INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY PSY 301
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Date Created: 09/07/15
May 4 2004 s Lenny Bruce Get Over It Stop Whining By DAN HURLEY O n a recent Friday evening nearly 200 people came to the Albert Ellis Institute in Manhattan to watch a master performance 7 call it standup psychotherapy 7 by a legend As he has on nearly every Friday night for more than 30 years Dr Albert Ellis the 90yearold psychologist who invented rational emotive behavioral therapy and wrenched psychotherapy out of the age of Freud and into the age of Dr Phil was demonstrating his nononsense confrontational obscenityladen technique before a packed house on East 65th Street quotDo you know why your family is trying to control youquot he asked a volunteer who joined him at the front of the room quotBecause they39re out of their mindsquot he said adding an unprintable adjective between quottheirquot and quotmindsquot Another volunteer Kristin Bell spoke of her sister who had been killed by a drug dealer eight years before quotWhy can t you understand that some people are crazy and violent and do all kinds of terrible thingsquot Dr Ellis asked quotUntil you accept it you re going to be angry angry angryquot It is Dr Ellis s conviction that people can always rationally choose to change and that a psychotherapist s job is to May 2 2004 5 Lesson for College Students Lighten U Apr 6 2004 Adventures of the White Coat People Mar 28 2004 Find more related articles by selecting from the following topics In Health Serv1ces Psychiatric and Mental Psychology Social Sciences 9 Track a subject by email nudge them gently or otherwise in the right direction That view has defined his career and has helped usher in an emphas profound insights Even so his exhortations to give up anger did not prevent him is on quick results over less than an hour later from shouting quotGet out get out get outquot when his path out of the room and into the elevator to his penthouse apartment was blocked by the crowd quotI wasn39t upsetquot he insisted later quotI m just very firm I was det hell out ofthe wayquot Dr Ellis has throughout his life been firmly determined to let ermined to get them the nothing stand in his way not the critics who have derided him and his methods not the gastrointestinal infection that nearly killed him last year and resulted in the removal of his colon not the profound deafness that now forces him to wear headphones and his guests to shout into a microphone If anything the controversy surrounding his reputation as a kind of Lenny Bruce of therapy has only increased his in uence In July 1982 a review of psychotherapy journals found him to be the most frequently cited author of works published after 1957 That month he was also ranked as the second most in uential psychotherapist in a survey of clinical psychologists beaten by Carl Rogers founder of the far gentler school of clientcentered psychotherapy No 3 was Freud quotI believe he39s a major icon ofthe 20th century and that he did help to open up a whole new era of psychotherapyquot said Dr Aaron T Beck an emeritus professor of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania and the founder of cognitive therapy which is also based on rational thinking Dr David B Baker a professor of psychology at the University of Akron and the director of its Archives of the History of American Psychology said Dr Ellis s confrontational approach posed a direct challenge to the drawnout process of Freudian psychoanalysis quotHis idea and system of confronting irrational thoughts doesn39t give you a lot of time to re ectquot Dr Baker said quotHe s going to challenge you confront you and be very directivequot On a recent morning at his institute Dr Ellis laid out his principles for 50 visiting psychotherapists who had arrived for a threeday workshop quotAll humans are out of their mindsquot he began adding another eXpletive quotThey re not only disturbed They get disturbed about their disturbancesquot Just because people do not like adversity they decide that it should not eXist Dr Ellis complained quotThey say You disturbed me or It disturbed me or My mother disturbed me quot he said quotThey won t accept responsibility for their own disturbance They refuse to accept the way it is And then they get depressed about their depression They rage about their rage They re screwballsquot To counter people s natural tendency toward selfcriticism Dr Ellis says quotI teach USA Unconditional SelfAcceptance You always accept you no matter what you doquot Also on his list are Unconditional Other Acceptance quotNobody is evil even if they do evil thingsquot and