LEARNING AND MEMORY
LEARNING AND MEMORY PSY 371
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Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different formerly neutral stimulus You re exively learn to naturally associate one stimulus w another 0 The ease with which a CS becomes associated with a US determines the CS salience Pavlov s Conditioning 0 CC involvesA biological response which is triggered earlier than it would have been without conditioning The dog salivated before the meat powder it anticipated the meat powder when given the signal 0 Unexpectedly found conditioned re exes 7 learned re exes conditioned response 0 Won Nobel Prize Medicine and Physiology 0 Animals were exhibiting a simple type of learning I Salivation which began as a re ex response to food stimuli in the mouth was now elicited by a new initially ineffective stimuli I a 39 A that learned behavior can be traced back to it innate re exeS39 0 just as the dog learned behavior of salivating when it saw the experimenter developed for the initial foodsalivation re ex Basic Procedure of Classical Conditioning 0 An unconditioned stimulus US is a stimulus that naturally causes an organism to respond in a speci c way Food shot pain 0 Anunconditioned response UR is a response that takes place in an organism whenever an unconditioned stimulus occursSalivation fear to shot I Stimulus and response connection is unleamed o Aconditioned stimulus CS is an originally neutral stimulus that is paired with presented before an unconditioned stimulus and eventually produces the desired response when presented alone Bell tone scrub shirt food I If the CS is presented alone several times before being paired w the US the rate of conditioning is increased I The predictiveness of a CS determines the degree of conditioning the CS undergoes whether this conditioning is excitatoryinhibitoryand the rate of extinction o If the CS is a good predictor of the presence of the US it will tend to come excitatory removal of a predictive CS will increase extinction o If the CS is a good predictor of the absence of the US it will tend to become inhibitory 0 CS can develop inhibitory properties as a result of conditioning procedures see conditioned inhibitor The ability of the CS to predict the occurrence of the US is reduced if 0 US is presented alone the CS is presented alone other CS predict the US 0 A Conditioned response CRlis a response that after conditioning an organism produces when a CS is presented Salivation to the bell fear to scrubs I Occurs during the CS but before the US I we never completely unleam a CR I Includes Conditioned Suppression Skin conductance Response etc 0 Common Laboratory Examples I Eyeblink conditioning US puff of air directed at the eye naturally stimulates a biological response UR eyeblink CS tone light or tactile stimulusCR eyeblink but form may be different usually smaller and more gradual eyelid movement 0 Requires large of pairings EyeblinkResearch helped map brain areas and chemical mechanisms involved in conditioning learning diagnose psych disorders study effects of aging etc Eg Exposure to alcohol leads to longterm impairments in the ability to learn a conditioned eyeblink response damaging effects of alcohol on speci c parts of the brain I Conditioned Suppression Used to measure the strength of conditioning Pairs a CS w an aversive US lSt train rat to press lever for food reinforcement than present a CS and terminate the CS w a shock US Fear is measure by the extent to which the CS elicits a freezing response suppression of the CR action US is an aversive event shock UR includes a variety of behaviors to inch or jump in animals CS 7 signals the shock is forthcoming 1 minute or more sets off emotions suppression CR 0 Measure of conditioning is the suppression reduction of ongoing behavior when CS is presented Suppression ratio measure of the extent to which the CS 0 suppresses responding I the measure of the strength of association between the Cs and the US by measuring the CER Rate of responding in the presence of the CS sum of response rate w CS and wo the CS NAB 0 CS completely suppresses responding 00 0 CS has no particular effect 05 0 CS that elevates responding between 05 and 10 0 Strong conditioned suppression seen in less than 10 trials some found after 1 CSUS pairing 0 Also called conditioned emotional response CER procedure I Skin Conductance ResponseSCR a change in the electrical conductivity of the skin caused by small changes in perspiration o The conductivity of the skin is altered by emotions fear surprise Increases in conductivity can be conditioned to any CS paired with a shock 0 US Shock UR increased conductivityCS tone 0 Also called electrodermal response galvanic skin response Food anticipation 7 dog Taste aversion 7 CS fooddrink US is something which makes himher ill injection of poison o E tainted meat UR vomit 0 Q restaurant X CR feeling ill 7 leads to avoidance of CS 0 measure of conditioning is the degree to which the animal m the food Critics not classical conditioning 0 often develops after 1 conditioning trial 0 violates general principles applied to most examples 0 many people experience taste aversion at least once not learned Stimulus Substitution Theory o Pavlov s theory of classical conditioning 7 through repeated pairings between CS and US the CS becomes a substitution for the US and elicits the same response I Predicts both the stimuli and responses in advance and what the CR will look like in a speci c instance 0 AKA predicts the changes that supposedly take place among observable events of conditioning stimuli and responses I Response initially elicited only by the US in now also elicited by the CS 0 WM I The CR is almost never an exact replica of the UR Smaller CR responses 0 Size and temporal patterns of the CR and UR may differ I Not all pa1ts of the UR to a stimulus become part of the CR 0 Chewing and swallowing the food occur in addition to salivation o A CR may include some responses that are not part of the UR 0 Some dogs looked at the bell or moved closer to the bell