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Week 6 Life102 Notes

by: Sydney Dingman

Week 6 Life102 Notes Life 102

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > Life 102 > Week 6 Life102 Notes
Sydney Dingman
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes are only Monday and Wednesday of Week 6. I was sick and missed Friday, but will watch the video and post those notes with Week 7.
Attributes of Living Systems
Erik N Arthun
Class Notes
Biology, LIFE102
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Dingman on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Erik N Arthun in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
Week 6 LIFE 102 Notes 2/22/16, Chapter 8 cont.  ATP and Metabolism o ATP is needed for most endergonic (energy in) processes  Created constantly through respiration  Organization of the Chemistry of Life into Metabolic Pathways o Metabolic pathway: begins with a specific molecules and ends with a product o Each step is catalyzed by a specific enzyme o ABCD (A starting molecule, D is product)  Enzymes needed for each arrow/transformation  Enzymes o Speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers o Catalyst: chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction o Enzyme: catalytic protein o Hydrolysis of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase is an example of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction  Enzyme Activity o Most exergonic reactions have to be activated before they proceed spontaneously o Activation Energy; initial energy needed to start a reaction  Ways to overcome the activation barrier: o Heating: bonds loosened o Enzymes: proteins that speed up reactionsbiological catalysts o Enzymes are very specific: they accelerate one particular reaction o Reactants that the enzyme uses: substrate o Enzymes lower the activation energy required which is why the reaction is much faster  Activation energy is lowered by enzymes o Enzymes promote reactions by serving as a physical site upon which the reactant molecules (substrate) can be positioned for various interactions  Enzyme-Substrate Interactions o Active Site: the actual site on the enzyme where the substrate binds for the reaction to proceed o “Lock-and-key” fit: the active site is very specific in its shape and chemistry for the substrate o The enzyme  Is not used up in the reaction  Is not part of the final products  Can be re-used again  How do enzymes lower activation energy? o Enzyme could use one or more of the following: o Enzyme binds substrates in right position for reaction o Enzyme binding of substrates stressed atomic bonds, so they break easily o Active site may have properties that facilitate reaction (acid/basic, hydrophobic) o Side groups of amino acids may participate in reaction and be restored o Overall: reaction is facilitated!  Influences on Enzymatic Reaction Rate o Environmental conditions:  Temperature  When heated up to an extreme amount, the enzyme would denature  pH o Each enzyme has a temperature optimum and pH optimum  Enzymatic reaction rate is influenced by: o Activation/ Inhibition by other molecules:  Cofactors 2  Cofactor: non-protein molecule/atom required for enzyme activity  Like metals and coenzymes  Inhibitors  Activators  Regulation of Enzyme Activity o Cofactors  Non-protein molecule or atom that is required for enzyme activity  Many are metals o Inhibitors  Competitive: binds in active site  Non-competitive: binds in allosteric site o Activators  Activate enzymes through binding at allosteric (other) site  Can’t compete in the active site because it would be blocking the active site, doing its opposite function  Why have inhibitors and activators? o To regulate enzyme activity  Regulate how much of a product is formed (too much or too little)  Multimeric Enzymes: o Have multiple active sites which can be controlled with just one activator or inhibitor  Metabolic Pathway: series of enzymes that work together  Feed-back inhibition: o An enzyme is inhibited by its product o Less product more made o More product less made o No need for inhibitors or activators with this feedback  Strategy of Metabolism o Use catabolism to: 3  Release energy  Capture electrons  Liberate building blocks o Drive anabolism by  Spending energy  Using electrons  Using building blocks 2/24/16, Chapter 9, Cellular Respiration and Fermentation  Energy Movement through Ecosystems o Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat  Photosynthesis- chloroplasts  Respiration- mitochondria  Steal electrons from our food for use and high energy molecules  Uses for ATP: o Transport work o Mechanical work o Chemical work  Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels o The breakdown of organic molecules is exergonic o Cellular Respiration: C6H12O6+O2 o Oxidation and Reduction: CO2+H2O+Energy o The transfer of electrons during chemical reactions releases energy stored in organic molecules o The released energy is ultimately used to make ATP  Principle of Redox o Chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants are called oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions o In oxidation, a substance loses electrons, or is oxidized o In reduction, a substance gains electrons, or is reduced (the amount of positive charge is reduced) 4  OIL RIG  Oxidation Is Lost  Reduction Is Gained o Some redox reactions do not transfer electrons but change the electron sharing in covalent bonds o Oxygen is VERY electronegative:  It attracts electrons  It pulls electrons closer to its nucleus  As electrons are pulled closer to oxygen, there is a release of energy  Oxidation of organic fuel molecules during cellular respiration o During cellular respiration, the fuel (such as glucose) is oxidized, and O2 is reduced o Electrons from organic compounds are usually first transferred to NAD+, a coenzyme (electron shuttle) o Each NADH (the reduced form of NAD+) represents stored energy that is tapped to synthesize ATP  Dropped off at the top of the stairwell and is pulled down  Cellular respiration o Electrons are H+ are transferred from glucose to oxygen o High-energy electrons in glucose become low-energy electrons in H20 and CO2 o This reaction releases energy that is used to make ATP  Breakdown of Glucose Overview o Glucose is broken down in little steps o A little energy is released per step:  Small enough for a cell to handle  Large enough to drive ATP production  Respiration uses intermediate molecules to transfer electrons o NADH and FADH2 serve as intermediate molecules that carry electrons o NADH passes the electrons to the electron transport chain 5 o Unlike uncontrolled reaction, the electron transport chain passes electrons in a series of steps instead of one explosive reaction o O2 pulls electrons down the chain in an energy-yielding tumble  The energy yielded is used to regenerate ATP  Electron transport chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation  First Step in Breakdown of Glucose: Glycolysis o Oxidized during Glycolysis and Citric Acid Cycle o Electrons are gradually transferred from glucose to NAD to ETC to Oxygen o “Glycolysis”—Sugar splitting o Glucose is broken from 6 carbons to 2 sets of 3 forming 2 chains of pyruvate o Oxidative phosphorylation accounts for almost 90% of the ATP generated by cellular respiration  Adding a phosphate group using oxidative power to ADP to create ATP o A smaller amount of ATP is formed in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle by substrate-level phosphorylation o For each molecule of glucolse degraded to CO2 and water by respiration, the cell makes up to 32 molecules of ATP  Substrate-level Phophorylation o All ATP created in  Glycolysis  Citric Acid Cycle  STEP 1: GLYCOLYSIS o Breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate o Occurs in the cytoplasm o Glycolysis occurs whether or not O2 is present o Energy can be broken down into an Energy Investment Phase or Energy Payoff Phase  Energy investment phase: 2 sites where 1 ATP is used= -2ATP  Energy payoff phase: 2 sites where 2 ATP are gained= +4ATP  Glycolysis summary 6 o One glucose is used o Partial oxidation of the sugar (loss of electrons  Two NAD+ are reduced (gain of electrons) o 4 ATP total are made o 2 ATP are consumed  Net of 2 ATP produced o 2 pyruvates are end products  Serve as starting substrates for the citric acid cycle  Before the citric acid cycle can begin: o Pyruvate must be converted to acetyl Coenzyme A, which links glycolysis to the citric acid cycle 7


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