Unconditional Life Acceptance quotYou always accept things no matter how they arequot Therapists can help people he said by giving them what he terms rational coping statements to overcome their irrational selfdestructive beliefs For example Dr Ellis said when preparing to take on a risky challenge patients should be encouraged to say they would like to do well but too bad if they don39t In one exercise that Dr Ellis promotes patients are encouraged to imagine situations that normally provoke extreme fear panic or rage Holding the imaginary situations in their minds the patients are asked to change the feeling to acceptance Practiced daily for a month the exercise can help people change their most deepseated feelings about situations he said Unlike Dr Beck who subjected his methods and techniques to careful scientific testing Dr Ellis s insights have evolved in great part from personal experiences At 19 when he was by his own estimate painfully shy of women he set himself a task Hanging around a bench in the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx one summer he decided that he would speak to every single woman who sat down alone In one month he approached 130 women quotThirty walked away immediatelyquot he said quotI talked with the other 100 for the first time in my life no matter how anxious I was Nobody vomited and ran away Nobody called the copsquot In one month he said quotI completely got over my shyness by thinking differently feeling differently and in particular acting differentlyquot So successful was the transformation that in the 50 s and early 60 s he built his reputation as a sexologist writing bestsellers like quotSex Without Guiltquot and quotScience of Lovequot There was criticism But he did not care quotI just kept going and going and goingquot he said quotKinsey was much better known But he wasn39t read They were reading my booksquot With a doctorate in clinical psychology from Columbia and a large psychotherapy practice that specialized in sex and marriage therapy Dr Ellis became disgusted with traditional methods after spending 7 or as he put it quotwastingquot 7 six years in psychoanalysis He turned to Greek Roman and modern philosophers 7 and his own experience A result was rationalemotivebehavioral therapy whose focus he decided would be not on excavating childhood but on confronting the irrational thoughts that lead to self destructive feelings and behavior quotThe trouble with most therapyquot Dr Ellis said quotis that it helps you to feel better But you don t get better You have to back it up with action action actionquot Among his peers the reactions were quick 7 and brutal Personality What is personali I Approaches to studying personality rom I What does personality predict 5 Approaches to Studying Personality 1 Psychodynamic 2 Trait 3 Social LearningSocial Cognitive 4 Humanistic 5 BiologicalEvolutionary What is Personality I De ne Personality I Personality psychologists aim to 1 describe the structure of personality and 2 understand the ways in which and reasons why people differ The Disbelievers haviorism w l y Walter Mischel 1968 r E I This debate led to Interactionism Psychodynamic Approach Freudian Personality Structure I Id Operates according to the pleasure principle I Ego Operates according to the reality principle I Superego Moral ego ideals and conscience Superego Karen never eats anything but vegetables When her friends confront her she refuses to see that there is anything strange about her eating habits Karen never eats anything but vegetables When her friends confront her she says her strange eating habits are due to her lactose intolerance and the fact that foods with protein make her ill A man is angry with his boss and he yells at his son when he gets home A young man who was taught that sex is dirty becomes a famous artist Even a to baseball layer will sometimes strike out on an easK pich When his ha pens his next action may be to t row his bat or kick t e water cooler with all his might Soldiers exposed to traumatic experiences in concentration camps during wartime sometimes had amnesia an were unable to recall any part of their ordeal Mrs Brown often accuses other women of talking too much and spreading rumors It is rather obvious 0 those who know her that she is revealing her own inclinations to spread gossip Louis was a bully and got into fi hts in elementary school When he entered hi h school e channeled his hostility into sports such as ootball and hockey In elementary school a boy that said a certain had erms almost inevitably ended up going WI h her less t an a week later Defense Mechanisms 1 A woman with a history of physical abuse is fearful of her own anger She