Survey of Musical Theatre Weeks One and Two Notes for Exam #3
Survey of Musical Theatre Weeks One and Two Notes for Exam #3 THEA 11013
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Harris on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to THEA 11013 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Michael James in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Survey Of Musical Theatre in Theatre at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
19405 Broadway 02102016 Golden Age of Broadway 1940519605 0 Original cast recordings 0 The book musical takes over 0 The STORY matters 0 Characters matter 0 Lyrics drive the story 0 First to produce signi cant classics sti performed 0 Oklahoma 0 Cheap racial humor is eradicated 0 Man who is mostly responsible for this is Oscar Hammerstein II Musical s artistry changed decisively and forever 0 Rogers and hammerstein come up with a formula for writing songs that has to be used until about the 605 0 Tony awards established 0 Depression helps musical theatre quotgrow upquot WWII will help it mature even more Pal Joey 1940 0 Mature show Rodgers and Hart 0 Major breakthrough for them because they are writing a more adult oriented form of musical theatre o Partnership about to end Unsavory truetolife charactersunhappy ending 0 Characters that just aren t very nice Jiggalo sleeze ball has an affair w a married woman Suggestion of cocaine use and homosexuality within minutes of overture Star Gene Kelly made his jiggalo character less awful Wellreceived but had to wait until 1952 revival to be a hit Radio amp records made it a hit 0 People started buying one of the songs quotbewitched bothered and bewilderedquot a standard on all record labels Original Cast Recordings The age of the long running musical like Oklahoma Coincides with availability of Original Cast Recordings 0 But it was not the rst Bdwy show recorded Oklahoma Sold over a million copies Set a precedent for popularity of original cast albums And helped keep musicals running longer on broadway 0 Before 405 records could only hold 34 minutes per side had to have an album 0 19405 up to 60 minutes on one single record album still had to leave songs out revealed a good score expose a bad show can misrepresent a show o orchestra may be augmented 0 songs may be slower or faster 0 verses may be cut 0 change in running order 0 Can create incorrect imagery of show Overture Provided a buffer for atecomers Let audiences settle in Create mood transition from outside world Instantly establish tone of the musical comedy or serious 0 Give a hit of what is to come sophistication exotic period Modern Musicals Rarely have an overture Start quotcod with song or scene or highconcept production number 0 We are used to that now with television 0 Began to fall out of favor with the advent of Rock n Roll in the 605 0 Audience had shorter attention spans 0 Union overtime fear of running long 0 People didn t want to keep the show to go overtime bc producers didn t want to pay December 81941 US declares war on Germany and Japan 0 World views change 0 Broadway changes with it This Is the Army 1942 Revue written by Irving Berlin 0 Also stars in it Produced by the US Government Sanctioned by Army 0 Huge moral booster o It was a bene t to raise money for the Army Emergency Relief Fund 0 Cast was entirely real soldiers Storyline o Draftees view of Army 0 Also included navy and army air corp Military strictly segregated until 1948 on executive order by President Truman 0 But army FIRST to integrate in WWII berlin portrays that in his cast 0 quotoh how I hate to get up in the morningquot 10 minute standing ovation on opening night 0 performed by Irving Berlin 1943 Larry Hart died Rodgers and Hart 0 there had already been a problem between them 0 Hart rejected Rodgers story and said he didn t like it 0 Larry hart showed up at the theatre severely drunk when working on quotA Connecticut Yankeequot o Alcoholic bc he was gay and even though no one on Bdwy cared he drank Rodgers threw him out Found on the street passed out hours later Died of pneumonia Rogers found someone who was interested in his story l Rodgers and Hammerstein 1943 Oklahoma Oklahoma 1943 Bdwy stunned at pairing of Rodgers and Hammerstein Hammerstein had had 6 ops in a row hadn t been successful since Showboat Will contribute more to musical theatre than any other individual Show based on a op a dark play Story considered unsuitable for a musical just like showboat which Hammerstein wrote Changed titles twice 0 First title based on original play green grow the lilacs 0 Second name Away we go o Decided days before opening day to add another song Oklahoma And decided to change the show s name 1942 changed the musical forever rst musical with ethnic 0 sound 0 lyrics 0 music folk idiomdialogue like show boat trying to give the