FOUNDATIONS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
FOUNDATIONS SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY PSY 394V
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marco Wolf on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 394V at University of Texas at Austin taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/181811/psy-394v-university-of-texas-at-austin in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Social Psychology of Language References Feel free to insert any references that you think might be relevant to the class You do not need to actually include the actual article or URL address If you have uploaded the article into the Article folder then you can make a URL by simply highlighting the authors and pushing on the link button the graphic looks like a chain below a globe that is probably on your Word toolbar Campbell RS amp Pennebaker JW 2001 1 The secret life of pronouns Linking Latent Semantic Analysis of writing samples to health Paper submitted for publication This is a reanalysis of three previous writing studies that demonstrates how changes in pronoun use can predict improvements in health Davison KP P 39 39 JW amp Dickerson SS 2000 Who talks The social psychology of illness support groups American Psychologist 55 205217 An analysis of internet and real world support groups for 20 different diseases Freud S 1 1901 1914 Mistakes in speech In The Psychopathology of Everyday Life Chap 5 trans AA Brill My notes on this chapter are now on the server The entire book is available at http 39 39 39 vorku ca FreudPsvch0 Giles H amp Wiemann JM 1993 Social psychological studies of language Current trends and prospects American Behavioral Scientist 36 262272 Gortner EM amp P 39 39 JW 2001 The anatomy ofa alisaster Media coverage anal community wide health effects of the TexasAampM Bon re Tragedy Paper delivered at the American Psychological Association San Francisco CA In the months after the AampM bon re disaster the newspaper coverage gradually shifted linguistically and students drastically changed the ways they used the student health center Gottschalk LA 1997 The unobstrusive measure of psychological traits and states In C Roberts Ed Text analysis for the social sciences pp 117129 Mahwah NJ Erlbaum Publishers Gottschalk LA amp Gleser G 1969 The measurement of psychological states through the content analysis of verbal behavior Berkeley University of California Press Lacan J 1968 The language of the self The function of language in psychoanalysis Baltimore Johns Hopkins Press Lee F amp Peterson C 1997 Content analysis of archival data Journal of Consulting anal Clinical Psychology 65 959969 This is an interesting overview of various approaches to content analysis focusing on causal attributions and integrative complexity Nice historical overview McClelland DC 1985 The achieving society New York Free Press Mehl M Pennebaker JW Crow DM Dabbs J amp Price J in press 1 The Electronically Activated Recorder EAR A device for sampling naturalistic daily activities and conversations Behavior Research Methods Instruments amp Computers A description of a recording device that people wear for up to 4 days that records for cycles of 30 seconds on and 12 minutes off Mergenthaler E 1996 Emotionabstraction patterns in verbatim protocols A new way of describing psychotherapeutic processes Journal of Consulting anal Clinical Psychology 64 13061315 Mergenthaler and his colleagues in Ulm Germany have been involved in text analysis for several decades Their approach is heavily psychoanalytical but also mathematical This paper is interesting because it suggests that the ways words are created in English re ect cognitive processes such as abstraction Miller GA 1995 The science of words New York Scienti c American This is a classic book that I encourage everyone to read It gives a nice overview of word formation theories and uses It is the only source that I know that provides an interesting base to particles Jamie gives it 5 stars Check it out Newman ML P 39 39 JW Berry DS amp Richards JM 2001 Lying words Predicting deception from linguistic styles Paper submitted for publication Celtain words and word patterns predict when people are telling the truth versus trying to deceive others Niederhof Fer KG amp P 39 39 JW 2001 Linguistic synchrony in social interaction Paper submitted for publication An analysis of three studies wherein people either interacted on a computer or in real life from the Nixon Watergate tapes Linguistic synchrony which exists at very low levels of word usage appears to be a natural phenomenon unrelated to the degree of liking between the two participants Oxman T E Rosenberg S D Schnurr P P amp Tucker G J 1988 Diagnostic classi cation through content analysis of patients speech American Journal of Psychiatry 145 464468 Pennebaker JW amp Graybeal A 2001 Patterns of natural language use Disclosure personality and social integration CurrentDirections in Psychological Science 10 9093 A recent update on the disclosure paradigm with paIticular attention paid to the social dynamics of writing and language n I I L JW amp King LA 1999 Linguistic styles Language use as an individual difference Journal of Personality anal Social Psychology 77 12961312 A series of studies that reveal how language use re ects