o The direction of the CRis sometimes opposite that of the UR o Conditioned Compensatory Responses CR that are the opposite of the UR o Hilgardssuggested amendments to Pavlov s theory I It should be recognized that only some components of the UR are transferred to the CR 0 Some components of UR may depend on physical characteristics of the US 7 they will not be transferred to a CS w very different physical characteristics 0 dog will not chew and swallow just because a bell is rung food must be there I It should be recognized that a CSeg bell frequently elicits unconditioned responses of its own which may become part of the CR 0 Orienting it body to the bell CS dog may habituate if the bell is inconsequential or increase if bell is paired with food 0 Recent Theory of CC 0 Sign tracking Theoryilhis theory states that animals tend to orient themselves toward approach and explore any stimuli that are good predictors of important events eg delivery offood I Some of the components of the orienting response to the CS are retained in the CR 0 the form of the CR may re ect both UR and US and the UR to the CS itself This theory incorporates Hilgard s 2nd suggestion CS may become part of the CR 0 Pavlov s Physiological Centers of Learning Pavlov speculated 0 There is a speci c part of the brain that becomes active whenever a US is presentiUS center Every CS has its own CS center which becomes activated during conditioning For every UR there is part of the brain that is called the response center 0 During conditioning the CS produces activity in the response center and a CR is observed Innate connection between the US center and the response center 0 through conditioning the CS activates the response center 0 What is Learned in Classical Conditioning S R association The connection between the stimulus and the response 0 Direct association between the CS center and the response center S S association Innate association between 2 stimuli during conditioning o The connection between the CS centers and the US center which active the response center 0 Experiments support the SS If SS is correct after conditioning the CR depends on the continued strength of2 associations 0 Learned association between the CS center and US center 0 The innate association between the US center and the response center 0 CR depends on the innate association 7 if the association is weakened the CR will weaken If SR is correct the strength of CR only depends on the direct association between the CS center and the response center 0 CR does not depend on the continued integrity of the USresponse association Rescorla experiment o Devaluation Study 0 Concluded that the strength of a CR fear of dog is dependent on the continued strength of the US dog bite response association as predicted by the SS position 0 Used conditioned suppression w rats 0 US devaluation technique decreasing the effectiveness of the US after an excitatory CS has been created 0 Findings support SS position 0 The strength of the CR depends on the continued strength of the US response association 11 Basic Conditioning Phenomena 0 Acquisition Phase The period in the learning process when an individual is learning a new behavior I Subject lSt experiences a series ofUSCS pairings and during which the CR gradually appears and increases in strength I CR gradually increases then levels off 0 Asymptote 7 the max level of CR that can take place in a particular situation Reached gradually as conditioning proceeds 0 Factors that in uence asymptote of conditioning I Size of the US 0 Stronger US higher asymptote of conditioning and faster conditioning I Intensity of the US 0 Stronger US will cause conditioning faster than a weak US 0 Extinction I Reduction and eventually disappearance of the CR by repeatedly presenting the CS alone bell without food I Extinction 0f the CR is more rapid the more predictive the CS I passage of time alone has relatively little effect on the strength of a CR 3 phenomena showing if associations were formed during acquisition and not erased during extinction spontaneous recovery disinhibition and rapid reacquisition o Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance of a CR that has undergone extinction after a passage of time without further conditioning trials 0 If more time elapses between 1st and 2quotd extinction sessions more spontaneous recover is observed 0 Repeated extinction sessions results in smaller and smaller spontaneous recovery until no longer occurs Demonstrates that the CSUS association is not permanently destroyed during extinction Theories about Spontaneous recovery 0 A Inhibition theory after extinction is complete the subject is left with 2 counteracting associations that cancel out so the US center is not activated by the presentation of the CS 0 Excitatory associations The CSUS association formed during acquisition Through this association the CS now excitesactivates the US center 0 Inhibitory association a parallel association that develops during extinction Cancels the excitatory associations and no CR is observed I Inhibitory association becomes progressively stronger W repeated extinction sessions until spontaneous recovery disappears o B Robbins theory 0 During extinction the subject stops processing or paying attention to the CS Result is that CR disappear I CR returns spontaneous recovery occur because the subj ect s attention to the CS is revived for a while 0 C Capaldi theory 0 CS becomes an ambiguous stimulus because it has been associated both w the US and then absence ofthe US Diminished response on day 3 may re ect the uncertainty of whether the CS will result in the US being presented 0 Disinhibition The reappearance of a CR to a stimulus that has undergone extinction that can occur if a novel stimulusis presented shortly before the extinguished CS I Pavlov believed this occurs because the noveldistracting stimulus disrupts the fragile inhibition association that supposedly develops during extinction o The more stable excitatory association is less affected by the distracting stimulus than the inhibitory association