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Biology Notes for 2.25.16

by: Shayla Pedigo

Biology Notes for 2.25.16 Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II

Shayla Pedigo

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About this Document

These are good for is you missed lecture or just need a recap.
Athena Anderson
Class Notes
Biology, Biology 11100, Bio
25 ?




Popular in Biology

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shayla Pedigo on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 111 - Fundamentals of Biology II at Purdue University taught by Athena Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/28/16
Bio Notes for 2.25.16 PROBLEMS WITH NERVOUS SYSTEM As a college student, you are...  under a lot of pressure in many areas of your life  likely to be experiencing more stress than ever before  likely to experience periods of depression and anxiety The majority of adults with mental illness that didn’t show in childhood started showing symptoms in their 20’s The good news: all mental illnesses are treatable! Disease/ disorder/ symptom  “American Crowbar Case”  Neurosis  Psychosis  Multiple sclerosis  Anxiety disorder  Major depression  Migraine disease  Congenital analgesia Poisons/ venoms  Spiders  Scorpions  Snakes... American Crowbar Case Imagine having an iron rod shot through your skull... and surviving. >How could you live after that? >Would you be the same person? >Would any changes be permanent? >Phineas Gage ~1823-1860; first time we saw concrete evidence of effects of brain on behavior & personality Neurosis General term, not currently favored, but heard frequently; Example: “Amelia is so neurotic!”  Tendency to feel negative emotions  Highly emotionally reactive  React more strongly than average  Negative emotions persist longer than normal  Often indicates mental illness  No delusions or hallucinations; maintains connection w/reality Everyone acts neurotically sometimes; frequency is key Psychosis Symptom of brain disfunction:  Highly impaired thinking & emotions indicate disconnection w/reality  Delusions & hallucinations common  Paranoia  Sleep changes  Disorganized speech  In some cases, loss of motivation & withdrawal Can be caused by mental or physical illness, substance abuse, trauma, extreme stress Multiple Sclerosis Autoimmune disease in which one’s immune system damages myelin sheaths around neurons, and sometimes the neurons themselves Interferes w/ brain’s ability to send & receive signals >>Symptoms are numerous:  fatigue  bladder/ bowel problems  tingling/ numbness  impaired sexual experience  pain  depression Anxiety Disorders Sufferer overreacts to normally stressful situations with abnormally high stress/fear response; chronic condition Common symptoms  feeling of dread; something terrible is about to happen  difficulty falling or staying asleep  muscle tension, shortness of breath  inability to stay calm, sit still  usually assuming the worst Exact causes unknown- multiple factors suspected  prolonged stress changes neuron functioning  changes in brain region linking memory w/emotions  genetic component  can be triggered by trauma or significant life event Anxiety disorders ARE treatable  talk to a professional- they’re objective, unlike your family and friends  medication can help your body & mind be calmer  counseling can help you re-train your brain so you don’t react as strongly  there’s no shame in seeking help Major/Clinical Depression Sufferer experiences prolonged sadness, despair, and/or loss of interest in activities they used to enjoy Symptoms:  difficulty working, sleeping, studying, eating, enjoying friends & family  unintentional weight gain or loss  feeling worthless or excessively guilty  fatigue Suspected cause is problem w/ neurotransmitters Migraine Disease Characterized by “migraine attacks”: 1. Prodrome phase can include difficulty concentrating, mood changes, fatigue, excessive energy 2. Some experience “aura,” involving visual disturbances, stiffness, tingling Characterized by “migraine attacks”: 1. Headache is intense, often throbbing, pain in front or side of head, made worse by movement, last hours or days; often accompanied by nausea/vomiting, sensitivity to light, sound, and smell 2. Some experience postdrome, with fatigue, difficulty focusing, poor concentration, increased sensitivity Congenital Analgesia >Genetic disease in which sufferer cannot feel physical pain >Pain is adaptive; sufferers can’t tell when they’ve been seriously injured, have lower life expectancy >Caused by mutation in gene that leads to faulty Na channels; PNS cannot send pain signals to brain Neurotoxins Neurotoxin: substance that is destructive to neurons Works by disrupting neuron ion channels or interfering with neurotransmitter function Common sources:  tetrodotoxin- puffer fish, octopus,  chlorotoxin- scorpions  latrotoxin- widow spiders  conotoxin- cone snail  a-neurotoxin- cobras, coral snakes Neurosis in Pets & Zoo Animals Destructive neurotic behavior an important concern for captive animal welfare- called zoochosis Examples:  pacing, circling  swaying  excessive masturbation  pulling hair out  chewing on wires, wood  self-mutilation  consuming & playing with excrement Typically caused by boredom, confinement in small space, inability to act out instincts Mental Health in US Mental health in the US is in crisis  access to mental health care worse than other types of medical services  expensive; severe limitations on insurance coverage  attitudes/ misconceptions about mental health a barrier to seeking & getting appropriate treatment  states cut mental health budgets significantly during recent recession Mental health in the US is in crisis  ~60% adults w/ mental illness were untreated in 2011  38,000 Americans die of suicide yearly, 90% of whom suffer from mental illness  growing evidence that early intervention can prevent mentally ill from deteriorating  ~590,000 mentally ill patients end up in prison, homeless, or dead yearly In Summary... >Your nervous system controls everything you do, think, say, hope for, and achieve >Your CNS and PNS work together to accomplish this >Malfunction of the nervous system can cause debilitating illness >Captive animals suffer similar mental illnesses, often triggered by living conditions >Mental illness is not the fault of the sufferer- seek help and encourage others to do the same


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