yells at a co worker for his hostility toward her Allison reads about the latest atrocities in Bosnia while calmly eating her breakfast Chris tells his therapist that he had a happy childhood not recalling that when he was 2 his mother s boyfriend had repeatedly locked him in a dark closet when he was bad He is seeking therapy for claustrophobia Freud s Psychosexual Stages Our personality develops through a series of 5 stages 1 Oral 2 Anal 3 Phallic 4 Latency period 5 Genital Oral Stage birth 1 year a Mouth is associated with sexual pleasure uWeaning a child can lead to fixation if not handled correctly a Fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood Phallic Stage 3 5 years mFocus of pleasure shifts to the genitals mOedipus or Electra complex can occur nFixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females Genital Stage puberty on uSexual feelings reemerge and are oriented toward others uHealthy adults find pleasure in love and work fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages Anal Stage 1 3 years uAnus is associated with pleasure uToilet training can lead to fixation if not handled correctly uFixation can lead to anal retentive or expulsive behaviors in adulthood Latency Stage 5 puberty nSexuality is repressed mChildren participate in hobbies school and samesex friendships Abnormal development Fixation 1 Oral personality 2 Anal personality 3 Phallic character Evaluation of the Psychodynamic Perspective 1 Physical and disorders can have psychological origins in New concepts 1 Unconscious mind 2 Early childhood 3 Verbal therapy to explore unconscious u Largely untestable aWhere it has been tested little to no support Trait Approach u Focuses on people s trails how they behave feel and think in ways that are consistent across different situations Big Five Personality Dimensions u Opennessnonopenness to Experience daring or conforming a ConscientiousnessUndirectedness careful or careless a AgreeablenessAntagonism courteous amp trusting or rude amp suspicious u Extraversionlntroversion sociable or retiring in NeuroticismStability constantly worrying or calm amp self satis ed 1 Describe your own or someone else s personality The Trait Approach n Lexical hypothesis Traitdescriptive adjectives Cluster similar adjectives 3 OCEAN Openness to Experience a The extent to which a person is original has broad interests and is willing to take risks Conscientiousness I The extent to which a person is careful scrupulous and persevering Agreeableness I A tendency to be compassionate rather than antagonistic towards others Personality Profile Exruwriioii Nwom rim Agiewblwim amenimmm Optmes u Expenenm Extraversion I A tendency to seek stimulation and enjoy the company of other people rL iim JIClllif Neuroticism I The tendency to experience negative emotional states and view oneself and the world around one negatively Strengths of the Big Five I Objectivity I Ease of Use and Understanding Criticisms of the Big Five Description I Based on study of the English language I Traits represent single dimensions of not on observations of human behavior personality I Too manyfew traits included I Types represent constellations of traits I Poor predictor of future behavior I Has limited applicability crossculturally I Does not address development I No means of change Traits versus Types Type AB Personality Take Home Quiz lType A a behavior pattern involving high I htt www0utofservicecom bi five leVelS 0f comPEtitiVENESS time urgency I httpcacpsueduj5jtestipipne01htm and irritability I Type B a behavior pattern characterized by a casual laid back style I What is the effect of Type on health Include I Name I URL I Name of Test I Did the test provide any meaningful info for you I Where in the framework of the personality theories would this test fall I What are the pros and cons of this method Conformity I I the maintenance or alteration of one s Influences on Conformlty behavior to match the behavior and expectations of others I GFOUP Slze 39 quot I Group Unanimity I Minority Influence Id iosyncrasy credits at 5 an 5 gt 5 0 Tum 39EM as 3E 95 Ea u 2 w o Bil 772 Participants outnumbered Obedience to Au ority The Milgram Experiment Reasons that do not Explain Milgram I Participants were not fooled I Participants were sociopaths I Age I Gender How to resist obedience Why obey I Commitment to Role paid in advance I Person who acts is responsible pleasing experimenter consensus of I Models of disobedience m I Encouraged to question I Know how powerful obedience can be 9 P I Deferred to a position in authority I Felt they had no choice but to follow Stanford Prison Study Reasons that DO Explain Milgram39s Findings I Physical Emotional