resulting in the reappearance of the CR 0 Rapid Reacquisition I If the subject receives an acquisition phase 7 extinction phase 7 2quotd acquisition phase w the same CS and US rate of learning is substantially faster in the d 2n reacqu1s1tlon phase 0 rate of leaming gets faster and faster if given repeated cycles of extinction reacquisition I Similar to the savings found in experiments on learning or habituation o Conditioned Inhibition A CS that prevents the occurrence of a CR I The CS39 is the conditioned inhibitor 7 it signals the absence of the US and inhibits the CR I Procedure used 2 different CS 0 lst trial l is the excitatory CS buzzer food regularly elicits a CR 0 2quotd trial buzzer light no food 0 Compound CS 2 CS simultaneously presented 0 Results dog learns to salivate when only the buzzer is presented 0 Light is the conditioned inhibitor and will eventually inhibit a CR to any CS I Retardation test and summation tests show a stimulus is inhibitory o Summation tests procedure of testing the combined effects of a known excitatory CS and a possible inhibitory CS Retardation tests The technique of testing for the inhibitory properties of a CS 0 Generalization The transfer of a learned Response from one stimulus to another similar stimulus Little Albert I The more similar a stimulus is to the training stimulus the greater capacity to elicit a CR I Used by advertisers to sell products similar brand names packaging to popular brandspackaging o Discrimination Learning to respond to one stimulus but not to another similar stimulus Opposite of generalization III The Importance of Timing Temporal relationships in Classical Conditioning 0 The timing of events affect 1 how strong the conditioning will be 2 whether a CS will become excitatory or inhibitory and 3 exactly when the CR occurs Temporal conditioning allows us to awake before the alarm clock goes off CS ime o Short Delay Conditioning CS begins a second or so before the US strongest and most rapid conditioning I The most effective temporal arrangement for conditioning occurs in short delay trials 0 Simultaneous Conditioning CS and US begin at the same time I CR is weaker than shortdelay conditioning 0 May be because the subject only noticed the US the CS cannot serve as a signal or predict the US 0 More likely that the CS did not predict the US 0 Trace Conditioning CS and US are separated by some time interval in which neither stimulus is present Since CS is no longer physically present when the US occurs the subject must rely on trace memory I CS is presented and terminated prior to the US I CS US interval 7 amount of time elapsing between CS and US presentations I As the CSUS interval increases the level of conditioning declines systematically o Long Delay Conditioning onset of CS precedes that of the US by at least several seconds but the CS continues until the US is presented I The CSUS interval refers to the delay between the onsets of the CS and US 0 The strength of the CR decreases as the CSUS interval increases but the effects of the delay are usually not as pronounced I Over many longdelay sessions the onset ofthe CR is delayed too I Compound stimulusisimultaneous presentation of 2 or more CSs such as a buzzer and a light 0 The passage of time may be the 2quotd CS 7 and actually eliciting the stronger CR 0 Backward Conditioning CS is presented after the US I lower form weakest of conditioning even if the CS is presented immediately after the US Besides temporal proximity ithe order of the stimuli is important shows limitations of the contiguity principle Some evidence shows a backward CS become inhibitory 0 May be due to predictiveness rule CS means no US 0 Temporal coding hypothesis 0 Attempts to address the timing of events 0 Hypothesis states that in CC learns both thesimple association between CS and US and the timing of the events temporal relationships I this learning affects when the CR occurs 0 Explains why the CR may occur just before the onset of US in long delay conditioning Answer because the subject has learned that a delay of a certain duration separates the onset of the CS and the onset of the US 0 Plays a role in excitatory and inhibitory conditioning Williams Johns and Brindas o Rescorla experiment 0 Shows how the probability of the US in the presence of the CS and in its absence combines to determine the size of the CR 0 Shows that it is not the contiguity of CS and US that cause an association to develop RATHER it is the correlation between the CS and the US predictiveness I If positive correlation CS predicts a higher than normal probability of US the CS will become excitatory If no correlation probability of the US is the same whether or not the CS is present CS will remain neutral If negative correlation CS signals a lower than normal probability of the US the CS will become inhibitory IV Higher Order Conditioning 0 When the presence of the initial CS actually reinforces a second CS 0 Second Order Conditioning A CR is transferred from one CS to another by pairing a neutral stimulus with a previously CS I The secondorder CS acquires the ability to elicit a CR by coming before being paired w a firstorder CS I Eg A boy is bitten by a dog in an open field open field is the firstorder CS I Boy later sees the dog in an alley alley is the secondorder CS I Boy now fears the alley o Evaluative conditioning 7 form of secondorder conditioning I Subjects rate different stimuli 0 Used in advertising using attractive people US I When pictures of people are paired w positivenegative adjectives 0 First order adjectives 0 Second order people V Classical Conditioning Outside the Laboratory 0 CC can be used to o A understand involuntary behaviors o B research has lead to several major treatment procedures for behavior disorders 0 Classical conditioning and emotions 0 Certain stimuli evoke emotions o Conditioned Emotional responses CER are not under voluntary control not guided by logic or by a knowledge of one s environment I We think we see someone and get excited knowing they are 200 miles away I Important in understanding