personality health and social behaviors Pennebaker JW amp Seagal J 1999 Forming a story The health bene ts ofnarrative Journal of Clinical Psychology 55 12431254 A summary of recent disclosure studies with an eye towards understanding the nature of narrative Pennebaker JW 1997 Writing about emotional experiences as atherapeutic process Psychological Science 8 162166 A brief overview of the nature of the writing paradigm and its effects on physical health Pennebaker JW Francis ME amp Booth R 2001 Linguistic Inquiry anal Woral Count LI WC LI WC 2001 this includes the manual only Mahwah NJ Erlbaum Publishers This manual describes the most recent version of LIWC a computerized text analysis program Information on its development and psychometric properties is included To order the computer program directly contact wwwerlbaumcom P 39 39 JW Mavne TJ amp Francis ME 1997 Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement Journal of Personality anal Social Psychology 72 863871 The rst study from our lab to show that certain linguistic fmgerprints predict longterm health improvement among participants in various writing studies Petrie KP Booth RJ amp P 39 39 JW 1998 The immunological effects of thought suppression Journal of Personality anal Social Psychology 75 12641272 An experiment that demonstrates when people try to suppress their thoughts about traumatic experiences immune changes result Richards JM Beal WE Seagal J amp Pennebaker JW 2000 The effects of disclosure of traumatic events on illness behavior among psychiatric prison inmates Journal of Abnormal Psychology 109 156160 Writing about traumatic experiences improves the health of maximum security inmates especially those convicted of sexual crimes Ricoeur P 1976 Interpretation theory Discourse anal the surplus of meaning Fort Worth TX Texas Christian University Press Rosenberg S D amp Tucker G J 1979 Verbal behavior and schizophrenia The semantic dimension Archives of General Psychiatry 36 13311337 Rude SS Gortner EM amp Pennebaker JW 2001 Language use ofalepresseal anal depression vulnerable college stualents Manuscript submitted for publication Stirman SW amp Pennebaker J W 2001 Word use in the poetry of suicidal and non suicidal poets Psychosomatic M ealicine 63 517522 A text analysis of the poetry of poets who committed suicide vs a matched control who did not promising evidence for the power of linguistic tools to understand psychological state Stone LD amp P 39 39 JW in press Trauma in real time Talking and avoiding online conversations about the death of Princess Diana Basic anal Applied Social Psychology A text analysis of the ways people talked about the death of Princess Diana on AOL chat groups Stone P J Dunphy D C Smith M S amp Ogilvy D M 1966 The General Inquirer A computer approach to content analysis Cambridge MA MIT Press THE GENDERLINKED LANGUAGE EFFECT Anthony Mulac University of California Santa Barbara 1 What is the Gender Linked Language Effect In a substantial number of empirical investigations outside the context of organizations the language used by men and women has been shown to differ in meaningful ways Mulac Bradac and Gibbons in press summarized more than 30 studies nding 16 language features that have differentiated gender in a consistent manor For example 5 investigations have shown that men tend to use more references to quantity an 81 loss in vision than women and 3 studies have revealed that men employ more judgmental adjectives Working can be a drag On the other hand 6 studies have demonstrated that women use more intensive adverbs This is really hard and 5 that women use more references to emotions If he loved what he was doing Although such language differences are often found they should not be thought of as markers of gender Giles Scherer amp Taylor 1979 whose presence unerringly points to the gender of the speaker Instead they lnction as genderlinked tendencies Smith 1985 to favor certain linguistic features over others Although there is widespread agreement among researchers that genderlinked language differences occur in a wide range of communication contexts Aries 1996 Henley amp Kramarae 1991 Pearson West amp Turner 1993 a challenge to this View has recently appeared Canary and Hause 1993 have argued that meaningful differences in the communication strategies of men and women have not been found with any degree of consistency They conclude We believe there are sex differences in communication but they are eluding us p 141 Unfortunately Canary and Hause cite only 3 of the more than 30 empirical studies summarized by Mulac et al 1998 that have found gender differences in language use in a wide variety of contexts The importance of these genderlinked tendencies can be seen in the effects of such language differences on observers judgments of communicators In a series of eight investigations Mulac and his colleagues have demonstrated that men s and women s language leads them to be judged differently on psychological dimensions that are of consequence cf Mulac amp Bradac 1995 Mulac amp Lundell 1980 1982 1986 1994 The almost universal finding is that readers of brief transcripts of women s language rate them higher on Socio Intellectual Status ie higher social status and more literate and higher on Aesthetic Quality more pleasant and beautiful Men are rated