 25% bulimics are males Biological Motives Revisited: Thirst • Extracellular Thirst – When water is lost from fluids surrounding the cells of the body • Drink slightly salty liquid to “quench” • Intracellular Thirst – When fluid is drawn out of cells because of increased concentration of salts and minerals outside the cell • Best satisfied by drinking water Biological Motives Revisited: Pain • Pain – An episodic drive • Distinct episodes when bodily damage takes place or is about to occur • Causes us to avoid or eliminate source of discomfort • Environment influences tolerance Biological Motives Revisited: The Sex Drive • Necessary for group survival • Non-homeostatic • Sex drive – Motivation to engage in sexual behavior • Controlled by hormones in animals • Female mammals: interested in mating during estrus; “heat” • Male mammals: interested all the time • mating tied to female fertility cycle Biological Motives Revisited: The Sex Drive • Humans and hormones • Estrogen: Female sex hormone • Androgen: Male sex hormone • Alcohol lowers inhibitions, but decreases sexual desire, arousal, pleasure, and performance • Aphrodisiacs allegedly increase desire and sexual response, but many impair it. Sexual Behavior: Sexual Arousal • Produced by direct stimulation of erogenous zones • Peak of male sexual activity is 18; a little later for females Sexual Behavior: Human Sexual Response • Masters and Johnson • Sexual response can be divided into four phases • Excitement: Initial signs of sexual arousal • Plateau: Physical arousal intensifies • Orgasm: Climax and release of sexual excitement • Resolution: Return to lower levels of sexual tension and arousal Sexual Behavior: Sexual Scripts • Unspoken mental plan that defines plot, dialogue, and actions expected to occur in a sexual encounter • Misunderstandings arise when people follow different scripts • Romantic first date – Friends with benefits – Newlyweds – Others (?) Sexual Behavior: Sexual Orientation • Degree of emotional and erotic attraction to members of the same sex, opposite sex, or both sexes • Heterosexual: attracted romantically and erotically to the opposite sex • Homosexual: attracted romantically and erotically to the same sex • Bisexual: attracted romantically and erotically to both sexes Sexual Behavior: Sexual Orientation • Determinants of sexual orientation – Heredity • Sexual orientation is 30% to 70% genetics • Influences shape and size of brain areas involved in sexual behavior • Prenatal hormones • Male fetuses exposes to too little testosterone • Female fetuses exposed to too much testosterone Sexual Problems • Desire Disorders • Arousal Disorders • Orgasm Disorders • Sexual Pain Disorders


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