how we develop fears phobias and how to use extinction to get rid of the learned response I NOT known as conditioned enhancement 0 Classical conditioning of the immune svstem 0 Evidence shows that psychological factors can affect the immune system I Complex interactions between the Immune system and nervous system I Immune suppression with repeated pairing of cyclophosphamide ampsaccharin water in rats Saccarin alone later suppressed immune system by itself I Immune increase 7 saccharin water and ovalbumin increase immune system Later saccharin alone increased immune system 0 May lead to suppression of allergies decreasing overactive immune systems 0 Applications in Behavior Therapy 0 Systematic Desensitization for Phobias o excessiveirrational fear of object place or situations 0 Classical conditioning may be a source of irrational fears Systematic desensitization may be used to treat similar to Watson s counterconditioning I Systematic desensitization 7 therapeutic intervention in which the patient is exposed to the phobic object gradually feardiscomfort are kept minimum until extinction occurs 0 reduces the learned association between anxiety and objectssituation that cause fear 0 Substitutes new responses to a feared situation object such as relaxation o Treatment had 3 parts 0 Construction of a fear hierarchy 7 list of fearful situations of progressively increasing intensity bottom mild fear 0 Training in progressive relaxation deep muscle relaxation I Altemately tense and relax speci c muscle groups 0 Gradual presentation of items in the fear hierarchy to the patient I Begins with the bottomweakest item in the hierarchy I Describes the scene to the patients patient imagines the scene vividly 20 second break Reimagine scene 0 8090 cured few relapses no symptom substitution 0 Not used for depression 0 Virtual Reality Therapy 7 uses a headset that displays realistic visual images simulating a 3D environment Fear of ying animals heights public speaking o Aversive Counterconditioning for alcoholism I Goal develop an aversive CR to stimuli associated w the undesirable behavior I Design replaces a positive emotional response to certain stimuli alcohol w a negative one Anabuse pill emetic pill that causes nausea 0 High relapse in alcohol use demonstrates extinction to the aversive CS 0 Reconditioning may decrease relapse 0 Usually used w other forms of treatment I Less relapse when used for smoking sexual deviation and fetishes 0 Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis bedwetting I Mowrer and Mowrer bellandpadmethod o USbell URwake and tighten muscles CSfull bladder CR Nake and tighten muscles 0 80 success rate 25 relapse 7 treated w reconditioning Counter conditioning Eg Whenever you watch a scary show you always have a big bowl of popcorn Now you find that just having a bowl of popcorn makes you feel creepy Later your scary show is canceled and you start eating popcorn while watching Seinfeld Now the popcorn makes you feel happy USscary movie loud sounds surprise URfear CSbowl of popcorn Cerear THEN US humor UR happy CS popcorn CR happiness VI Chapter Summary 0 Classical conditioning involves the repeated pairing of a CS with an US that naturally elicits an UR With repeated pairings the CS can elicit the CR 0 Pavlov s stimulus substitution theory states that the CS should produce the same response that the US originally did 0 Sometimes the CR is dilTerent from the UR 0 Basic principles of classical conditioning include acquisition extinction spontaneous recovery generalization and discrimination 0 There are many applications for classical conditioning including behavior therapy Using Classical Conditioning to treat nocturnal Enuresis bedwetting 0 Normally the brain sends a message to decrease urine production and output at night 0 Procedure developed by Mowrer and Mowrer Bellpad method 0 US alarm sound 0 UR wake up and tighten muscles to prevent further urination 0 CS sensation of full bladder CR Wake up andor tighten muscles before bell CC examples I An advertiser wants to increase the sale of her new product She pays a wellknown celebrity to appear on TV commercials with the new product To her great joy sales of the product increase I US celebrity UR positive response I CS product CR buying the product I The last time he ate popcorn Bill chipped a tooth on an unpopped kernel Now before he eats popcorn he carefully checks the bowl for unpopped kernels I US chipping tooth UR hurts etc unleamed I CS popcorn CR checking for unpopped kernels I Extinction 0f the CR could occur if he every time he ate popcorn he never chipped at tooth Chapter 2 Innate Behavior Patterns and Habituation 0 Many learned behaviors are derivatives extension or variations of innate behaviors 0 Features oflearned behaviors have parallels in inborn behavior patterns 0 Learned behavior eg Control by environmental stimuli and their mechanism of temporal sequencing 0 Learning psychologist use barren and artificial environments in order to discover general principles oflearning that don t depend on specific types of stimuli o The field of Ethology The study of animal behavior in its natural setting in order to determine how behavior helps it survive in its environment 0 What behaviors do we already posses when we enter the world 0 Control Systems Theory A comparison between the actual state of the world and a goal state Used to explain goal directed behavior Both learned and unlearned behavior appears to be purposegoaldirected 0 Characteristics of GoalDirected Systems 0 Goaldirected behavior based upon feedback system eg central cooling unit 0 Control systems theory the comparator compares the actual input and the reference input if they do not match the comparator signals the action system 0 Action system furnace o Comparator thermostat receives 2 types ofinput and compares them I Actual input actual physical characteristic air temp near thermostat I Reference input conceptual entity thermostat setting temp when reached will open and stop switch 0 Product of an action system is the outputwarm air 0 Disturbance affects