New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Bio 1 notes 2/22- 2/26

by: jsmith22

Bio 1 notes 2/22- 2/26 BIOL 11900

Marketplace > Ithaca College > Biology > BIOL 11900 > Bio 1 notes 2 22 2 26
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover the week of 2/22- 2/26, they cover cell membrane transport and digestion.
Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies
Professor Rebecca Brady
Class Notes




Popular in Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by jsmith22 on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 11900 at Ithaca College taught by Professor Rebecca Brady in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies in Biology at Ithaca College.


Reviews for Bio 1 notes 2/22- 2/26


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/28/16
● Cell Membrane transport  ○ Passive­ No energy required for movement  ■ Diffusion­ small hydrophobic molecules move across the cell membrane  on concentration gradient  ■ Facilitated diffusion­ create paths or channels for specific molecules to  move through, channels only allow specific molecule  ● Used for hydrophilic molecules, especially ions  ● Channels are made of proteins  ● Channels can be opened or closed   ■ Osmosis­ diffusion of water  ● If solute cannot diffuse, water will  ○ Active Transport­ requires energy, direct or indirect  ■ Pumps­ direct movement against gradient  ● 1. Solute enters pump  ● 2. ATP changes shape of protein pump  ● 3. Solute is forced out of pump  ● 4. Pump returns to beginning shape  ■ Co­transport­ indirect  ○ Concentration Gradient  ■ High where most concentrated  ● Up moves towards concentrated area  ● Down moves away from concentrate  ■ Things will try to move down gradient by themselves­ passive diffusion  ■ Need energy to move up gradient­ active  ■ Each solute acts independently   ■ [ ] ­ symbol for concentration  ■ Hypotonic solution­ The concentration within the cell is higher than  outside, water flows in   ■ isotonic Solution­ equilibrium inside and outside the solution, no net flow   ■ Hypertonic Solution­ Inside the cell is low concentration while outside is  high, water flows out  ■ CELLS ALWAYS TRYING TO REACH NORMAL EQUILIBRIUM   ○ Barriers  ■ Impermeable­ no exchange with the environment  ■ Semi­permeable­ lets certain things in and out  ● Digestive Process  ○ 4 processes  ■ Ingestion  ● Food is taken into the body  ■ Digestion  ● Mechanical Digestion­ breaks food into smaller pieces to increase  surface area, always before chemical digestion  ● Chemical Digestion­ breaks down biomolecules, begins in the  mouth continues to the small intestine  ■ Absorption  ● Small and large intestines  ■ Elimination  ○ Alimentary Canal­ tube that food travels along, part of digestive system that  comes into contact with food  ■ Sphincters­ control movement of food through canal, round smooth  muscles  ● Anus   ● Top and bottom of stomach  ■ Accessory Glands­ secrete digestive juices   ● Salivary Glands  ● Liver  ● Gall Bladder  ● Pancreas  ○ Journey of Food  ■ Teeth are the primary means of mechanical digestion  ■ Salivary glands produce saliva  ● Glycoproteins make things slippery  ● Neutralize acids  ● Amylase breaks down starches into disaccharides  ● Tongue forms chewed food into a bolus and aids in swallowing  ■ Swallowing reflex closes the trachea and opens the esophagus   ■ Peristalsis moves food thru the esophagus to the stomach  ● Muscles contract and relax in rhythm to move the bolus of food  ● Also moves food thru the intestines  ■ Gastric glands secrete gastric juices  ● Mucus secreted by mucus cells  ○ Mucus protects stomach against acid  ● HCl secreted by parietal cells  ○ 2nd strongest acid in the world  ● Chief Cells secrete pepsinogen  ○ Becomes pepsin  ○ Breaks proteins into peptides  ● Food leaves stomach as chyme  ● Gastric enzymes are adapted to work in different acidic conditions  ● Pancreatic Juices  ○ Pancreatic Amylase  ○ Trypsin and chymotrypsin  ○ Nucleases  ○ Lipase  ● Bile from liver emulsifies fats  ○ Breaks the fat up into small droplets   ● Epithelium of the Duodenum  ○ Disaccharidases   ○ Peptidases­ breaks up peptides  ○ Nucleotidase­ break apart nucleotide  ■ Absorption of food  ● Jejunum and ileum   ● Small intestine developed to Maximize surface area  ● Absorption of Carbs and Amino Acids  ○ Hydrophilic, cannot diffuse across membranes  ○ Sugar is co­transported with sodium, moves down the  sodium gradient created by the sodium/ potassium pump  ■ Active Transport  ○ Enter the bloodstream through facilitated diffusion  ● Absorption of Lipids  ○ Hydrophobic, can diffuse across membranes   ○ Triglycerides are reassembled and packaged into  chylomicrons  ● Large intestine reabsorbs water and houses helpful bacteria   ● Liver filters and detoxifies nutrient­ rich blood 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.