higher on Dynamism stronger and more aggressive This pattern of judgments has been shown by multiple regression analyses to be linked to genderdifferentiating language and has been titled the Gender Linked Language Effect see Mulac 1998 for a complete summary In these studies the researchers have employed transcripts of male and female communication recorded in a variety of contexts public speeches oral descriptions of landscape photographs written essays on morality written descriptions of photographs and problemsolving dyadic interactions between strangers Although many of the studies have involved university students as speakers writers or dyad partners a substantial number have used communicators of other ages fourth and fifthgrade students university teaching assistants and lecturers older than 30 and people in their 50s and 60s The pattern of results has been essentially identical across all communicator agegroups although one study showed the effect to be greater for older speakers Mulac amp Lundell 1980 In all of their investigations Mulac and 39 have quot J for the r quot quotquot that gender stereotypes might affect ratings by ensuring that observers were unable to identify the sex of the speakers or writers They reasoned that if observers could not identify the sex of the communicators they could not be in uenced by gender stereotypes when they rated those communicators However in another investigation Mulac Incontro and James 1985 directly compared the effects of 1 male and female language differences to those of gender stereotypes Results showed that observers made remarkably similar judgments about men and women based on either the speakers language use or the observers own gender stereotypical notions about men and women 86 judgment overlap Furthermore the findings indicated that language and stereotype effects are independent of each other in that they can be brought about separately added together to increase malefemale differences or pitted against each other to cancel out such differences One possible interpretation is that the way in which men and women speak helps perpetuate gender stereotypes These findings of evaluative consequences of malefemale language differences have been found equally for male and female raters across the eight investigations Mulac 1998 In addition three of these studies found that older individuals median age of more than 40 years provided speaker ratings that were essentially identical to those of university students median age 19 The consistency of these findings serves to substantiate the broad generalizability of the GenderLinked Language Effect 2 Descriptions Examples and Citations for 18 Language Features Found in Previous Empirical Studies to Predict Communicator Gender 1 SENTENCES A Elliptical sentences Gorgeous A beautiful snowy setting Daytime A unit beginning with a capital letter and ending with a period in which either the subject or predicate is understood Mulac and Lundell 1986Mb oral descriptions of photographs Mulac and Lundell 1994 M written descriptions of photographs B Questions What is Communication 12 What do you do Directives in question form were not counted Fishman 1978 Fr couple s conversations Mulac Wiemann Widenmann and Gibson 1988 Fr dyadic interactions C Directives Think of another Why don t we put that down Haas 1979 M interviews Mulac et al 1988 M dyadic interactions D Negations You don t feel like looking A statement of what something is not Mulac and Lundell 1986 Fr oral descriptions of photographs Mulac Lundell and Bradac 1986 Fr public speeches E Mean length sentences The number of words divided by the number of sentences de ned as sequences of words beginning with a capital letter and ending with a period Hunt 1965 Fr written essays Mulac et al 1986 Fr public speaking Mulac and Lundell 1986 Fr oral descriptions of photographs Mulac and Lundell 1994 Fr written descriptions of photographs Mulac Studley and Blau 1990 M fourthgrade essays Poole 1979 Fr interviews 2 CLAUSES AND PHRASES A Sentence initial adverbials Instead of being the light blue it is Because the trees still have snow it looks like Answers the questions how when or where regarding the main clause Mulac et al 1986F public speeches Mulac et al 1988 Fr dyadic interactions Mulac and Lundell 1994 Fr written descriptions of photographs Mulac et al 1990 Fr fourthgrade written essays B Dependent clauses which is mostly covered where the shadows are in which something A clause that serves to specify or qualify the words that convey primary meaning Beck 1978 Fr oral descriptions of Thematic Apperception Test TAT cardsHunt 1965F written essays Mulac et 2 al 1990 Fr fourthgrade impromptu essays Mulac and Lundell 1994 Fr written descriptions of photographs Poole 1979 Fr interviews C Oppositions The snow must have fallen fairly recently but it has been a while very peaceful yet full of movement Retracting a statement and posing one with an opposite meaning Mulac and Lundell 1986F oral descriptions of photographs Mulac et al 1986 Fr public speeches 77 cc D Judgmental adjectives distracting bothersome nice These indicate personal evaluation rather than merely description Mulac and Lundell 1994 M written descriptions of photographs Mulac et al 1990 M 4th 8th and 12grade impromptu essays Sause 1976 M interviews 3 VERB PHRASES A