show a real feel of Americana 1st time since show boat to see real Americana onstage o trying to make americans proud of their roots Hammerstein wrote lyrics first staying true to dark book 0 Lyrics now drivepropel the story Established the quotintegrated musicalquot started with showboat Perfects the conditional ballad Explored relationships now vital to successful play or musical Fascination in all the characters 1st time a main character dies in a musical 0 but we don t see it established long rst act amp short second act 0 a formula still used today people said it wouldn t work 0 quotno gags no gals no chancequot 0 contentious love affair 0 most dramatic number goes to the villain 0 integrated musical did not highlight a star or have hits singing is like dialogue the musical scene vs song o someone starts singing a song and instead of the song ending the music keeps playing and they talk and then they start to sing again 0 folk dancing and Dream Ballet 0 dream ballet perfected by Agnes De Mille in this show 0 15 minutes 0 dance now integral tes what script and score cannot 0 speci c music written for dance dreams te why not what Rouben Mamoulian director was now considered an integral component 0 ran for 5 years 2212 0 national tour ran 10 years 0 then returned to bdwy most often produces musical in the world 0 created new quotrulesquot 0 fascination in characters 0 so Conditional ballad can now sing a song about love even ifjust met 0 quotif I loved youquot 0 quotmake believequot Curtain Call o is for performers to say thank you for attending 0 has changed to audience thanking actors Oklahoma 0 Lyrics drive story and de ne character 0 O O quotI can t say noquot shows that she s loose and can t halp but quotPeople will say we re in lovequot we know that this is really how they feel about what they think about each other quotit s a scandal it s an outragequot let guys have fun quotlonely roomquot Judd s song We know hes a bad guy and that he has problems This shows that he s just a lonely person quotthe farmer amp the cowmanquot opens second act learned about the animosity between the two and how they must coexist quotall er nothingquot will will always have to be wondering where she is Considered so groundbreaking and unique 0 1944 awarded a rare quotspecial awards and citationsquot Pulitzer claremore oklahome is northeast of Tulsa stage combat ghUng any use of a weapon extremely dangerous AEA mandatory compliance Prior to every performance actors must rehearse in full a Every ght a Every weapon a On stage 0000 On The Town 1944 wartime movie quoton The Townquot portraying strong women Capturing the brevity of life and to live to the fullest in the time we have Notable for mixedrace cast and intentional avoidance of racial stereotypes Including blacks and Japanese 0 Japanese americans were put in concentration camps in America during the war Based on Jerome Robbins ballet fancy free Relies heavily on long dance sequences ballets to tell the story 2 quotCarouselquot Solidi ed RampH as the dominant creators of musical theatre 0 Another dark theme unlikely for a musical 0 Like Oklahomal an unsavory character and his death 0 Suicide 0 His ghost comes back to sing 0 Why are dark characters working 0 We ve come out of WWII o Realizing that death is a part of life and we can t ignore it 1945 WWII ended Three weeks after Carousel began 0 Post WWII Broadway tries to integrate 0 Military had been integrated and blacks were returning to segregation Finian s Rainbow 1947 0 Most provocative look at race relations Leprechaun comes to reclaim his gold Racially bigoted corrupt southern senator magically transformed into a black man 0 Teaches audiences that it s not so fun on the other side 0 Black face 0 Three revivals not well received bc of blackface BUT start to hear gospel and RampB in Broadway musical with Irish music Explosion of shows bringing blacks back to broadway dissipated as quickly as it began Talent pool of black actors dried upwhite creators Rodgers and Hammerstein Became producers First produced musical Allegro 1947 o FLOP 0 Dark themes corruption and in delity o 2 Annie Get Your Gun 1947 0 music and lyrics by Irving Berlin his rst book musical his and Ethel Merman s biggest hit musical bio about sharpshooter Annie Oakley 0 quotThere s no business like show businessquot Lerner and Loewe 19405 0 Failed until 1947 o Brigadoon 0 First hit 0 Learned to use RampH s musical writing formula OOO 1947 Tony Awards 1948 quotKiss me Katequot wins a tony Written by Cole Porter Backstage look at show business play Within a play Based on Shakespeare s quotthe taming of the shrewquot And real couple who fought continually Alfred Lunt and Joan Fontanne 0 They were real people actors 0 There is a theatre called the LuntFontanne Theatre on Broadway today Continued his highly adult lyrics and