PSYCHOLOGY OF READING
PSYCHOLOGY OF READING PSY 338K
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marco Wolf on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 338K at University of Texas at Austin taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/181808/psy-338k-university-of-texas-at-austin in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
PointCounterpoint L quot k L Research supports direct instruction models by ilcanni S Chall T issues of direct instruction and whole language an cnttal to the teach 39 g They are of based society lndccd high iding achievement or all as i to national gml in the United Stairs i tvil concerned mainly with diruct l instruction models It is not easy to stici m i 39h g c different ways ttat reading prole onnls define and practice direct instruction li wttul l ht hiirtl lo nndip i39itiitaclcm slnt n I I1LL39 l e ii is most effective llt39 lay tlturt upctt iciiclihirt am is rnriig s so dill39cult It defint direct on hecttustc lllL39 amount of direct get with the reading dcvelo p d pro 39 ncy or the sludeitL reading dcvulops and h s 8 titles c truCtion a in spite or the dithcuitics in de ning dirtct instruction a Vll le language 0dr 5 l m use u l Similarities Itstween they other and also tw distinctions an them how how they are similar Similarities and differences In theory and practice sian with similarities Both the n an whoe language 8 3 com mi in ing with writing Both want iill students to achieve their potential and both want th be NOW to th omt er ences concern theory others concern ECUEE With regard to theory the direct on and whole instruct nents say it is not necessary to leach mditt direct Direct instruction models on the other hand view readin as needing to be taught and taught systematically Indeed an often used rationale for the people on earth spealt a language while according to uncsco nearly a hillion are illilcmte mainly because they do not attend schools where reading is taught d le u her dirterence in theory concerns whether reading is conceptualized as csscniiali the same process at all levels emergent literacy to advanced rea is viewed as a languagecogni ve recess 0n the other hand as I pointed out 3 in my b k Develop dirct instruction in ading in more developmental terms timers move from the reading 0 ltr ts is Where the critical task is to identity or decode wot s to more ItlvtlllLUtl sitigtts or reading that dilli cut and abstract texts where the en al tasks his word meanings comprchcn sion and Ctlliml reactions SF Differing views on phonics Perhaps the difference that is of great est general co cent is that ol phonics it is the issue that appears most ohcn tn the press and one that has tended to poiarize the he Generally direct insimction models a ching and lemm nd 6 p p phonological awareness or analysis worlt anacit phonetic analysis soun symbol relations etc hand However there is still whole language prop Whole language versus direct instruction models Ont or tltt highlights or the 1992 l issues forum on Viiolt Ling s ching not A has icinnt s criall and Kenneth s Goodman discuss this o c rytu rcicirc which has spurred dc RA Ann cti uugc and Direct lnstniction quot no than was the Models ltttpl nic In It at Volilll D hiltil Itlc tins it it or c aw version it u issue of Readln Today We think you will nd their comuntan rcmartcs for th g ommcnis inronnittivo enlightening and sometimes provocative We invite readers to share their opinions on the whole languagedirect instruction ticbate Please send comments or 200 words or less to PointCounterpoint Reading Today IRA 800 Burkstlale Rd PO Box 8139 Newark DE l97l4lt8139r USA We ll print some of the more interesting comments in an upcoming issue John Mannlrlg I c chall nun Ksnnelh S Goodman Gurus professors and the politics of phonics by Kenneth S Goodman Whole language is a broad unda mcnl l revolution in education This mv olution includes undamcnuil changes in how we vicw reading an writing and the teaching and learning or literacy Reducing it to a method of reading which is simply the opposite or an approach that stresses phonics trivializes tllc hroad nnturc oi this revolution my view phonics constitutes the et rrcl onships bulwccn the two scm tic s s phonology and unit nt alphabetically writ 0 cit p a ten language Renders ln wntdts come malt in than p hi I39m not quotagainstquot phonits Through my misruc restarch l know a grct tictil aho it English orthography it its lvholc rt i phonology and p on ti c Li A ltut exclude t s it t udts phon k about phonics here bonitot that s not what this debate 5 ll39luut Nor will i spend my time arguing in tavor or whole language I39ve already written cxtcnsiv subject My book What39s Whole in Whole sented But the e isn39t the merits or whole her ther i will focus on why Jeanne Chill and th rS choose to frame revolution in education as merit over whether to use whole I guage or phonics in teaching reading particularly heginning reading Bashing brand x Repeatedly chall presents wholt lan e as iust 2 new name for quot Q Is or X compares unfavombly with among clients for ethod at inci enlal not systematic phonics and it phonics She asserts that her 1967 meta h h I L 4 individual r 39 39 students As noted earlier here and doc studies can still be used to dichotomize unien ed in my article gto R cading instruction The following The real Debate 20 Years ter A uotcs s ow that she continues t Response to 39Debu km the Great equate whole language with the