Uncertainty verbs I wonder if seems to be I m not sure Verb phrases indicating apparent lack of certainty Hartman 1976 Fr interviews Mulac and Lundell 1994 Fr written descriptions of photographs Poole 1979 Fr interviews 4 MODIFIERS 77 cc A Intensive adverbs very really quite Crosby and Nyquist 1977Fdyadic interactions Lapadat and Seesahai 1978 Fr group discussions McMillan Clifton McGrath and Gale 1977 Fr group discussions Mulac and Lundell 1986 Fr oral descriptions of photographs Mulac et al 1986 Fr public speeches Mulac et al 1988 Fr dyadic interactions B Hedges sort of kind of possibly maybe Modi ers that indicate lack of con dence in or diminished assuredness of the statement Crosby and Nyquist 1977 Fr dyadic interactions Mulac et al 1990 Fr fourth grade impromptu essays 5 REFERENCES 77 cc A References to emotion happy enticing depressing Any mention of an emotion or feeling Balswick and Avertt 1977 Fr written response to questionnaire Gleser Gottschalk and John 1959 Fr event descriptions Mulac and Lundell 1994 Fr written descriptions of photographs Mulac et al 1986 F public speeches Staley 1982 Fr oral descriptions ofpictures B References to quantity below 32 F most of the area 68 thousand feet elevation Any mention of an amount Gleser et al 1959 M event descriptions Mulac and Lundell 1986 M oral descriptions of photographs Sause 1976M interviewsWarshay 1972M event description essaysWood 1966 M oral descriptions of pictures C Locatives right neXt to the in the background Usually indicating the location or position of objects Gleser et al 1959 M event descriptions Mulac and Lundell 1994Mwritten descriptions of photographs D 1 references I think we should Firstperson singular pronoun in the subjective case Mulac and Lundell 1994M written descriptions of photographs Mulac et al 1990 M fourthgrade impromptu essays 6 MISCELLANEOUS A Words Total number of words spoken Bilous and Krauss 1988 Fr problem solving groups Mulac 1989 M dyadic interactions B Vocalized pauses uh umh Francis 1979 M gettingacquainted dyadic interactions Mulac et al 1986 M public speeches a Citations indicate empirical studies in which the variable was found to differ for male and female communicators b Gender distinctions in terms of whether the variable was more indicative of male or female communicators are as follows M male F female Note however that the linguistic categories were not in all cases precisely equivalent across studies Communication conteth in which gender differences were found are indicated in parentheses 3 Useful References Mulac A 1989 Men s and women s talk in same seX and mixedsex dyads Power or polemic Journal ofLanguage and Social Psychology 8 249270 Mulac A 1998 The genderlinked language effect Do language differences really make a difference InDCanaryampKDindia EdsSex differences and similarities in communication Critical essays and empirical investigations ofsex and gender in interaction pp 127 153 Mahwah NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Mulac A amp Bradac J J 1995Women s style in problem solving interactions Powerless or simply feminine In P J Kalb eish amp M J Cody Eds Gender power and communication pp 83104 Hillsdale NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Mulac A Bradac J J ampGibbonsP 2001 Empirical support for the gender as culture hypothesis An intercultural analysis of malefemale language differences Human Communication Research 27 121 Mulac A Incontro C R amp JamesM R 1985 Comparison of the genderlinked language effect and seX role stereotypes Journal ofPersonality analSocial Psychology 49 10991110 Mulac Aamp Lundell T L 1982 An empirical test of the genderlinked language effect in a public speaking setting Language analSpeech 25 243256 Mulac Aamp Lundell T L 1986 Linguistic contributors to the genderlinked language effect Journal ofLanguage and Social Psychology 5 81101 Mulac AampLundellT L 1994 Effects of genderlinked language differences in adults written discourse Multivariate tests of language effects Language and Communication 14 299309 Mulac A Lundell T L amp Bradac J J 1986 Malefemale language differences and attributional consequences in a public speaking situation Toward an eXplanation of the genderlinked language effect Communication Monographs 53 115129 Mulac A Wiemann J M Widenmann S J amp Gibson T W 1988 Malefemale language differences and effects in sameseX and mixedsex dyads The genderlinked language effect Communication Monographs 55 315335 EvaMaria Gortner November 25 2001 Narrative Therapy The Collaborative Langpage Systems Approach Narrative therapy is a philosophical mindset in which individuals approach therapy and being in the world Main developers of this approach Michael White David Epson Harry Goolishian and Harlene Anderson Houston Galveston Institute Premise I Narrative Therapy is a collaborative language systems approach where language and conversation are the core concepts These core concepts are rooted in the postmodernist interpretive perspective which includes contemporary hermeneutics and social constructionism The approach emphasizes meaning as an intersubj ective phenomenon created and experienced by individuals in conversation and action with others and themselves Human reality is created through social construction and dialogue Human systems are languageandmeaninggenerating