Distance 39orn the Lear r e I Hoximity of the Experimenter Legitimacy of Institution I Hesence or Absence of Dissenters Stanford Prison Experiment Cont d Darley and Latane 1968 Guam Bystander Effect 5019 Diffusion of lespon 39 39 tyTheofy Routine pl ison life explained what happened to the plisonels what happened to the guaids Kitty Genovese 5 steps to helping D 197 1 Pelteiving the emelgent 2 Intel pieh39ng the situation ollettly 3 Taking iesponsibility to ad 4 Knowing what to do 5 Detiding to help Factors which increase helping I About the victim I About the heler I gender attributes skills demographics size of home town How can I get help ifl need it I Take the ambiguity out ofthe situation I Infuse responsibility in others I Give them the ability to help I Compliance I Mating Next Class What is motivation Eating amp Dieting I Sensory Specific Satiety I Glucostatic Theory I Lipostatic Theory I BMI and mortality Men and women Biological Clocks Cerebral conox Pineal gland Suprachiasmauc nucleus om chiasm Why Sleep IEnergy Conservation IPredator Avoidance IBOCIY Restoration IMemory consolidation How Much Sleep Do I Need What If I Miss Sleep I Effects on the body I Effects on the brain Seasonal Affective Disorder quota SAD BA in Florida l 39 quot39 73 Sleep Problems Dyssomnias I Insomnia I Hypersomnia I Cataplexy I Narcolepsy I Hypnagogic Hallucinations I Sleep Paralysis I Sleep Apnea o SAD in Iceland quota SAD in New Hampshire Parasomnias I Nightmare disorder I Sleep terror disorder slumquot I Sleepwalking disorder Psychopathology the thin line that separates sanity from madness Lecture 20 42804 1 Historical Roots a Caused by evil spirits i Solution opening to escape b Caused by witchcraft supernatural forces i Solution Exorcism c Today Biological and psychological causes 11 Debate of origin a Biological perspective b Psychological perspective c Cultural In uences i Pibloktoq d Synthesis Diathesis Stress Model 111 Diagnosis A necessary and controversial next step a DSMIV disorders discussed in class i Anxiety Disorders marked by intense anxiety as major symptom 1 Examples 39 39 39 origin 39 I I 4 39 Somatoform D1sorders r yup With p 1 Examples Dissociative Disorders Experience detached from consciousness 1 Examples ii39 iv Mood Disorders Severe mood disturbances either positive or negative 1 Examples Schizophrenic disorders psychotic disorders characterized by loss of contact with reality 1 Examples lt Personality Disorders longterms in exible maladaptive patterns 1 Examples v39 IV Rosenhahn 1973 On being sane in insane places a 8 Pseudopatients b Results i Role of Expectations ii Situational effects January 2n mm Experts Try FastTrack Fix for Children With Phobias By RAND mums Ermm Bugs ruled Brandon Howard s llfe as long as he eouldremember one gllmpse ofa ofhome But no more A slngle threerhour treatment sesslon tumed Brandon who was 10 then months Brandon who ls now ll andhyes m Dublln a ls one of120 chlldren paruelpatmg m a mal p edb Tu Mm PM mi chlldhood phoblas So far myestlgators from Virginia Teeh and Stoekholm Unlverslty m Sweden elam a 75 pereent eure rate 7 wlth followrup of about a year m p pl tut e Wth stress Butm tlus mal wlth ehlldren the lessons typleally expenenced over several sesslons are eonduetedm three hours Itwas awful atflrst he Sad And then m the eourse ofafew hours he got eloser and eloser and not even knowtt amm Whlle some experts beheye most chlldren will grow out ofthese phoblas wlthout treatment others see the need forlntervenuon For parents lt ls best to be ealm and not allow chlldren to avold pamcular phoblas totally many o rt sehool play wlth fn ends or go on famlly outmgs Parents talk about ehlldren who obsess over weather reports lose sleep over the y nn Goettman a mother ofthree m MeLlean Va sald her formerly outgomg Reyearrold suddenly beeame ternfled of thunderstorms quotIt completely changed her personality and disrupted family lifequot Ms Goettman said quotShe didn t want play dates in case it rained I39d get calls from the school nurse saying my daughter has stomach pains and I39d have to ask Did you hear thunder She was constantly checking the weather map to see if there was a lightning bolt in the picture It consumed her lifequot Ms Goettman39s daughter who did not want her name used suffered from a common phobia Her fears faded within five months without professional help but with a lot of reassurance from her parents What type of treatment will work often depends on the child Some experts question whether children have the courage or stamina to withstand a single intense session as Brandon did quotOne treatment session might be good for the highly motivated childquot said Dr Tamar