Psychology Week 7 Notes
Psychology Week 7 Notes Psych 2010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Process of Operant Conditioning Acquisition/Shaping o Process to bring about desired operant response o Successive Approximations As get closer give reinforcers to keep moving forward Ex: training a dog Reinforcement Schedules o Continuous Reinforcement Most efficient for initial training Ex: give a dog a treat for sitting o Partial (Intermittent Reinforcement) Ratio = based on responses produced Fixed Ratio o Exactly every 5 seconds Variable Ratio o Sometimes 3 or 5 seconds but an average set Interval = time Fixed Interval o Exactly every 10 seconds Variable Interval o About every/ on average 10 seconds o Primary and Secondary Reinforcers Primary Those that are immediately rewarding Ex: food Secondary Stimulus that acquires its reinforcing value Ex: money Punishment o It decreases the behavior o Positive Presentation of an unpleasant stimulus Ex: spanking, being laughed at, getting a failing grade o Negative Removal of a pleasant stimulus Ex: grounding (no TV, no friends) o Negative consequences of punishment Increase in aggressive behavior Fear of the punishing person o Works best when: There is an alternative response available to replace those being punished Paired with reinforcement to foster desired alternative behavior Person understands the reason for the punishment Punishment is implemented immediately after the undesirable behavior Latent Learning Learning that is not immediately demonstrated in behavior Tolman o Studied rats exploring mazes Cognitive Process in operant learning o Rats developed cognitive map from exploring o Demonstrated learning only when a reward was present Cognitive Explanation of Operant Conditioning o Means-End Relationship (if doesn’t satisfy = lowered response) Hungry rates were trained to press a bar for sugar water or food pellets Rats deprived of water Trained with food Low levels of responding Trained with water High levels of responding o Contrast Effects Large Rewards High levels of Responding Weak rewards lower levels of responding Ex: some people get a penny for working and other get piles of money; the ones with the piles of money will have higher levels of responding o Negative Contrast Switch from large to weak very low levels of responding Ex: getting piles of money then it being switched to a penny = a low response o Positive Contrast Switch from weak to large very high levels of responding Ex: getting a penny then it being switched to piles of money = a high response o Overjustification Effect Reward for enjoyable activity If reward removed, response rate decreases Activity viewed as work Observational Learning Learning which takes places by watching the actions of others Modeling o Observing a specific behavior and imitating it o Not all observed events are effectively learned o 4 steps Attention Retention Reproduction – Practice Motivation Bobo Doll Study o Albert Bandura – 1961 o Aggressive acts toward the doll from children after observing parents o Imitated both specific behaviors and general aggression o Can occur without reinforcement o No punishment/rewards necessary Imitation Determinants o Reinforcers and Punsihers Received by both the model and the imitator By watching we are able to anticipate a consequence o Characteristics of the model We are much more likely to imitate people we perceive as similar to ourselves or successful Memory Characteristics Specific events General knowledge Unconscious influence Fleeting or long-lasting Reconstruction Long Term memory Explicit (also declarative) o Information that you are aware of o Semantic General knowledge accumulated over lifetime o Episodic Specific episode tide to it Implicit o Information that you don’t talk about o Procedural Memory for a procedure; deals with motor skills o Priming Unconscious influence on your behavior Modal model memory Store memories in 3 different places Encoding Sensory Memory Working (short term) Memory Long Term Memory Retrieval 3 Memory Processes Encoding o Forming a memory code o Effective Encoding-Elaboration Not just repetition Attach meaning to information Levels of processing Effect (Craik & Tulving, 1975) Can process information in different ways to encode memory better Ex: use the word “Monkey” Shallow o Is this word in capital letters? = Structure o Does the word rhyme with funky? = Phonemic Deep o Is the word an animal? = Semantic o Meaningful Encoding Organization Chunking Group information into units Visualization and Imagery Dual Coding Theory (Paivio) Self-Referential Processing Relate information to yourself Storage o Maintain information in Memory o Sensory Memory and Attention Echoic Memory = 3-4 seconds Iconic Memory = ¼ second Preattentive processing Turn attention to important information Selective Attention Cocktail party effect o Working/Short Term Memory Work zone Quickly fades Maintenance Rehearsal Limited Capacity Miller’s Magic 7 + or -2 Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory Phonological Loop o Verbal information o 2 secs. Central Executive o Coordinates, Integrates Visuospatial Sketchpad o Mental maps, mental rotation, etc. Working memory o General cognitive ability o Correlated with intelligence Retrieval
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