n Phonics Myth uppoti March 1969 I 3 asis appmc whole language still does not seem to l di it synthesis in 1967 and updated accept the need for Chan tconttnued trout p iii in The Reading Report Card 197mg Goodman tentttmtmtl rtttm p tr Failure The Mylbs of Rendlng Trends from the Nation39s Reporl Inslmclion atom which tltitttttl that Card by lvi Mu s and Lu Jenkins i i it maternal reading students today lh quotn lunmmlu39 t tlucation Testing Sc 39 Will WNW Hwy hum quot f lam are not able to decode nutnil t it ruc ts txprcmt39l tn A c or E H K J thll tntensrv tetn c and m pump MOI of ttt isquot mum eu Education Newsletter gm March 95 Tht cnmnlilluc also noted that a In the stutt Blumcnfcld puts March m9 Kappml trllL lt by hall L39 i h 0 5fquot and William cites a study by peter Fteebody and nst the dew and the gums En rt ltymc that to rms the same find Tht39 WM 0quot h 39 onimittte went on to 11 t L s hunk agitach tilttch Th l uiusl dmm wert rt llmU when s ools put nmr Kiln 39 0 n basic skills which is mart By way or Conlrztsl 39 39 cniphu chamclerislic or direct instrttclion mudv 0 cln instntq39 rt model we n a a 4 5 r lilriwd betwe it those agreed with Ill and those who lowe the gurus of loo sa u it quotc K Goodman39s Englisha Kenneth Goodman a proponent or III Chinese hmunlcs began developn3 thequot whole langua c an lunchquot has called a a ti a l a E n E a a w 01 the tundamental stnicture ol language engage in On the other hand the 19805 were th t th 9 y old drd betr n he ii an app ch Blume 61d psychollngulallc guesstn c39 exposch a direct tnstrucrto in el adds quot1quot quote quot5 P parlmenl f l e o on my I y til i e used 0 a 5 1quot quot49quot 39 mm 5 quot 1 Side co mtltue elltng a su ey process or whole in m famed i phonics will quotI beam or graduate prore or r ding I dl s nlhesih of re l r quot 8 I d quot Sl fuc m fl Ch quot 9 aling I t n it Kcnnet methods or teaching in round that the bk Ind Eumews Goodman a d mun iluey had in direct instruction ttch a Pc39mPOV SPVWhole 39 Bui l their opinion written the moat signin ewspa almost im vinblv Wind up presenting cant Clil sic studt tn reading 5 CMquot 492 Accnrding to the committee tll tltree are here are two ways to teach reading uwetbknown mcifcmus d w Aug dental and quoton emandquot phonics or documented in m Ch 5 The ey may lu 39 c ch whole language proponents lmponance or Instruction in Reading reading Icsvs Teacher canl lmk for ing orphoni mtt tn dot at are Methods rot All Tzachcus in the book themselves but are b ms brainwashed two or today39s most in uential pmpo may language mgom Bun 5 nents of the loo an say or as they soar in Teacher Education The Cow these C m fquot 5gt PM m would term it wholc language method Itmuldseemlhalhalanceand Orton Dyslexia Society 1937 edited by a Canadian newsml cn I D mg 390 I9 otreaclting leadingquot Bowlcr S Edmu 9 nd Huey who rli d so ye ts moderadonareas lmponantln A more recent metaanalysis at about 0quot vamml mdm 35 Toronto PSY39 ago is hardly vocirenius 39milh Knowledge Base tor ch escrtbes l 39 t 5t tnk 5 2000 studies The olo isl Dennis Raphael when last I spoke to hi had not needing inslmctlonaslnllfc Educational Pmductivi y by He rt Wh l 39 T RWEU as jmadncss u come a proponent or any panicular Vlalberg published in the January l992 micquot SYfl m hi hi rock mm W5 method or teaching reading at l issue or II Internude Joinno of Raphael en39 y an taco anal Reforenalso found that Amr lfns 0 the nmqlg Onc prolw being so highly regarded ly in I h d m H h I I the best predictors of achievement are lung at I presume 09m lan Incidentally Jeanne Chan39s nunv c n 5 fquot 3902 quotW WT quotm those rou d in direcr insuunion mod quoty M shocked w dis also he iound on lhltl Hit or authors of quot quot 5 quot C d 39quotm quotquot mastery learning con rmation rein classic stutlit i of early intensive ten 39 d In lt S lt 3 cover ttrtltng to this d el the re quot 9 3 quot quot d in n Jl w an t I r I I I Repuitr n tny duculllulll all an nmmmim mum in on cut tudt o HAmumquot her ties hate th uhlllnn In madmg m quumy chtldrert the prevtously ctted i e 1985 Harvard pmlusnur t tine tzr devcmpmcm quotr We s I lso rand tattoo rertlrtmted her 11quotleth ch ndings in This i3 mm inclined Willi due I 39 rfldmn 01 a d recotn c ed that Ll39IL39l39 ltnintng effective tn sludnlt reading achieve an us 0 he clrn ed to retutre the IquotCll39n em Gnu ngalehcctlmczl bestsellerquot intensivf mm P a 39 ot With regard to phoni my synlllv NOW quot quotK39squot quot Cks h l quotM W Y overwhelmin evidence l39rtittt rt MIT mo quot3 5 quotquot39 Pm or the research from l9ld to 1965 and 2N W39l Chillquot 39wn Harvard and wr in u lnd tlt r I knuw ul nu munnp lam rm 196 m 989 ound mm UanL39 ll Dquot r nnc C An cu m u d r r t olies with regard to these a ectst o t Yquot tnrttt tattltgttr quot1quot t t t quotV quot quot mdin Nm 1m me mudcm d 0 temattt instruction tn rm a alun 3 k L quot L testnmtttn or the tnnlruclttrnitl pnu39HCL 3911 G A Y mm the eadtng or books pmd hUI39MM l n ulll d In quotIdl 3 3quot S of intensive systematic Chall continued from p 9 ture in their sessions and taught more directly produced better results The evidence on the value of direct instruction has been with us a long time In spite of the strong evidence however n to go through cycles of reject ing it then later accepting it We seem now to be in a negative cycle Indeed words teaching and instruction be held in low esteem Many prof onals prefer instead the facilitatingquot