Chansky director of the Children s Center for OCD and Anxiety in Plymouth Meeting Pa quotBut Ithink the message for parents is that you have to know your child Is your child a microwave or a crockpot Some kids need more time to stew and simmer And that s OKquot Most therapists prefer a more relaxed pace teaching a child to behave differently or think differently over several weeks or months Still the institute study39s focus on phobic children is helping pave the way for a biologically based concept of emotional development Some scientists speculate that phobias are set off by faulty brain chemistry creating an exaggerated response to say a loud noise or a big dog But instead of a fixit all pill some authorities are looking to cognitive and behavior therapy to fix faulty circuitry and help children cope with stress better when they grow into adults Kim Howard Brandon39s mother said her son had been quotcreeped out by everything since he was 3quot quotWe live in a rural community with all kinds of weird bugsquot she said quotbut when all the kids were playing he d just wind up coming home and doing stuff by himself because of a bee spider insect whateverquot By the end of his treatment at Virginia Tech Brandon39s former nemesis a beansize box elder bug became his new pet quotThe really weird thing about the whole dealquot Mrs Howard said quotis that he used to be petrified of the dark and thunderstorms I don t know how it all ties together but he is a different more confident kid And there was no hypnosis no medicationquot Dr Thomas Ollendick one of the investigators and a professor of psychology at Virginia Tech said the quotnotion is that a phobia persists because a person has certain catastrophic thoughts about what will happen quot quotWe expose them to the fear and help them realize what they dread will happen does not truly happenquot Dr Ollendick said He and his collaborator Dr LarsGoran Ost a professor of psychology at Stockholm University presented preliminary findings on Nov 23 at the meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy in Boston Therapists say the phobia often has nothing to do with the triggering event Any crisis for the child like the birth of a baby sister or moving to a new home can bring on a fear that may seem to have nothing to do with the initial situation In Freud s day no surprise psychotherapists believed the fears of toddlers and young children represented unconscious sexual urges Little Hans one of Freud s patients in 1909 developed anxiety over horses after a bad fall According to Freud39s analysis the horse phobia was a re ection of repressed sexual urges for his mother and aggression against his father said Dr Allan Compton a Los Angeles psychiatrist In the 1920 s Dr John Watson a professor of psychology at Johns Hopkins University argued a radical new theory that phobias could be taught Dr Watson based his notion on a awed study of one boy Little Albert who was conditioned to fear rabbits The researcher claimed he startled Albert by clanging on an iron rod every time he handed the boy a white rat Like a Pavlovian response Albert would be startled by any white furry creature A close rereading of the study years later though revealed that Albert was never really afraid of rabbits but the facts did not get in the way of a new scientific paradigm Dr Watson39s theories formed the basis of a school of psychology known as behaviorism The most recent thinking said Dr Diane Findley an associate research scientist at the Child Study Center at Yale is that children are born with certain fears and that they can learn not to be afraid What s more Dr Findley added most therapists today do not believe that digging into the psyche to reveal the root of the problem is necessary for effective treatment quotWe worry less about what we think triggered the phobia but about how we can counteract itquot said Dr Romy Engel a child psychologist in New York quotI think it s important that they learn effective strategies to cope with their excessive fear We are not trying to teach them to get fear out of their lives but excessive fear that gets in the way of their functioningquot Dr Chansky considers phobias a quotmechanical glitchquot in the brain prompting an quotexaggeration of risk plus an underestimation of the ability to copequot In her book quotFreeing Your Child From Anxiety Powerful Practical Strategies to Overcome Your Child s Fears Phobias and Worriesquot to be published in March Dr Chansky refers to her phobic patients as quotwhatif kids 7 as in quotWhat if I see a dog What if it thundersquot Dr Chansky instructs children to generate two quotwhat elsesquot for every quotwhat ifquot In essence