themes South Paci c 1949 2nOI musical to win Pulitzer prize runs for about 5 years tours for 5 years 118 cities highly controversial troubles in the south major theme folly of racial prejudice quotyou ve got to be carefully taughtquot 0 says no you aren t born hating other people you have to be taught main character dies offstage one of the rst modern shows with mass merchandise Cast album 69 weeks 1 on billboard charts 0 Total 400 weeks on billboard Came from quottales of the south paci cquot by James a Michener about two stories 0 one story about a lieutenant Falling in love with an island girl 0 other story about a French planter who has mixed propelled author to top of best seller list for the rest of his life 0 Mary Martin from Weatherford Texas 0 Plays peter pan and is in the sound of music 0 This is wherewhen she was discovered 2008 rst revival Post WWII 0 mixed race children left behind in the south paci c happened after Vietnam war too 0 bui doi dust of life 0 Pearl 5 Buck 0 Created internationalinterracial adoption agency 0 Hammerstein and Michener took active roles in foundation 0 Today more than 7000 children have been placed in 28 countnes 19505 Broadway 0 Television by mid 19505 many homes had televisions TV created in NYC so it was easy for them to raid broadway showsactors o The Ed Sullivan Show 1948 0 Sunday nights quotMr Sunday Nightquot 0 Ed Sullivan could make or break a star 0 So popular that he was written into musical bye bye birdy 0 Powerful lman but it went to his head mean Guys and Dolls 0 A musical fable on broadway A classic one of the most performed musicals in the US 0 Opening number 15 minute ballet With dancestaging illustrating the denizens of NYC at nite Ran 3 years Revived on Bdwy 5 times 0 Including allblack version 76 Inspired Guys and Dolls by Damon Runyon Wrote about demimonde hedonists of NYC 0 Mob gang member actors that come out at night Colorful monicers quotrunyonesequot colorful slang in present tense and devoid of contractions 0 11 librettist to write story 0 Show won the Pulitzer BUT PULITZER PULLED 0 Because there was accuse of librettist of having communist ties o HUAC house unamerican activities committee Prosecuting people if even suspected of having communist ties No proof was needed The King and l 1951 0 Based on a true story 0 Mongut king of Siam 0 English governess gives western education 0 Had to teach 82 children and 39 wives RampH musical Yul Bryner iconic king of Siam 0 4633 performances o 11 years 0 2ncl most performances of a single role by an actor o starred in lm 0 shaved his head and it became his look 4th revival on broadway right now book quotthe English governess at the Siamese court 0 by anna harriette leonowes o aunt to the very rst Frankenstein Paint Your Wagon 1951 Lerner and Loewe s second hit Became 1969 lm 0 quotwanderin starquot a hit song in the UK 0 his voice was like quotrain gurgling down a rusty pipequot About coal miners Three Penny Opera 1954 Murder ballad Play with music Thieves beggars murderers 6 times revived 0 same amount as showboat 0 was only successful one of the revivals Composer Kurt Weill 0 german composer 0 his music has in uenced rock artists even today 0 wife Lotta Lenya inspired most of his music quotMack the Knifequot 0 written only days before opening 0 recorded by hundreds of artists 0 song standard 0 about a serial killer but no one really understood the lyrics o mcDonalds changed it to Mac Tonight in 19805 0 parodied in The Muppet Show Mary Martin Peter pan in 1954 Won a tony Only 152 performances but they closed early to be broadcast on television 65 million viewers highest ever at the time for a single tv show 1955 rst broadway musical on color TV Olympic gymnast Cathy Rigby took over the role 0 Played role for 25 years Major Trend Return to 19505 Live broadcasts of broadway musicals CBS PBS is recording a lot too Bob Fosse Director amp choreographer Won 8 tony awards Angular and turned in liked pigeon toed Sexually suggestive hip thrusts Started in a burlesque house Vaudeville humor hunched shoulder double takes amp falls Mimelike hand articulations Body isolations Loved hats white gloves cigarettes Very dif cult dance to master 0 Esp for classically trained ballet Pajama Game 1954 Fosses s rst big gig Pippin Choreographed the original New pippin choreographer used some of his moves Gwen Verdon First triple threat superstar o Sing dance and act Married to Bob Fosse for a while 0 Continued to work with him even after Superstar with only 7 musicals Won 4 tony awards Overcame rickets as a child 0 Sent to dance class to strengthen her legs Can Can 1953 o Won tony FIRST SHOW 0 Damn Yankees 1955 o Won tony Plays a messenger of the devil Choreographed by fosse quotWhatever Lola Wantsquot used in many commercials 0 New Girl in town 1957 o Won tony Red head 0 Last tony Sweet Charity 