Bio 1 notes 2/22- 2/26
Bio 1 notes 2/22- 2/26 BIOL 11900
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by jsmith22 on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 11900 at Ithaca College taught by Professor Rebecca Brady in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology I: Cells and Bodies in Biology at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
● Cell Membrane transport ○ Passive No energy required for movement ■ Diffusion small hydrophobic molecules move across the cell membrane on concentration gradient ■ Facilitated diffusion create paths or channels for specific molecules to move through, channels only allow specific molecule ● Used for hydrophilic molecules, especially ions ● Channels are made of proteins ● Channels can be opened or closed ■ Osmosis diffusion of water ● If solute cannot diffuse, water will ○ Active Transport requires energy, direct or indirect ■ Pumps direct movement against gradient ● 1. Solute enters pump ● 2. ATP changes shape of protein pump ● 3. Solute is forced out of pump ● 4. Pump returns to beginning shape ■ Cotransport indirect ○ Concentration Gradient ■ High where most concentrated ● Up moves towards concentrated area ● Down moves away from concentrate ■ Things will try to move down gradient by themselves passive diffusion ■ Need energy to move up gradient active ■ Each solute acts independently ■ [ ] symbol for concentration ■ Hypotonic solution The concentration within the cell is higher than outside, water flows in ■ isotonic Solution equilibrium inside and outside the solution, no net flow ■ Hypertonic Solution Inside the cell is low concentration while outside is high, water flows out ■ CELLS ALWAYS TRYING TO REACH NORMAL EQUILIBRIUM ○ Barriers ■ Impermeable no exchange with the environment ■ Semipermeable lets certain things in and out ● Digestive Process ○ 4 processes ■ Ingestion ● Food is taken into the body ■ Digestion ● Mechanical Digestion breaks food into smaller pieces to increase surface area, always before chemical digestion ● Chemical Digestion breaks down biomolecules, begins in the mouth continues to the small intestine ■ Absorption ● Small and large intestines ■ Elimination ○ Alimentary Canal tube that food travels along, part of digestive system that comes into contact with food ■ Sphincters control movement of food through canal, round smooth muscles ● Anus ● Top and bottom of stomach ■ Accessory Glands secrete digestive juices ● Salivary Glands ● Liver ● Gall Bladder ● Pancreas ○ Journey of Food ■ Teeth are the primary means of mechanical digestion ■ Salivary glands produce saliva ● Glycoproteins make things slippery ● Neutralize acids ● Amylase breaks down starches into disaccharides ● Tongue forms chewed food into a bolus and aids in swallowing ■ Swallowing reflex closes the trachea and opens the esophagus ■ Peristalsis moves food thru the esophagus to the stomach ● Muscles contract and relax in rhythm to move the bolus of food ● Also moves food thru the intestines ■ Gastric glands secrete gastric juices ● Mucus secreted by mucus cells ○ Mucus protects stomach against acid ● HCl secreted by parietal cells ○ 2nd strongest acid in the world ● Chief Cells secrete pepsinogen ○ Becomes pepsin ○ Breaks proteins into peptides ● Food leaves stomach as chyme ● Gastric enzymes are adapted to work in different acidic conditions ● Pancreatic Juices ○ Pancreatic Amylase ○ Trypsin and chymotrypsin ○ Nucleases ○ Lipase ● Bile from liver emulsifies fats ○ Breaks the fat up into small droplets ● Epithelium of the Duodenum ○ Disaccharidases ○ Peptidases breaks up peptides ○ Nucleotidase break apart nucleotide ■ Absorption of food ● Jejunum and ileum ● Small intestine developed to Maximize surface area ● Absorption of Carbs and Amino Acids ○ Hydrophilic, cannot diffuse across membranes ○ Sugar is cotransported with sodium, moves down the sodium gradient created by the sodium/ potassium pump ■ Active Transport ○ Enter the bloodstream through facilitated diffusion ● Absorption of Lipids ○ Hydrophobic, can diffuse across membranes ○ Triglycerides are reassembled and packaged into chylomicrons ● Large intestine reabsorbs water and houses helpful bacteria ● Liver filters and detoxifies nutrient rich blood