quotm deling scaf and coaching39 Concluding remarks I should like to raise a point of cau tion with regard to both direct instnic tion and whole language models It is even the seem to reading 2 9 o m folding possible to overdo a good thing 39 students get only direct instruction they should they will not read and write enough 39 whole language studean do 0 w ole language they will miss out n learning the skills and strategies that will help them grow in reading It would seem that balance and mod ti are as important in reading instruction as in life lenmw S Chall is a professor of educa tion emerier a Harvard Universin in Cambridge Massachusells USA Supporting libraries More than 300000 people throughout the United States voiced their support for libraries as part of the Call for America39s Librariesquot campaign sp earlier this year by the American Association and the Friends of Libraries SA More than 230000 people sent let ters and signed petitions and another 5000 phoned in their support Goodman continued from p 9 The real Great Debate 50 Is there a Great Debate Yes but it s not about phonics For half a century we ve been finding out about how reading and writing work how they39re learned and how they39re used to learn And we39re making excit ing strides in putting all that knowledge to work inwhole language schools and classrooms There are a series of sub stantial disagreements between me and Jeanne Chall We disagree on the nature of the reading and writing processes We disagree on how kids leanr to read and write We disagree on the existence of my research and the other research that underlies whole language We disagree on the ability of teach ers to use their knowledge to make their own professional decisions I We even disagree on what We dis agree about Although I believe Chall uses a nar row definition of research to reach erro neous conclusions I respect her right to those conclusions But I expect her at olitical use of her least to consider the p Education including literacy education is political Some of the irrational argu ments used against whole language come from people who are afraid it will work too well They don39t want people to be too widely literate to have easy access to information that may empower them Others find it good politics to trade on rural an workingclass parents39 fears that schools are up to no good for their children Do I hold Chall responsible for the political uses of her work Of course I do At our debate she asked Is it my fault Phyllis Schlafly loves mequot And I respond No But you ought to consider why she loves youquot I was pleased to see quotes in the press39 from Chall on what was wrong with Hooked on Phonicsquot She sound ed almost l39 e a whole language gum on the subject But in every case I39ve quot ed here she has been notably silent I don39t think Chall supports the edu cational or political ri ht She can39t con t her any more than I can agenda of the far trol what they say control what they say about me But yes i think she is responsible for clarifying What is her name done in Kenneth S Goodman is a professor of educalia Tucson A rr zorm n at he University of Arizona m USAJ Atlanta Book Festival spotlights reading As if to prepare for hosting the sum mer Olympics in 1996 Atlanta hosted more than 70 authors from as far away as japan and New Zealand during the First Atlanta International Book Festival held November 68 The threeday cele bration of reading and multicultural entertainment emphasized the role that reading can play in the understanding and appreciation of other cultures Chalayne HunterGault Doris Buchanan Smith Anne Rivers Siddon Webb Garrison Lois Wyse Celestine Sibley Jose Rada and Soh Aono were among the featured nationally and inter nationally known authors appearing at the festival The celebration which Was sponsored and supported by the local business and civic communities featured authors presentations autographing ses sions panel discussions storytelling ses sions for children writing workshops and howto workshops for parents who wanted to instill a love of reading in their children The initial concept of the festival was conceived by the Friends of the Atlanta Fulton Public Library a volunteer sup port group In locations throughout the metropolitan Atlanta nrea activities were provided to expand the general aware ness in the community of the vast array of resources and interesting materials available Children39s activities reinforced the fun aspects of readin d learning an children39s uthors v39s39ted local schools Or a l l to the vrsrts schools re ceived mule ticultural reading lists at all grade leVetsr and students were encoura ed to 0 authors books Each child who su ecome familiar with the visiting ccessfully complet ed the readings rec ived a certi cate and other forms with the authors schools Later the e of recognition Children also had opportunities to talk I when they visited the 1 children were invited tri and interact to attend a special bute to Georgia authors lebration also featured the The ce Book Festival Exhibition which included nearly 60 exhibits by and wrth books and literacy were also re sented providing Va to patents and others local and national rare book dealers luable information All in all the festival was successful in wareness of the raising the cultural community and sity of experiences tl part of life in America a in celebrating the diver mt are so much a
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