New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Psychology Week 7 Notes

by: Meagan

Psychology Week 7 Notes Psych 2010

Marketplace > Auburn University > Psychlogy > Psych 2010 > Psychology Week 7 Notes

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what we went over in lecture.
Introduction to Psychology
Aimee A Callender
Class Notes
Psychology, Social Science, Humanities
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


Reviews for Psychology Week 7 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/28/16
Process of Operant Conditioning  Acquisition/Shaping o Process to bring about desired operant response o Successive Approximations  As get closer give reinforcers to keep moving forward  Ex: training a dog  Reinforcement Schedules o Continuous Reinforcement  Most efficient for initial training  Ex: give a dog a treat for sitting o Partial (Intermittent Reinforcement)  Ratio = based on responses produced  Fixed Ratio o Exactly every 5 seconds  Variable Ratio o Sometimes 3 or 5 seconds but an average set  Interval = time  Fixed Interval o Exactly every 10 seconds  Variable Interval o About every/ on average 10 seconds o Primary and Secondary Reinforcers  Primary  Those that are immediately rewarding  Ex: food  Secondary  Stimulus that acquires its reinforcing value  Ex: money  Punishment o It decreases the behavior o Positive  Presentation of an unpleasant stimulus  Ex: spanking, being laughed at, getting a failing grade o Negative  Removal of a pleasant stimulus  Ex: grounding (no TV, no friends) o Negative consequences of punishment  Increase in aggressive behavior  Fear of the punishing person o Works best when:  There is an alternative response available to replace those being punished  Paired with reinforcement to foster desired alternative behavior  Person understands the reason for the punishment  Punishment is implemented immediately after the undesirable behavior Latent Learning  Learning that is not immediately demonstrated in behavior  Tolman o Studied rats exploring mazes  Cognitive Process in operant learning o Rats developed cognitive map from exploring o Demonstrated learning only when a reward was present  Cognitive Explanation of Operant Conditioning o Means-End Relationship (if doesn’t satisfy = lowered response)  Hungry rates were trained to press a bar for sugar water or food pellets  Rats deprived of water  Trained with food  Low levels of responding  Trained with water  High levels of responding o Contrast Effects  Large Rewards  High levels of Responding  Weak rewards  lower levels of responding  Ex: some people get a penny for working and other get piles of money; the ones with the piles of money will have higher levels of responding o Negative Contrast  Switch from large to weak  very low levels of responding  Ex: getting piles of money then it being switched to a penny = a low response o Positive Contrast  Switch from weak to large  very high levels of responding  Ex: getting a penny then it being switched to piles of money = a high response o Overjustification Effect  Reward for enjoyable activity  If reward removed, response rate decreases  Activity viewed as work Observational Learning  Learning which takes places by watching the actions of others  Modeling o Observing a specific behavior and imitating it o Not all observed events are effectively learned o 4 steps  Attention  Retention  Reproduction – Practice  Motivation  Bobo Doll Study o Albert Bandura – 1961 o Aggressive acts toward the doll from children after observing parents o Imitated both specific behaviors and general aggression o Can occur without reinforcement o No punishment/rewards necessary  Imitation Determinants o Reinforcers and Punsihers  Received by both the model and the imitator  By watching we are able to anticipate a consequence o Characteristics of the model  We are much more likely to imitate people we perceive as similar to ourselves or successful Memory Characteristics  Specific events  General knowledge  Unconscious influence  Fleeting or long-lasting  Reconstruction Long Term memory  Explicit (also declarative) o Information that you are aware of o Semantic  General knowledge accumulated over lifetime o Episodic  Specific episode tide to it  Implicit o Information that you don’t talk about o Procedural  Memory for a procedure; deals with motor skills o Priming  Unconscious influence on your behavior Modal model memory  Store memories in 3 different places Encoding  Sensory Memory  Working (short term) Memory Long Term Memory Retrieval 3 Memory Processes  Encoding o Forming a memory code o Effective Encoding-Elaboration  Not just repetition  Attach meaning to information  Levels of processing Effect (Craik & Tulving, 1975)  Can process information in different ways to encode memory better  Ex: use the word “Monkey” Shallow o Is this word in capital letters? = Structure o Does the word rhyme with funky? = Phonemic Deep o Is the word an animal? = Semantic o Meaningful Encoding  Organization  Chunking  Group information into units  Visualization and Imagery  Dual Coding Theory (Paivio)  Self-Referential Processing  Relate information to yourself  Storage o Maintain information in Memory o Sensory Memory and Attention  Echoic Memory = 3-4 seconds  Iconic Memory = ¼ second  Preattentive processing  Turn attention to important information  Selective Attention  Cocktail party effect o Working/Short Term Memory  Work zone  Quickly fades  Maintenance Rehearsal  Limited Capacity  Miller’s Magic 7 + or -2  Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory  Phonological Loop o Verbal information o 2 secs.  Central Executive o Coordinates, Integrates  Visuospatial Sketchpad o Mental maps, mental rotation, etc.  Working memory o General cognitive ability o Correlated with intelligence  Retrieval


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.