0 Chicago The Most Happy Fella 1956 0 1st musical to record entire show including dialogue more than 40 songs 0 unusual almost an opera 0 quotBig Dquot as in dallas My Fair Lady 1956 Lerner and Loewe Based on Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw COO Unsuitable for musical RampH tried and failed Beats Oklahoma As longest running show Holds record until 1963 Cast album5 years on billboard beat Elvis amp Beatles 19505 Broadway songs still often the most popular in the nation First intercultural exchange with Russia 0 Russia exchanged the Bolshoi Ballet with US In US and UK ran gt 6 years About a phoneticist bets he can turn a cockney ower girl into a lady Made Julie Andrews a star West Side Story 1957 Based on romeo on Juliet All performers in show were triple threats Ballet in uenced dance Proved that you could have a successful show without a star How bigotry destroys Performers segregated 0 Director wanted them to dislike each other Gang war jets whites v Sharks Latinos Originally Jews v catholics Act I ended with 2 corpses 0 1st time people died on stage 0 audiences walked out another lead dies in Act II latinos had to brown up director Jerome Robbins o choreographer Musical with the least script Majority of story told through music and dance Thematic meaning through music movement and dance Opening Prologue 15 minutes of movement and dance Turned into a movie only a few years later Lyricist Stephen Sondheim Producer Harold Prince Project suspended for 6 years 0 Partially bc of the jews v catholics 0 Almost never happened Book writer in Los Angeles reading about gang warfare in east LA and decided to change the story Had two previous titles 0 East Side Story 0 Gangway HUAC house Unamerican Activities committee 0 Jerome Rodgers was gay 0 Ed Sullivan blackmailed Jerome Rodgers Jerome had to name names to HUAC or ed would out him to the media Gap commercials used music The Music Man 0 8 yea rs to write 0 broadway was becoming more and more difficult o more than 30 drafts of the script 0 beat west side story 0 best musical tony 0 only 19 of 40 songs written were used in the show 0 rst musical to win Grammy best origina cast recording 0 beat west side story because America wasn t ready for the murder 0 quot76 trombonesquot til there was youquot 0 the beatles covered til there was you Flower Drum Song RampH while successful in it s debut rarely produced now Tends to offend audiences today Portrays Asian americans in a stereotypical way 0 2002 revival poorly received Sound of Music 1959 RampH Hammerstein s last show Bigger sensation when made into a movie with Julie Andrews 0 1 grossing lm for many years Operetta Based on a true story 0 Maria expected to become a nun 0 Sent to teach one of the Von Trapp children 0 Falls in love with children and father 0 Married father widower capt George Von Trapp Hammerstein died after writing Edelweiss o All lights on broadway turned off The Man in the High castle 0 Uses edelweiss 0 TV series USA lost WWII 19380 Von Trapps ed Nazis o truly were a singing family 0 Vermond 0 Run a music camp in Vermont Maria Von Trapp child just died in 2014 0 quotMy favorite Thingquot 0 O O played around Christmas time covered by everyone commercials Gypsy 1959 o Ethel Merman Based on Gypsy Rose Lee Burlesque Emphasis on gypsy s mother rose a driven stage mother 0 One of broadway s most coveted and greatest stage roles One of the most revered musicals in history a powerhouse show 0 4 broadway revivals o no love plot 0 last original stage role ethel merman created 0 biggest quoteleven o39clock numberquot 0 O O 0000 quotroses turnquot main character has a revelation or undergoes a major emotional moment that brings the musical to a climax often but not always the nal song holdover when all musicals started at 830 had to have a climactic song around 11 it was desirable audiences leave not long after 11p Fiorello 1959 Won pullitzer prize Fighting political corruption About 0 Rise to power of NYC s favorite mayor3 terms 0 Spoke multiple languages Yiddish Italian Spanish French etc o Cleaned up Tammany Hall corrupt government Napoleon was his hero Fiorello was a teeny man New Movement Off Broadway Full swing by 19505 began in late 40s Opens opportunities for new playwrights directors actors designers composers producers Shows too small for Broadway Now a tradition for broadway shows to close downsize and move to off broadway Some shows that fail on broadway come here Main reason for these shows is because they are not commercial enough too specialized Many broadway shows originated on off broadway Thousands of musicals meant only to be staged in smaller theatres Often appeals to a younger more hip even grittier demographic 0 Ex Heathers Silence parody of silence of the lambs Bat Boy The toxic avenger
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