she is telling them to create a new story in their heads which she believes fixes faulty brain wiring quotYou can t be in two feeling states at the same timequot she writes Class Exercise Lecture 3 61908 1 Jill wants to examine the relationship between chocolate consumption and happiness She asks subjects to tell her how often they have eaten chocolate in the last 2 weeks What are the IV and the DV How would you operationalize the DV if using a survey figure out a question you would ask if otherwise explain in detail 2 James thinks that optimists have better immune functioning than pessimists How would you design an experiment to test this What are the IV and the DV How would you operationalize the IV and the DV if using a survey figure out a question you would ask if otherwise explain in detail 3 Jack thinks that parents who are more attentive to their children have more obedient children What are the IV and the DV How would you operationalize the DV and the IV if using a survey figure out a question you would ask if otherwise explain in detail 4 John thinks that psychics can predict what is going to happen to people in the future accurately if he gets a chance to meet them beforehand He meets 3 people in a room The psychologists want to test his assumption What would you have happen next to test this prediction What are the IV and the DV How would you operationalize the DV The Case of HM Hippocampus Types of Longterm Memory Episodic Semantic Procedural Classical Priming Memory Memory Memory Conditioning What have we learned from HM Evidence for the distinction between shortterm and longterm memory Evidence for separate implicitexplicit systems LongTerm Memory Explicit Memory Semantic Episodic Implicit Memory Procedural Large Capacity Long Duration Highly organized as semantic networks Percentage COI39I CCI 70 0 50 Primacy effect Recency effect Serial position in 15 W0rd list No delay Lsccond delay m Soisecond delay Experimental evidence for the distinction between shortterm and longterm memory Recency effect in recall of lists of words Elimination of recency effect by task that interferes with rehearsal Shortterm working Memory Limited Capacity Chunking Limited Duration Meaning Stored Serial Position Effect Three Types of Memory 3tier system based on time sensory very shortterm shortterm longterm Sensory Very Shortterm ampm0ry Sensory Memory Limited Duration Large Capacity Types of Information stored Iconic Visionbased Echoic Auditionbased Testing for Iconic Memog l A letter array is shown b e y K s M B High tone I After array is gone tone sounds X D l G Medium tone I Pitch of tone signals which row to report B Z 0 H LOWTOHB The Case of Clive Wearing N E 4 V39 0 gt1 9 D IO39 Fred develops a measure of extroversion He gives it to his friends Two weeks later he gives it to them again They all scored about the same the second time as they did the first time This demonstrates a Norms b Reliability c Validity d Standardization Fred goes with his friends to a bar and takes notes of who talks the most and to how many people He wants to see if his measure really measures what it is supposed to He is looking to see if it has a Norms b Reliability c Validity d Standardization The IQ test has many subscales 7 that is many different kinds of tests or questions These are grouped into two main scales Name them What is considered the average IQ score note I may have mentioned that it has increased in the past 50 years what I m asking here is in terms of the way the test was constructed what is supposed to be average What is the standard deviation of the IQ test How many standard deviations from the average is considered gifted or retarded Which is more agreed upon by different types psychologists circle a IQ tests are generally reliable b IQ tests are generally valid The Bell Curve discussed minorities and intelligence Explain what the basic premise of this controversial book was 12 sentences Explain how Claude Steele s theory of stereotype threat might explain minorities and IQs differently If an animals is lesioned it may grow fat Explain the Coolidge effect and what that says about men s sexual tendencies Extra credit What did David Buss say men prefer in women What did women prefer in men EC In Question 1 what type of your answer for that question here did Fred demonstrate Memory Distortions I Misinformation Effect I False Childhood Memories I Imagination Inflation I Impossible Memories Loftus results Word Used Average in Question Speed Estimate smashed collided False Childhood Memories lllllllvllwi W 3 n IlelWlElW W iMiEiImI Mi IGMWWWIWIA V1 WH ii 10 iii so ill lD FEMUNI Dl Uliltlli W lv39llil MMS I lhl it Will lllMi lllllllfli REMEMBEMZU