the actual input I affects the air temp near the thermostat I o Innate Stereotyped Movements o Re ex A stereotyped movement of a part of the bodyreliably elicited when presented w appropriate stimulus I Innate re exes Sucking pulling away from pain grasping pupil dilationconstriction coughing blinking 0 eg rapid w drawal of hand caused by bending elbow 0 Reguires sensory neurons interneurons and motor neurons 0 Viewed as an example ofa feedback system 0 Flexion re ex rapid withdrawal ofyour hand caused by bending the elbow I Pain receptors in the hand have synaptic connections with interneurons which in turn have synapses with motor neurons 0 Interneuron separates the sensory neurons from motor neurons 0 quotstretch receptors comparators within the muscles in the re ex feedback system 0 Compare the goal or reference input commands sent by the motor neurons to the muscle fibers telling them to contract 0 Compare the actual amount that the muscles have contracted I Spinal re ex arcfeedback system an example would be when the motor neurons have cell bodies within the spinal cord and their axons exit through the front of the spinal cord travel back down the arm and synapse with individual muscle fibers in the arm when excited the muscle fibers contract thereby producing the response 0 Stretch receptorsin the muscles comparators of the feedback system compare reference input w the actual amount the muscles have contracted I Afferent neuron sends message from pain receptors to the brain I Efferant neuron from the brain to the motor neurons Categories of Innate Behavior patterns include Kinesis Taxis Fixed Action Pattern and reaction chains Tropisms and Orientation o Tropism definition Involuntary forced movement that require not intelligence will 0 A movement or change in orientation of the entire animal I First to study tropism was Iacues Loeb 1900 0 He called them quotforced movements 0 This suggested no intelligence will or choice was involved I Types of tropism Kinesesrandom movement and Taxis directed movement 0 KINESES direction of the movement is random in relation to the stimulus I A common example is the humidity seeking behavior of the wood louse I Fraenkel and Gunn 1940 studied the wood louse put in center chamber where one end was moist and the other dry ltwood louse must be in moist air to survivegt and observed their stopping patterns 0 Out of this study they were able to distinguish a kinesis from a taxis o Discovered the is direction of the movement is random in relation to a stimulus O o The wood louse could only sense the humidity in it s present location 0 Humidity seeking behavior is an example of a feedback system 0 The wood louse must have a comparator that can detect the actual input current humidity and compare it to the reference input the goal of high humidity o The action system is the motor neurons muscles and legs that allow movement TAXES direction ofmovement is determined by the stimuli I Taxis the direction ofmovement bears some relationship to the location of the stimulus eg maggot s movement away from any bright light source 0 maggot is using a lightsensitive receptor at its head end to accomplish directional movement 0 as the maggot moves he swings his head left and right and oscillates 0 it s head to compare brightness o VERY PRIMITIVE o Ants use the sun to navigate find its way home 0 Innate Complex Behavior Fixed Action Patterns FAP O FAP an innate sequence ofbehaviors that is elicited by a specific stimulus and once started continues to its end whether or not the behaviors are appropriate in the current situation behavioral seguences CHARACTERISTICS I Part of the repertoire of all members of a species I The behavior Pattern is not learned I Once a FAP starts it will continue to completion even ifinappropriate I FAP triggered by sign stimulus very specific stimulus eg nut Examples of FAP I Nutburying behavior ofsquirrels EiblEibesfeldt 1975 pg 43 0 Innate behavior 0 FAP will occur even when there is no function I Territorial defense response of male stickleback Tinbergen 1951 pg 43 o Mating fish sees red spot of other males sign stimulus will become aggressive to the spot wants other males away so they can mate I Laying egg behavior of an oyster catcher 0 Sometimes an unrealistic model can elicit a stronger response than the actual sign stimulus egg itself preferred the enormous egg that won t fit 0 Reaction Chains 0 Reaction chains differ from FAP reaction chains can start at any point in the chain and stop behaviors are more variable and adaptable than FAP eg the progression from one behavior to the next depends on the presence of the appropriate external stimulus o If the stimulus is not present the chain of behaviors will be interrupted Ifa stimulus for a behavior in the middle of a chain is presented at the outset the earlier behaviors will be omitted The performance of 1 behavior usually produces the stimulus that elicits the next behavior in the chain Example Hermit Crab 0 Innate Human Abilities and Predispositions O 0 John Locke s 1690 empiricist viewpoint the newborn s mind as a blank slate John B Watson 1925 thought that environment was the dominant role in determining what type ofadult a child will become heredity had littlenothing to do w how people behave 0 Steven Pinker 2002 The Blank Slate is incorrect he argues that heredity does play a much larger role than most commonly assume He believes that humans have in common a large set ofinborn abilities tendencies and predispositions Some might call this quothuman nature Reviewed evidence that neurons in different parts of the brain are specialized to perform certain functions or to respond to the environment in certain pre established ways 0 Specific neurons are designed to respond to human speech allows language development easily Culturally universal o Innate human abilities and predispositions universals Re exes developmental universals babble emotions facial expressions Imitation by 12 to 20dayold infants Meltzoffamp Moore 1977 Auditoryoral matching by infants Preferences or goal drives desires reinforcers