Psychology 220 Week 6 Notes
Psychology 220 Week 6 Notes Psych 220
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Psychology 220- Developmental Psychology Tues/Thurs 9:30-10:45am Week #6 2/23 Chapter 7: The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development Overview Socioemotional development defined Temperament Four milestones in socioemotional development Social referencing The development of attachments SocioEmotional Development in Infancy Socioemotional Development A combination of emotional and social development Emotional development: development of qualitatively distinct emotions -Fear, sadness, joy, disgust, anger, etc. Social development: development of social interactions, focus primarily on interpersonal interactions Emergence of Social Smiling Smiling in response to other people and things in the social world o Starts at about 6 weeks after birth o Starts with endogenous smile o Then translates to external stimulation exogenous o Then social smile social birth of the infant Anger is shown when the goal is blocked o Evident around 6 months o Triggered by frustration Cortisol: the primary stress hormone, fluctuations in the body’s cortisol level affect human hormones. Primary Intersubjectivity Emotion sharing via face-to-face communication that occurs between the caregiver and infant (DYADIC) o Caregivers more playful –see baby as intentional o Coordinated turn-taking o Baby develops social expectations Emergence of Fear -Strangers become meaningful as strangers –now pose a threat Stranger wariness: fear of unfamiliar people, especially when they move too close or move too quickly. Separation anxiety: clinging and crying when a familiar caregiver is about to leave/leaves. o Fear of novelty o Fear of heights Secondary Intersubjectivity Sharing attention and emotion in relation to third event (TRIADIC) o Joint attention Gaze following Point following Directing attention Imperatives: Declaratives: Social referencing -Using emotional signals from others to guide responses to ambiguous situations -Infant now knows people are intentional, psychological agents -Aware of others’ intentions -Start of “learning through teaching” Sense of Self / Self-Awareness Social-awareness: pride, shame, jealousy, embarrassment, disgust, guilt. Typically emerges from family interactions Self-awareness: realization that one’s body, mind, and activities are distinct from other people 5 months: start to develop sense of self –separate from their mother 15-18 months: sense of self as a separate object o Body and actions are separate from others bodies and actions o The “me” “mine” stage Lewis & Brooks (1978): Rouge and mirror experiment o How babies show self awareness by looking in a mirror, recognizing it is their own self, and touching their self instead of touching the mirror Express emotions connected to self: pride, shame, and embarrassment Express emotions about others: defiance, jealousy, and affection Temperament -Constitutionally based individual differences in emotional, motor, and attention reactivity and self regulation -What you bring to each situation -Considered to be innate and learned New York Longitudinal Study -Dimensions of temperament -First large study to recognize that each newborn has 9 distinct inborn traits that cluster into four categories: Easy (40%) o Infants who behave predictively, and respond positively to new situations Difficult (10%) o Infants are irregular in their schedule and bodily functions, slow to adapt to change, cry longer and louder, generally weary of new situations Slow to warm up (15%) o Infants who tend to be active but do not initially respond well to new situations or people Hard to classify (35%) o Infant exhibit a variety of responses Studies demonstrate mixed results: 3-5 year olds who exhibited a lack of control were more irritable and easily distracted at ages 7 and 9, and exhibited more behavior problems around ages 9 and 11. BUT lack of control was negatively correlated with behavior problems at ages 13 and 15 Slow-to-warm up children at ages 3 and 5 exhibited more behavior problems at ages 9 and 11 Research on temperament: Temperament may be correlated with adult personality, however typically there are no positive findings before the age of 3 Another example: infants at ages 9, 14, 24 and 48 months -Half were stable in temperament and reacted the same way in testing with a frightening experience -Half were not and took different approaches Goodness of fit- a similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his/her social context, including family, school, and community o Meshing infant temperament and parent personality to allow smooth infant-caregiver interactions Big Five- main cluster traits that remain stable throughout life 1. Openness 2. Conscientiousness 3. Extroversion 4. Agreeableness 5. Neuroticism Development of Social Bonds Synchrony- coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and infant o Making faces at baby and imitating movements and sounds of baby Still-face technique- experimental practice to determine if synchrony is necessary where adult keeps his/her face unmoving and expressionless in face-to-face interactions with baby baby will become frustrated caregiver is not reacting. Attachment -An affectionate tie that an infant forms with a caregiver For infants and their caregivers: o Finds security in their presence o Misses them in their absence o Seeks them as a haven of safety in times of alarm Will stay in close proximity and maintain contact First attachments form around 6-9 months of age Clicker question: Separation anxiety is good because it: A. Demonstrates that an infant is beginning to express emotions