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Date Created: 09/07/15
The geometry associated With viewing a surface angle of incidence i angle of emittance e phase angle g With respect to surface normal N T he normal refers to the direction that is perpendicular to the surface H750 nm 44 UAU V J 375 nm The wave nature of light Light like sound can differ in its wavelength phase and amplitude 10 Frequency 1 in cycles per second 5 10 2 10 l l 10 l 1024 r Cusmic rays Gamma rays X rays vwn uv V I l Inlvared l Radar FM 4 4 Ligm Television wart wave olet Blue Green Yellow R d I l x Broadcast 400 0 600 700 Power Wavelength mu 1 A 1 micron 1 meter 1 km l y l l l 1 y l I 10 quot2 10 393 10 1 10 10B Wavelength x in centlmeters The range of Visible wavelengths of light out of the entire electromagnetic spectrum RELATIVE RADIANT POWER WAVELENGTH X um Examples of daylight radiant power spectra normalized at 550 nm The curves are labeled by the color temperature the temperature of a black body radiator that would produce approximately the same power spectrum 05 l l l l 05 l l l l 045 e 045 04 Juniper full lea 0 4 7 Grass young and green m035 035 g 03 r 03 025 025 E 02 r 02 015 r 015 u 01 r 0quot r 01 r r g on n 39 00 5 o39 r 005 39 39 39 7 0 l l l o 400 450 500 550 600 650 400 450 500 550 6a 650 Wavelength nm Wavelength nm 05 l l 045 r 04 r Whealstraw 035 g 03 S 025 7 02 r a 7 015 7 01 r 005 U 0 l l l 400 450 500 550 600 650 400 450 500 550 500 550 Wavelength nm Wavelengm Hm Re ectance spectra of some natural materials From Krinov 1947 0 60 Time ms Typical sequence of photons emitted from a 10W imensity lighl source Photons and the Randomness of Light Energy of a photon J1 chxi Photon interarrival time PW gt17e Number of photons in a fixed time interval pz z 20l2m Formulas describing the randomness of light absorption and emission The number of photons absorbed in a xed time interval is described by the Poisson probability density function PROBABILITY O5 39 39 00 005 I o I J I H H n n n 1 O 5 I0 I5 20 NUMBER OF ABSORBED PHOTONS Examples of the Poisson density that describes the randomness of the light absorption and emission Posterior chambev Limba zone Conjunctiva Canal 0 Schlemm Clllal39y musde Aw Ora serrate x y LVisual axis 1 SC EISA Chumid Lamina cnbrosa Major anatomical structures in the human eye Formation of images by an aperture pupil Without a lens Formation of images with a lens PUPIL DIAMETER mm 4 DEGROOT 1552 o o SPRING a STILES 948 o I u I l I I I I I I I I n ao 4 2 o 2 4 e LOG LUMINANCE cam2 Geisler W S 1989 Sequential idealobserver analysis of Visual discriminations Psychological Review 96 267314 08 I I I I I 02 39 39 FRACTION TRANSMITTED PHOTONS O 4 00 I I I I I 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 WAVELENGTH NM Wyszecki G and W S Stiles 1982 Color Science Concepts and Methods Quantitative Data and Formulae New York Wiley Examples of sine wave gratings of different contrasts 7 Output AhuAau4u AhugtvAaugtV4ugtv 11uliuPxu 3ugtvliugtvRugtV Measuring the transfer function of an optical system The amplitude transfer function is the ratio of the output contrast to the input contrast as a function of sine wave grating spatial frequency 0 par ma Prhxur visual oncx Lawn gmmam body 0pm ndmm u The Visual pathway from the eye to the primary Visual cortex also known as striate cortex in the human brain Dunc nerve Dunc chiasma 0pm tract Lamral geliiculaIQ J Superior collmulus Optic radlation Sriale conex Visual pathway from retina t0 striate cortex The right Visual eld projects to the left hemisphere and the left Visual eld projects to the right hemisphere Defects m visual field of Left eye Right eye IO 200 0pm I 30 50939 0100 What are the effects of lesions at different places along the Visual pathway The cut at each different location gives a different kind of Visual eld defect Cross section of the lateral geniculate nucleus LGN also known as the lateral geniculate body The upper four layers are the P zone and the lower two layers are the M zone P zone lt AU X Xi ugh M zone N AX LGN layers The lateral geniculate nucleus LGN is divided into layers The upper layers P zone receive projections from the parvo midget ganglion cells in the retina The lower M zone receive projections from the magno parasol ganglion cells The smaller K layers receive input from ganglion cells coding responses from the blue S cones Green layers