Competence motivation Language abilities brain structures universal characteristics developmental similarities across cultures o Prove it I Perceptual abilities Sensory receptors are specialized neurons that respond to specific colors tastes sounds smells etc I Wernicke area language comprehension Broca s speech I Emotional responses I Ekman research on interpreting facial expressions innate 0 Donald Brown s 1991 list of Human Universals I Human universals abilities or behaviors that are found in all known human cultures does not necessarily prove they are innate 0 400 items eg dance music death rituals hygienic care jokes and folklore 0 Marriage inheritance rules tool making and use government sanctions for crimes and divisions oflabor 0 Found in cultures isolated from the world 0 Habituation o Habituation is a decrease in the strength ofa response after repeated stimulus presentations ofa specific stimulus that elicits a response I Any elicited response can eXhibit habituation 0 Most evident in the automatic responses to new and sudden stimuli body jerk heart rate breathing quotstartle resp onse I Examples of habituation Orienting responses eg startleshooting practice if a new sight or sound is presented to a dog or other animal the animal may stop its current activity lift its ears and its head and turn in the direction of the stimulus if the stimulus is presented repeatedly but is ofno consequence the orienting response will disappear o What is the function of habituation I Answer Allow the individual to ignore insignificant stimuli that are repeatedly encounter so we can attend to more important stimuli o Laucht esser and schmidt 1994 found infants who habituated faster to repetitive stimuli at 3 mo obtained on average slightly higher IQ at 45 years 0 Gaultney Gingras 2005 fetus s rate of habituation was related to performance on cognitive tests at 6 months 0 General Principles of Habituation Thompson and Spencer 1966 pg 4950 I Found in humans mammals and invertebrates hydra protozoa I Course of habituationof a response 0 Occurs when stimuli is repeatedly presented 0 Decreases largely at first and progressively smaller I Effects of time savings and forgetting o If stimulus does not occur for some time response will recover 0 Amount of recovery depends on amount of time elapsed I Relearning effects 0 Habituation occurs faster in 2 101 series of stimulus presentations response disappears faster 0 Demonstrates quotsavingsquot from previous periods of habituation I Effects of stimulus intensity 0 Intense stimulus is more resistant to habituation I Effects of overlearning faster habituation 0 Below zero habituation learning that occurs when there s no observable response to the stimulus o More gun shots will increase longterm retention of the habituation and subject will show less ofa startle response the 2m1 evening I Stimulus generalization 0 Transfer of habituation from 1 stimulus to a newsimilar stimuli o Depends on the degree of similarity between stimulus Physiological Mechanisms of Habituation 0 Demonstrate that plasticity nervous systems ability to change as a result of experiencestimulation is possible in many different levels of the nervous system I Sometimes result in chemical changes in existing neurons rather than growth of new synapses I Work of Kandel and colleagues eg 1982 o The simple systems approach Aplysia s gillwithdrawal re ex p 51 0 Using primitive creature smaller less complex nervous systems 0 Habituation occurs at the synapses involving the axons of the sensory neurons I Change occurred the amount of transmitter released by the presynaptic sensory neurons into the synapse I No change in post synaptic neuron s sensitivity to the transmitter o Habituation due to decrease of calcium current in axon causing decrease in amount of transmitter release which decrease the excitation of the motor neuron decreasing response I Findings in some cases learning depends on changes at very specific neural location not on widespread changes in nervous system 0 Also habituation does not depend on anatomical changes 0 Habituation in Mammals I Startle response to loud noise and brain activity in mammals Michael Davis 1989 0 Use of brain imaging techniques Positron Emission Tomography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to locate habituation I Physiological habituationin cerebral cortex and hippocampus with repeated presentation of human faces 0 Startle reaction Individual neurons in auditory cortex show habituation o Auditory startle response cerebellum o Decreased activity in visual cortex with visual stimuli o Habituation in typical Emotional Responses The OpponentProcess Theory I Solomon and Corbit 1974 concept many emotional responses include an initial emotional reaction followed by an afterreaction of the opposite emotion 0 Some emotional reaction weaken while other are strengthened o Emotional reactions consist of o aprocess an initial response quotAffective reaction I remains until stimulus is present I decays quickly when stimulus ends 0 bprocess a later opposing response quotAffective afterreaction I activated in response to aprocess begins while stimuli present I more sluggish to rise and decaymore gradual increase and decrease o eg graduation example 0 repeated stimulus the aprocess is weakened as the bprocess starts earlier becomes stronger and lasts longer 0 Bprocess will rise quicker and reach a higher max is slower to decay after stimulus terminated 0 Time plays a role in the emotional response 0 Other Examples of Emotional Reactions and Application of OpponentProcess Theory I Parachutists Initial jump vs later jumps 112013 44500 PM o Learning the process of change that occurs as a result of experience 0 Acquisition Process Acquisition phase period in which a new skill is acquired 0 0 Product long term changes in behavior that result from a learning experience o 2 main approaches to studying learning are Behavioral and cognitive o Goal of research on learning to develop general principles that are applicable across a wide range of species and learning situations 