Pyschology 220 Week 7 Notes
Pyschology 220 Week 7 Notes Psych 220
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at University of New Mexico taught by Cheryl Bryan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Psychology 220- Developmental Psychology Tues/Thurs 9:30-10:45am Week #7 3/1 -CLASS WAS CANCELED TODAY- 3/3 Chapter 8: Early Childhood: Biosocial Development Overview Body changes Brain development Improving motor skills Injuries and abuse Child maltreatment Growth Patterns from 2-6 Years Children become slimmer, more muscular, and fain almost 3” and 4 ½ pounds per year Growth is influenced by: o Ethnic and cultural practices o Socioeconomic status o Genes o Nutrition Eating Habits in the Play Years Young children tend to be picky eaters Example: a child won’t eat their carrots because they’re touching their mashed potatoes Rate of poor nutrition increases as familial income decreases o Same with obesity Reason: foods of lower nutrition value are typically lower in cost. Lower-class families tend to put cost of food before nutritional value of food. Nutritional Deficiencies (Problems): o Too much fat and sugar o Not enough iron, calcium, and zinc o Additional complications include allergies to certain foods o Tooth decay correlates with obesity a diet consisting of too much sugar and too little fiber Brain Development -Most of the brain is already present and functioning by age 2 BUT There is considerable brain development in the play years By age 6 the brain is 90% of its adult weight The Importance of Myelination: Myelination speeds up neural transmission, leading to improvements in memory, impulse control, and contemplation by coating axons with the fatty substance called myelin. Both maturation and practice affect thins process These are the motor and sensory areas Connecting the brain’s Hemispheres: The corpus callosum myelinates rapidly during the play years A long, thick band of nerve fibers that connect the left and right sides of the brain Leads to more efficient communication between hemispheres Lateralization: the specialization of each hemisphere in certain functions one side dominates based on the activity -The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body and vice versa -The whole brain is still involved in every cognitive skill Prefrontal Cortex Development: Begins during the play years but is not fully mature until 20s Social understanding develops distinguishing humans from other primates Better planning and control of impulses Neurological advances in the prefrontal cortex: -Sleep becomes more regular -Emotions become more nuanced and responsive -Temper tantrums subside -Uncontrollable laughter/tears less common Perseveration: tendency to stick to one thought or action long after it is time to move on shows immaturity of prefrontal cortex Impulse control: the ability to postpone or deny the immediate response to an idea or behavior. -Poor impulse control signifies a personality disorder in adulthood but not in early childhood. Brain maturation (innate) and emotional regulation (learned) make a child more able to think before acting (inhibition) and to stop an activity (nonperseveration) when it is time to do so. The Limbic System -The major system for expression and regulation of emotions Amygdala: registers emotions, especially fear and anxiety -Its increased activity in early childhood can lead to nightmares or irrational fears -Responds to comfort instead of logic to made fears subside Hippocampus: processes memory, especially of locations -Memories of location are fragile in childhood, and young children might forget where, when, or how something was learned. -Recalls emotion of learning instead of content Example: walking along a path where there was a snake not walking on the same path the next day out of fear Hypothalamus: produces hormones that regulate the body, including stress hormones -Too much stress in childhood can destroy neurons of the hippocampus permanent memory and learning deficits can develop. Gross Motor Skills -Involving large muscle movement improve dramatically during play years Ex: crawl, walk, run, jump, skip, etc. -Learn most through peers sociodevelopment -Maturation and practice makes it possible -Environmental hazards may affect/slow down the development of gross motor skills Fine Motor Skills -Small muscle movements Ex: holding a spoon, buttoning, tying shoes, pouring juice, scribbling, etc. -These are more difficult to master during play years; requires muscular control and patience Injuries and Abuse Children 1-4 years old are the most vulnerable age group to accidental death due to the immature prefrontal cortex, causing children to be impulsive Example: falling down stairs, choking, drowning, hitting their head, etc. Parents and even legislators can help provide injury control Avoidable Injuries Injury control/harm reduction: practices that are aimed to anticipate, control, and prevent dangerous activities. Based on belief that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place. 3 Levels of prevention: 1. Primary: actions that prevent/reduce chances injury; structured to make harm less likely to occur. Ex: sidewalks, streetlights, traffic circles 2. Secondary: reduces danger in high-risk situations or for vulnerable individuals Ex: school crossing guards, salt on icy roads, speed bumps 3. Tertiary: actions taken after an adverse event occurs to reduce harm/damage Ex: laws against hit and run drivers Parents, Education, and Protection Educating parents is important Creating laws is most effective o Ex: fences around swimming pools, car seats, etc. Child Maltreatment -Intentional harm or avoidable endangerment to anyone under the age of 18. Child abuse: deliberate action that impairs a child’s physical, emotional, or sexual well-being. Child neglect: failure to meet a child’s basic physical, emotional, or educational needs. Substantiated maltreatment indicates a case has been reported, investigated, and verified Reported maltreatment indicates only that the authorities have been notified of harm or endangerment. Warning Signs Delayed development: -Slow growth -Immature communication -Lack of curiosity -Unusual social interactions Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): an anxiety disorder that develops after a profoundly shocking or frightening even, such as rape, sever beating, war or natural disaster. Symptoms may include flashbacks to the event, hyperactivity and hyper vigilance, displaced anger, sleeplessness, nightmares, sudden terror or anxiety attacks, and confusion between fantasu and reality. In children: -Fearful -Overly startled by noise -Defensive/quick to attack -Confused between fantasy and reality 3 Levels of prevention: 1. Primary: a social network of customs and support that parents, neighbors, and professionals protect every child 2. Secondary: spotting warning signs and intervening to keep a risky situation from getting worse Ex: insecure-attachment, especially of the disorganized type 3. Tertiary: limits harm after maltreatment has occurred Ex: reporting and substantiating abuse Permanency planning: plans need to be made to nurture the child until adulthood; usually an effort by child-welfare authorities. Foster care Kinship care Adoption