False Memories and Eyewitness testimony I Recall not an exact replica of original events I Recall a construction built and rebuilt fr m various sources I Schema mental representation of an object scene or event I Scripts Mental organization of events in time Impossible Memories IMAammoM INFLAYION lnllNl s m am mm vucx mm 7 7 7 WON A m WED a HunHip 7 mmch muwisn l I sulmUstuDiD mu wmaws mm mm mwa l39 V summswm Emmy J wmmmzvrm 0 an 50 mum or suwmswm l INL39NFASlNL LDNHDENEE lHAT VENT ocumnm How do false memories form I Corroboration of event by another person I Source confusion I Social demands to remember I Imagination exercises I When asked not to think about whether memories are real or not 111 Lecture 19 Personality That which cannot be seen touched or directly measured 42604 How do we get to know a person a What do we rely on in making impressions b How accurate are our impressions i E g rating the instructor 1 What other information would help form an accurate impression 2 Do impressions matter Impression Formation Kelly 1950 a Warm vs Cold study i Differences in rating ii Differences in behavior Approaches to Personality a Freud Psychoanalysis i 2 main points Freud s background physiologically vs psychologically caused illnesses Freud s Methods 1 Free Association to retrieve unconscious needs and wishes ii39 a Dreams jokes parapraxes etc iv Structure of Personality 2 Ego 3 Supere go lt Psychosexual Stages vi Defense Mechanisms vii Accessing Unconscious 1 Projective Tests b The Humanistic Approach i Carl Rogers theory 1 Parental in uences 2 Criticisms a How would you describe a friend s personality c The Trait Approach i Trait relatively stable predisposition to behave in a certain way ii Factor analysis amp The Big Five 1 OCEAN a Openness b Conscientiousness c EXtraversion d Agreeableness e Neuroticism 2 LIST a Life data b Informant data c Selfdata d Test data 3 Accuracy based on behavrioal Residues a Food Music photos bedrooms websites 4 Situationist Argument a Controversy b Resolution Biological roots Other Announcements Exam 4 is this Thursday Scores will be posted by Friday 125 Exemptions from final will be released on Friday 125 Final 1216 in BEL 328 Office HoursEmail Monday 1155p Treatment of Psychological Disorders Most therapists practice eclectic therapy The types of therapy appear to be equally effective 3 common factors at work in all types of psychotherapy 1 A supportive relationship 2 An opportunity to open up 3 A reason for hope For some disorders certain types of therapy tend to be more successful But there is no universal best type of therapy Nuirihm Ul IIEleHS Pour onlcumo 80 ul ummmad naval GOD nutcoma The average psychotherapy client shows more improvement than 80 of those in a no treatment control group Is More Psychotherag Better Number of sessions 3 Treatment for Degression Tricyclics eg Elavil main es of antide ressants reduce uptake of serotonin and norepinephrine Monoamine Oxidase MAO Inhibitors Nardil MAO breaks down serotonin and norepinephrine MAO inhibitors inhibit this increasing the levels of serotonin and norepinephrine Selective Serotonin Reuptake lnh bitors SSRls Prozac does not affect norepinephrine hence less side effects c Ellccrs al MAOIS a Normal h Ellen oi tricydic mum and seincrivc minim ism Lithium Used for bipolar disorder Especially effective for manic phases lNeumtmsmiucr srmr A0 Unclear how it works mulutuies wimscd rvabmrplion mm Zl mcr mr simulated blacked merits 39 39 39 emfmmu gmmn Most dangerous sIde effect Is dehydration I v reabsorbed a 1 25 lsumemulemlus 1 st if m 1quot a hraiwudawnhyMAO in quotno a 2391 JJ 1 in ii ii r 13 Km Posuynaprk neuron i Postsynaptlc nuunm l Pmrsynapdt nuumn Electroconvul e Thera EC Brief electrical shock is administered to patients head It induces a convulsion similar to an epileptic seizure Used only for patients with treatmentresistant depressions or who are strongly suicidal How it works is not fully understood Benefits are temporary Other treatments must be offered also Permanent brain damage no evidence to support do find temporan disruptions in cognition memonj Bilateral ECT can result in loss of memow for events a day or two previous to treatment usually returns in a month Unilateral ECT produces little apparent memow loss Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation T forquot39 Antipsychotic Drugs Block dopamine receptors Reduce hallucinations and delusions Many and varied side effects eg tardive dyskinesia tremors amp involuntan movements Psychosurge Treatment of last resort 19308 to 1950s prefrontal lobotomy incapacitated patients not utilized anymore Cingulotomy
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