0 No special emphasis on classroom learning 0 No restriction to human beings 0 Covers both learning processes and learned behaviors o Seeks to find general principles of learning Early Associationists similar to behavioral psych o Earliest theories of learning attempt to explain how people change as a result of experiences o Aristotle 1st 3 principles of association elementary theory of memory o hypothesis that describe how 1 thought leads to another a Contiguity more closely related in space or time two items occur the more likely will the thought of 1 item lead to the thought of the other a Spatial chair and table b Temporal lightning to thunder b Similarity thought of 1 concept often leads to the thought of another concept apples and orange blue and green c Contrast an item often leads to the thought of the opposite nightday boygirl o Strenqths of Aristotle s principles 0 They have some intuitive validity for most people 0 1St step in the development of a theory about the relationship between experience and memory o Weaknesses o Seems incomplete o Other factors that affect train of thought o British Associationists British Extreme Empiricists o Associationism is a theory of all knowledge O Called Empiricists dt belief that every person acquires all knowledge empirically though experience Believe every memory idea and concept is based on pervious experience Thomas Hobbes 1650 John Locke 1690 born blank slate tabula rasa John Stuart Mill 1843 Mental chemistry Thomas Brown 1920 Secondary principles of association adding to Aristotle Intense stimuliemotional events are more easily associated and remembered o Length of time 2 sensations coexist determine the strength of association o Liveliness vividness of the sensations affects the strength o Freguent sensations paired will be stronger associated o Recently paired 0 James Mill 1829 Theory of complex ideas mental compounding 2 or more simple sensations combine to form simple ideas that combine to form more complex ideas o Single principle of association contiguitycloseness of time andor space o repeated pairings of 2 more sensations produce complex ideas o Hierarchy of ideas increases in complexity 0 Experience simple sensations 1 to 1 correspondence the correspondence of 2 simple sensations A persons memory of this experience would consist of the 2 corresponding simple ideas 0 Memory ideas A simple idea is a faint replica of the simple sensation from which it arose 0 Complex ideas notion of a hierarchy A can be decomposed into 2more simple ideas Are always formed through the repeated pairing of these simple ideas o Duplex ideas when complex ideas combine themselves Criticisms of Mills people develop crude ideas of an entire concept before learning all the components of the concepts 0 O O O Herman Ebbinghaus 1885 Cognitive perspective 0 1st to put the associationists principles to a memory experimental test Lists of nonsense syllables w 2 consonants separated by a vowel HAQ PIF ZOD o Repeatedly studied a list until he could recite it perfectly Independent variable what is changed Dependent variable constant Findings List length longer lists require more learning o Overlearning memorizing a list beyond what required increased savings 0 Supported Brown s association principles Repetition o Increased of repetitions results in increase of savings o Savings the decrease in the number of repetitions needed to relearn the list 0 Compare the number of repetitions required to learn the list the first time to the number required the second time Time o Varying the length of time elapsed between study and test periods 0 Forgetting curve shows the passage of time is detrimental to memory 0 Ltial forgetting is rapid and then slows Contiguity o Closely presented items will be easier to remember c He rearranged the list o Found The strength of an association between 2 items depends on their proximity in the original list Compare Behaviorism and cognitive o Behaviorism more emphasis in this book Interested in learning abilities share by species Only a few include intervening variables and then sparingly 0 Cognitive Interested in complex abilities that are uniquely human Use intervening variables more freely and more frolifically o Wide range of unobservable concepts 0 Shortlong term memory sensory info stortage attention and rehearsal Behaviorism term coined by John Watson o Heavy reliance on animal subjects o Emphasis on external events environmental stimuli and overt behaviors o Reluctance to speculate about processes inside the organism a Animal subjects a When using animal models to study human behavior you must identify a relevant similarity between and animal model and they human behavior of interest Animals used more by behavioral than cognitive c Why i subject effects unlikely 1 humans can change behavior because they know they are being observed subject effects 2 Animals won t be motivated to please ii Convenience 1 Easy and inexpensive to care for 2 Regular participation certain Environment can be controlled better animals born and raised in lab iv Comparative simplicity 1 Researchers many have a better chance of discovering the basic principles of learning by examining less intelligent and complex creatures d Why not Animals 39 Many complex important skills language reading solving complex problems are uniquely human and cant be studied in animals ii Humans are so different from other animals its not possible to generalize from animal behaviors to human behaviors 1 Truth abundance of evident that animal learning applicable to human behavior iii Ethical concerns o Watson Behaviorism 0 Psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist 1919 D39 criticized introspection methods of research analyzing your own mental process 0 Psych should be concerned w observable events stimuli and responses Want s psych to be a science subjective Sciences deal only with observable events Therefore psych must deal only with observable events o Skinner o Wrote The Behavior of Organisms 1938 o The causes of behaviors can be traced back to external environments changing