systems meaning is thus created through interaction with others Origin of Client Problems 0 Lives and identities of individuals and clients are constituted and shaped by three sets of factors 1 The meaning people give to their experiences or the stories they tell themselves about themselves 2 The language practices that people are recruited into along with the type of words they use to story their lives 3 The situation people occupy in social structures in which they participate and the power relations entailed by these Within the narrative frame problems are Viewed as arising from and being maintained by oppressive stories which dominate the person s life Problems occur when the way in which peoples lives are storied by themselves and others does not signi cantly t with their lived experience In fact signi cant aspects of their lived experience may contradict the dominant narrative in their lives The client internalizes ludicrous societal standards and believes that in doing so they are aspiring to ideals of ful llment and excellence This leads to for example selfstarvation and anorexia extreme selfcriticism in depression or a sense of powerlessness in the face of threat and anxiety Process of Therapy In therapy the client and therapist create meaning with each other in a language system The therapist within narrative therapy addresses these 3 sets of factors by deconstructing the sense people make of their lives the language practices they use and the power relationships in which they nd themselves Since social realities are constituted through language and organized through narratives all therapeutic conversations aim to explore multiple constructions of reality rather than tracking down the facts which constitute a single truth The process of therapy is a therapeutic conversation a dialogue The main purpose is to codevelop altered or novel meanings realities and narratives for the client The problems is not solved but dissolved 7 resulting in an altered understanding of the problem which is then no longer Viewed as a problem and may be dissolved through actions Change whether in the cognitive or behavioral domain is a natural EvaMaria Gortner November 25 2001 consequence of dialogue Conversational therapeutic process is best accomplished by creating a space for the authoring of alternative stories These alternative stories usually t with the client s experience and open up possibilities for the client to control hisher own life The therapist assumes a not knowing attitude and asks conversational questions The process of therapeutic reauthoring of personal narratives changes lives problems and identities because personal narratives are constitutive of identity How this is different from traditional therapy Each client problem and session is unique and the approach does not rely on preconceived knowledge such as commonalities of problems or on acrosstheboard skills and techniques What is asked and offered is from a tentative attitude it does not imply judgement blame or a xed hypothesis The therapist must be as willing to change as he she expects the client be willing to change This is in opposition to traditional therapy where questions are usually rhetorical or serve as pedagogic devices 7 focussing on one aspect of the client s story for a particular purpose which usually con rms the therapist s knowledge In narrative therapy the therapist is trying to learn about and understand the other to hear the client s story as he or she wants to tell it being open to new experiences The therapist is not the expert but the coexpert and structure is determined by both client and therapist This doesn t mean that the therapist throws all of her knowledge and preconceptions out the window but her knowledge experience and values are no truer or more nal than the client s Basic Characteristics of Narrative Therapy The therapist adopts a collaborative coauthoring consultative position The client s language rather than the therapist s language is privileged allowing the person to create a story of their lives in which they View themselves as powerful and which is different from the dominant narrative which feeds their problem The therapist helps the clients View themselves as separate from their problems by externalizing the problem Inquiry about how the problem has been affecting the person s life and relationships Example How has depression encroached your life In what situation were you stronger than depression and in what situation was depression stronger than you The therapist helps clients pinpoint times in their lives when they were not oppressed by their problems by nding unique outcomes Ask questions about unique outcomes Unique outcomes term coined by Goffman in 1961 1986 are experiences or events that would not be predicted by the problemsaturated plot or narrative that has governed the client s life and identity Example Can you tell me about a time when you prevented this problem from oppressing you How did you manage to resist the problem What does this success tell us about you as a person and your relationships with others The therapist thickens clients descriptions of these unique outcomes by using landscape of action sequence of events and landscape of consciousness making meaning of events questions
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