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PSYC 1001: Week 7

by: Hayley Seal

PSYC 1001: Week 7 PSYC 1001

Hayley Seal
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover classes from February 23-25.
General Psychology
Ramezan Dowlati
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Seal on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Ramezan Dowlati in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
PSYC 1001 Dr. Ramezan Dowlati Class Notes for February 23-25 Learning (February 23)  Little Albert experiment was proof for behaviorists that fear is learned  Fears that are important to survival are easily learned after 1 exposure o Fear of falling, fear of snakes o When fear becomes irrational and abnormal  phobia  Classical conditioning (Pavlov) is most typically noticed in infants and animals but is also found in adults  Operant conditioning (Skinner) is based on Thorndike’s law of effect o Animals and children can be trained to respond to things they don’t understand using reinforcement and punishment o Does punishment work, physical or otherwise? o Involves shaping: using behavior in the organism’s repertoire and rewarding as it gets closer and closer to the desired behavior o Types of reinforcers:  Primary: needs such as food, water, sex  Conditioned (secondary): power comes from association with primary reinforce (money gets food)  Tertiary reinforce: good grades or promotion at work  more money  access to primary reinforcers o Reinforcement schedules:  Continuous reinforcement works at the beginning, but for efficiency, partial (intermittent) reinforcement works  Fixed-ratio  Variable-ratio: takes away predictability, makes people work harder for reward  Fixed-interval  Variable-interval: takes away predictability, increases behavior more than fixed  Most jobs are on a fixed-interval schedule; real estate is an example of a fixed- ratio schedule; waitressing is a variable schedule  Why do people get addicted to gambling? Behavior is increased because reinforcement is on a variable schedule o Skinner believed he could make anyone do anything based on different schedules of reinforcement (controversial idea)  Cognitive processes and conditioning o Behaviorism totally disregards mind and cognition; no thinking involved o But there is evidence of cognitive processes in operant conditioning (Edward Tolman):  Latent learning was initially explained by muscle memory (rat in a maze had muscle memory of running to get to food) but if running is changed to swimming, the rats still get to the food more quickly than they did at the beginning of the learning process  Formation of a cognitive map: learning using cognitive processes  Behaviorism: classical and operant conditioninig Neo-behaviorism: observational learning (modeling and social learning)  Observational learning introduced by Bandura o We learn the bad effects of drug use by watching others; we don’t have to use the drugs ourselves to understand o Exponentially increases learning capacity via vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment o Departure from radical behaviorism that completely excluded cognitive processes o Bobo doll experiment proved that media/TV can increase violence and aggression in society  Viewing of aggression increase a kid’s attraction to guns even though the gun itself had not been modeled; the attraction to guns was decreased for kids for whom aggression with the Bobo doll was not modeled  4 type of learning: cognitive learning o Use of the mind/brain to add to knowledge o Not discussed in the book because the basic definition of learning applies to behavior  Definition for cognitive learning: change in behavioral mental processes o Some new things we learn are not shown in behavior  Mirror neurons and imitation in the brain o Based on new research o People are “connected wirelessly” o Foundation of empathy: “I feel your pain” literally  Our brains actually are active when watching someone experience something like pain; similar brain activity but not exactly the same Memory (February 25)  Implicit memories come from repeating actions (muscle memory or procedural memory) o You can’t “declare” how you do it o Example: chewing gum or walking  Explicit memories: you can explain or “declare” them  Hippocampus processes explicit memories  Cerebellum processes implicit memories  Brain damage of injured people allows us to study what parts of the brain perform certain functions o Case “H” lost his explicit memory but maintained his implicit memory; damage to hippocampus but not cerebellum  Atkinson-Shiffrin Information Processing (IP) Model o External events  (sensory input)  Sensory Memory  Encoding  Working/short term memory  encoding  Long term memory  retrieving  Working memory o We can sense hundreds of stimuli at once but only the ones we pay attention to are the ones we remember o Information stays in sensory memory for ½ second  Information stays in short-term memory for ½ to 1 minute, must be processed to go to long-term memory  Short-term memory can hold 7 bits of information at one time; new information either disrupts old information or is not processed  Space limit (7) and time limit (1/2 minute) o Information must be encoded to go to long-term memory and be remembered  Like putting things in a closet: if encoding is properly done (items are hung up in the right place) the memories are easy to find when you need them, but if it’s not properly done (messy) you can’t find them and must relearn  Semantic encoding: making connections or meaning out of information (best type of encoding)  Visual encoding (using visual spatial stimuli) or auditory encoding are also used  Forgetting can be a good thing but we cannot selectively forget things on purpose o Can happen in sensory memory: forgetting is the default because of limited space and time o Same for short-term memory (limited space and time) o Virtually not forgetting from long-term memory; no space or time limit for keeping information  What we experience as “forgetting” long-term stored information is actually retrieval failure o Source amnesia: knowing something but forgetting the source of the information and attributing it to the wrong source (creating a memory or thinking the event happened to us when it was actually someone else)  Working memory is part of parallel processing o So we can do things like walk and talk, listen to music and eat, etc. o Similar to RAM on a computer  Interference can be either proactive (old memories disrupt memories of new information) or retroactive (new memories disrupt old memories) o Disrupts learning  Ways to aid working memory: o Spacing out learning can help prevent interference  Primacy effect: we remember the first information in a list the best  Recency effect: we remember the last or most recent information in a list best o Chunking or grouping information: remember 7 groups rather than 7 individual pieces of information o Mnemonics


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