environments changes behavior 0 Theories in psych should not include intervening variables unobservable events such as thirst anger intelligence stubbornness and laziness Intervening variables do not improve our ability to predict behavior and only complicate theories Intervening variable can fool one into thinking they have found the cause of behavior when they actually are talking about a hypothetical and unobservable entity o Accepting this explanation could prematurely curtail efforts to improve the problem behavior 0 Neal Miller intervening variables can be helpful and should be used c Helpful when several independent and dependent variables are involved o Can simplify a theory o Used in other scientific disciplines Animals in research are beneficial behavior therapy medicine rehabilitation of neuromuscular disorders understanding and treating effects of stress and pain o Physiological Approach Associationism and Brain Research 0 Neurons Specialized cells that transmit info Human brain 100bill neurons 100 trill synapses Can fire hundreds of times per second o Many neurons display spontaneous activity Cell body nucleus Regulates the basic metabolic function of the cell Dendrites receive transmitted info transmitters released by other neurons c When the dendrite and cell body receive sufficient stimulation the neuron fires change in electrical potential o Neuron may receive inputs from 1000 other neurons Axons release neurotransmittersthrough axon terminals when cell fires o May send outputs to 1000 other neurons o Amount of transmitter released determines level of activation of next neuron Synapse small gap between the axon terminal presynaptic neuronand a dendrite of another neuron postsynaptic neuron o Transmitters affect the postsynaptic neuron in 2 ways 0 Excitator s na se the release of transmitters make the postsynaptic neuron more likely to fire 0 Inhibitory synapse the release of transmitters makes the postsynaptic neuron less likely to fire o A neuron s firing rate reflects the combined influence of all its excitatory and inhibitory inputs I Action potential When stimulated the neuron depolarizes res and a neural impulse action potential travels down the axon 0 Each action potential is the same size 0 Simple Sensations British Associationists were right Our sensory systems analyze the complex stimulus environment that surrounds us BY breaking it down into simple sensations o Supports the Associationists o Each sensory system begins by detecting a fairly basic characteristic of incoming stimuli Receptors specialized neurons that take in external stimuli from the environment only structures that make contact w external stimuli o All sensory systems begin by breaking down incoming stimuli into simple sensations o Sensitive to specific types of external stimuli o Vision cones on the retina detect colors and location in the visual field redgreen blue o Skin tactile receptors each detect pressure pain or temperature ect o Auditory single neurons detect particular sound frequencies o Taste 4 simple taste receptors sour salty bitter and sweet Complex ideas perceptions o Hubel and Wiesel 0 Feature detectors neurons in the brain that respond to specific visual stimulus Visual cortex has several different types of feature detectors coritical cells that respond to more complex shapes Simple cells in the visual cortex respond to visual stimulus of a line of a specific orientationandpresented in a specific part of the visual field Evidence for innate feature detectors more complex feature detectors 0 Olfactory cortex single feature detector Single neuron doctrine of perception o The visual system is arranged in a hierarchy of increasing complexity 0 At the highest levels are neurons that respond to very specific features of the stimulus Research on Associative Learning o 3 main types of changes that can occur in the brain as a result of a learning experience 0 Growth of new synapses Learning experiences can lead to growth of new synaptic connections between neurons Rosenzweig s 1966 research on environmental enrichment in rats o Rich sensory and learning environment w other rats vs no stimuli and alone o Brains of stimulated rats heavier especially in cerebral cortex learning Other Research shows Learning experience can produce growth in brain tissue o More dendrite branching more synaptic connections 0 may underlie the formation of longterm memories 0 Arborization dendrite branching Dramatic before birth to 1 year o Synapses have larger surface areas o More structured learning experiences can produce localized cellular changes 0 Chemical changes in existing synapses during learning In the amount of neurotransmitter In the sensitivity of neurons to neurotransmitter Longlasting increases in the strength of existing synaptic connection between neurons o Longterm potentiation increase in the strength of excitatory synapses as a result of electrical stimulation 0 Can last for weeks or months 0 Observed in human brain tissue after removal and in intact brains 0 Demonstrated in brain areas that store longterm memories hippocampus cerebral cortex 0 May play a role in learning new associations o Types of chemical changes that increase strength of synaptic connections 0 May be a basic process through which the brain can change as a result of a learning experience Axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron develops the capacity to release more transmitter 0 Cell membrane of the postsynaptic neuron becomes more sensitive to the transmitter Amount of transmitter is the same but greater response of the postsynaptic neuron o Probably a combination of both 0 Neurogenesis growth of new neurons during learning Growth continues into adulthood o Cerebral cortex o Hippocampus and areas receiving input fromt eh hippocampus 0 Complex ideas storage Amemories are diffusely throughout the brain Lashley 1950 B info about individual conceptsideas is localized neurons respond selectively to a particular complex object o Specific concepts are stored in specific areas of the brain catagories are stored together