B. Indicates the presence of attachment C. Forces independence Correct answer: B John Bowlby: -Attachment is a primary drive, a basic need Evolutionary explanation o Attachment promotes proximity to caregiver o Proximity to caregiver offers the infant protection from predators General Development Sequence in Attachment 0-8 weeks: young infant behavior enlists proximity to caregiver 2-4 months: infants start responding differently to familiar and unfamiliar people –still friendly to strangers 6-9 months: the infant seeks comfort from the caregiver, fears strangers and separation –forms first attachment By the end of the first year: infants create an attachment to primary caregiver, using them as a secure base from which to explore the world. Caregiver provides infant with a feeling of security There are different patterns of attachment Mary Ainsworth: -“Stranger Situation” -She found 4 attachment styles and a way to test attachment Stranger Situation C -caregiver B -baby E -experimenter S –stranger 1. C, B, E enter the room E leaves 2. C, B interact normally 3. S enters the room talks with C and B 4. C leaves the room S stays 5. C returns S leaves 6. C leaves again B is alone 7. S returns 8. C returns (reunion) Patterns of Attachment Secure (B): infant seeks proximity upon reunion, calms down Insecure-avoidant (A): the infant avoids proximity upon reunion -Infant acts in more extremes Insecure-resistant (C): the infant seeks proximity but angrily resists comfort Disorganized (D): infant lacks organized method for dealing with stress, disoriented during procedure, and fears caregiver -A sign that abuse could be going on *Infants can have experiences in their lives that change the level of attachment the baby feels towards certain caregivers Patterns of Infant Attachment Table Type Name of In Play Mother Mother Toddlers Pattern Room Leaves Returns in Category (%) A Insecure- Child Child Child 10-20 avoidant plays continues ignores happily playing her B Secure Child Child pauses, Child 50-70 plays is not as welcomes happily happy her, returns to play C Insecure- Child Child is Child is 10-20 resistant clings, is unhappy, angry; preoccupi stops playing may ed with cry/hit mother mother, clings D Disorganiz Child is Child may Child acts 5-10 ed cautious stare/yell; oddly – looks may scared/confus scream/hi ed t self/throw things Placed in a strange situation: 60% of children are securely attached –exploring new environments happily in the presence of their caregiver. Caregiver absence =distress Caregiver returns =comfort 30% of children are insecurely attached –clinging to their caregivers and less likely to explore new environments. Caregiver absence =not distressed Caregiver returns =not comforted What Causes Individual Differences in Attachment? Caregiver behaviors B: warm, consistent, sensitivity for the baby A: rejecting, and more distant C: inconsistent, ignore then interfere D: depressed or abusive Child characteristics Temperament in relation to the caregiver Family factors Socioeconomic status, marital status Cultural influences Other cultures may see insecure, avoidant as normal Goodness of fit Between caregiver characteristics and infant temperament. Do they work well together? Form normative attachments? Prolonged Deprivation -If parental or caregiving support is deprived for an extended period of time; children are at risk for physical, psychological, and social problems, including alterations in the brain’s serotonin levels. Example: not holding your baby when he/she is distressed Theories of Infant Psychosocial Development *Concepts were first seen in chapter 2 1. Psychoanalytic Theory -Connecting biosocial with psychosocial development Freud Life occurs in four stages according to sexual interest and pleasure: oral, anal, phallic, and genital (also the interlude: latency) o The first two years of life are the oral stage o Oral fixation-a person stuck (fixated) at the oral stage later in life Erikson Life occurs in eight developmental stages 1. Trust vs. mistrust 2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 3. Initiative vs. guilt 4. Industry vs. inferiority 5. Identity vs. role confusion 6. Intimacy vs. isolation 7. Generativity vs. stagnation 8. Integrity vs. despair 2. Behaviorism -Studies observable, learnable behavior -Emotions and personality are molded as parents reinforce or punish child Social learning: the acquirement of behavior patterns by observing the behavior of others 3. Cognitive -Thoughts and expectations profoundly affect attitudes, beliefs, values, assumptions, and actions. Working model: a set of assumptions that become a frame of reference for later life Example: a person might assume people are trustworthy and will be surprised by an incident in which that behavior is wronged 4. Humanism -Maslow theory of hierarchy of needs Physiological Safety/security Love/belonging Success/esteem Self-actualization 5. Evolutionary Theory -Stresses two needs: survival and reproduction Emotions are considered a necessary factor of survival -Over human history, attachment, with proximity seeking and contact-maintaining, promotes our species survival Allocare: “other-care”; the care of children by people other than their biological parents. 2/25 Today we watched another in-class video entitled Louder Than Words, which documented developmental psychology in infants and toddlers around the world. -Friendly reminder exam 2 is in two weeks (3/8) -Another friendly reminder to look into research opportunities in the psychology department on campus, it’s a great way to earn extra points for this class if that’s something you’re looking for!
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