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Bio 1304 Week 4 Notes

by: Kimberly Rodriguez

Bio 1304 Week 4 Notes Bio 1306

Kimberly Rodriguez
GPA 4.0

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Notes starting from Ch 20
Organismal Biology
Class Notes
Biology, Organismal Biology, biology1306, bio1306
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Rodriguez on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1306 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Science at University of Texas at El Paso.

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Date Created: 02/28/16
Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Lieb Week 4 Notes 2/22/2016-2/24/2016 Chapter 20: Eukaryotes Eukaryotes They have less metabolic diversity than prokaryotes. Only phototrophic or heterotrophic. Use glycolysis and oxidative metabolism. Includes: Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia *Eukarya arose by an ancient Eukaryote that consumed a Proteobacteria by phagocytosis. Differences between 1) Use of phagocytosis/ food vacuoles Eukaryotes and 2) Presence of specialized organelles Prokaryotes 3) Cell surface adaptations in eukaryotes- made of cellulose or chitin, greater surface are for diffusion 4) Eukaryotes have a cytoskeleton 5) Eukaryotes have a nuclear envelope and DNA organized into chromosomes 6) Eukaryotes use meiosis Symbiosis Two different species that live in close association. 1) Mutualism- both species benefit 2) Commensalism- one species benefits, the other doesn’t benefit or is harmed 3) Parasitism- one species benefits, the other is harmed Protists Phytoplankton: Unicellular photoautotrophs in aquatic systems Zooplankton: Unicellular and small multicellular heterotrophs in aquatic systems Algae- plant-like protists Protozoa- animal-like protists Slime molds- fungi-like protists Thallus The body of a multicellular protest Reproduction Can be asexual by binary fission but most protists use sexual reproduction. (Conjugation in Paramecium) Alternation of generations A multicellular haploid (gametophyte) alternates with a multicellular diploid (sporophyte) Gametophyte Produces gametes that swim to each other and fuse to create zygotes Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Lieb Week 4 Notes 2/22/2016-2/24/2016 The Sporophyte Generation What the zygote develops into by mitotically dividing its diploid cells into a multicellular sporophyte Sporophyte Produces haploid spores by meiosis Syngamy When the gametes are identical Fertilization When the gametes are different Lineages Alveolates Presumed to have a common ancestor because of a common synapomorphic character. They all have alveoli underneath their cell membrane. 1) Dinoflagellates They are phosphorescent and create red tides. Aquatic, 2) Apicomplexans unicellular, endosymbiotic, and free living. Endoparasites. Most famous: Plasmodium which causes malaria. Malaria is transferred to humans by a mosquito of genus Anopheles. 3) Ciliates Unicellular and have cilia. They have a macronucleus (has multiple copies and divides) and a micronucleus (diploid and Conjugation divides by binary fission). Ex: Paramecium Sex without reproduction in ciliates Stramenopiles 3 groups: diatoms, brown algae, & water molds 1) Diatoms Single celled, marine, photosynthetic, without flagella. They have a cell wall outside of the cell membrane that forms a shell structure. (a test) 2) Brown algae (Phaeophyta) Multicellular, photosynthetic, marine. Ex: kelp 3) Water molds Non-photosynthetic and fungi like. They are heterotrophic— (Oomycota) get energy from other substances—and their cell walls have cellulose. Cells are diploid and haploid in fungi. Ex: Potato Blight Fungus (Potato Famine) and “ick” on fish. Rhizaria Single celled and amoeba like, chemotrophic. Use pseudopods for movement & capturing food. Organismal Biology Dr. Carl S. Lieb Week 4 Notes 2/22/2016-2/24/2016 1) Cercozoans Diverse: many habitats. Chloroplasts are derived from a green alga 2) Foraminiferans Aquatic. If they live on the ocean surface: zooplanktonic. If they live on the deep ocean: benthic. Most have a shell of calcium carbonate except those that live deep in the ocean because the water is too poor in calcium carbonate. 3) Radiolarians Recognizable by their radial symmetry and secretion of glassy endoskeleton. Excavates Several groups lack mitochondria 1) Diplomonads Unicellular, lack mitochondria, two haploid nuclei with its own membrane, multiple flagella Ex: Giardia: hiker’s diarrhea 2) Parabasalids Unicellular, lack mitochondria, have a nucleus and flagella. Includes all parasites. Ex: Trichomonas vaginalis- STD 3) Heteroloboseans Two life cycle stages. One with amoeboid cells and the other with flagellated cells. Free- living and not parasitic. Ex: Naegleria fowleri (brain-eating amoeba)


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