receive projections from the contralateral eye brown from the ipsilateral eye Rodieck R W 1998 The First Steps in Seeing Sunderland Sinauer Contrast Spatial frequency High Low High Low B C D 30 2 E gt a s 5 IE In l0 V39 a a o 5 a 3 U E o s U l Control 1 10 P M Sparlal frequency Temporal lrequency ame alone Hz cyclesdegree o Palone D M alone Control Effects on Visual performance of lesions in the P and M zones of the LGN Merigan W H and J H R Maunsell 1993 How parallel are the primate visual pathways Annual Review of Neuroscience 16 369402 Visual areas in the visual cortex of the macaque monkey Felleman D J and D C Van Essen 1991 Distributed hierarchical processing in the primate cerebral cortex Cerebral Cortex 1 1 7 Major connections between Visual cortical areas The width of the connection is proportional to the number of axon bers The left side warm colors is the so called where pathway and the right side cool colors is the socalled what pathway Micro electrode Micro electrode rv Opt mu Micro mm electrode arcml gcniculnlc bod Op adnnons Recording from single neurons in the primary Visual cortex V1 A electrode next to a single visual co ex neuron A Field mapped with spots B Receptive C Importance of orientation eld of bar of light w uj Light i H i 94 69 Diffuse illiunination l g1 0 39l 2 3 0 1 2 3 Time s Time s Receptive eld properties ofa simple cell The cell is orientation selective and positionphase selective Hubel D H and T N Wiesel 1962 Receptive elds binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat s visual cortex Journal of Physiology London 160 106154 Hubel D H and T N Wiesel 1968 Receptive elds and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex Journal of Physiology London 195 215243 STIMULUS H XREV i RESPONSE Stimuus Stimulus Stimulus o Cell s response TUNING CURVE Orientation of bar Response Properties ofV1 Neurons Simple cells 1 Low spontaneous activity quiet when not stimulated 2 Receptive fields are elongated not circular and are also divided into excitatory and inhibitory regions 3 The and regions do not form a center and a surround but form alternating stripes rectangular regions edge detectors slit detectors ine detectors 4 They are position or phase selective 5 They are orientation selective 6 They are size selective 7 They are often direction selective 8 They are often disparity selective I lm W4 4 4b I ll IWl I W4 I lh I lmt k W Iquot 4 L1JI U l 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Time s Time 5 Receptive eld properties of a complex cell The gray square shows the location of the classical receptive eld The cell is orientation selective but not positionphase selective Hubel D H and T N Wiesel 1962 Receptive elds binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat s visual cortex Journal of Physiology London 160 106154 Hubel D H and T N Wiesel 1968 Receptive elds and functional architecture of monkey striate cortex Journal of Physiology London 195 215243 Response Properties ofV1 Neurons Coleex cells 1 Low spontaneous activity quiet when not stimulated 2 Receptive fields are elongated not circular 3 Do not form a center and a surround ratherthey behave like edge detectors slit detectors or line detectors 4 They are not selective to position or phase 5 They are orientation selective 6 They are size selective 7 They are often direction selective 8 They are often disparity selective Excitation Simple cortical cell Model ofneural circuit for simple cells Model ofneural circuit for complex cells Pia mater Proiemions slellaie cell Superior colliculus Lateral geniculate nucleus Left eye afferent from High eye alferent from lateral geniculate nucleus Iareral geniculale nucleus White matter Layers of the striate cottex which is also known as pnmary Visual cottex area 17 in the cat and V1 in the monkey CorKical pegs Ocular 1 I r dominance concerned w lh co 0 Layers Surfao To higher m conical regions IV Primary visual conex area 17 v Tu superiorcohicums v To Ialetal geniculate r nucleus While mzner Ovienlation co umns Laugral genlculale nucleus 61C 5H MC ill 2 1C Jig The columnar structure of primary Visual cortex There are ocular dominance and orientation columns Each complete set of columns all orientations and both eyes de ne a hypercolumn Blasdel G G 1992 Differential imaging of ocular dominance and orientation selectivity in monkey striate corteX Journal of Neuoscience 12 31153138 20