Week 1 Asian Civilizations
Week 1 Asian Civilizations HST 106
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mariah Armstrong on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HST 106 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Sybil Thornton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Asian Civilizations in Global Studies at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
India A Brief Course Guide 0 Chapter 1 Monsoon River Mountain Plain 0 Three prerequisites to civilization 1 Agricultural surplus Emmer Wheat of the Middle East 2 Permanent settlement sedentism Food Husbandry raising livestock 3 Social stratification whether one group of people has authority over another group Water food production 0 Monsoon mausim seasonal winds created by difference in temperatures between land mass and ocean in summer and wintertime o The Geography Himalayan Mountains formed the northern boundary of the Indian subcontinent lndus in the east and Ganges in the west fed by the Himalayas Narbada Narmada River divides the Indian subcontinent runs between Vindhya and Satpura Mountains runs to the Arabian Sea Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats line either side of lower half of peninsula Peninsula tilts slightly toward the east 0 Southern half of the peninsula is watered by rivers Godavari Krishna and Kaveri that begin in the Ghats Punjab named by upper regionsSindh named by lower regions the northern territory of the Indus river system 0 Chapter 2 The lndus Civilization 26001700 BCE 0 Characteristics of a civilization 0 1 City Representative of Harappa or Indus characterized a community of 10000 people 0 Cities rst established in the subcontinent along the Indus River and its tributary rivers plus the parallel now dried up Saraswati River 0 Most important cities of the time Kalibanga Harappa Mohenjodaro o Lothal possibly a harbor and Dholavira were located in Gujarat 0 Cities built on mounds and had public wellssewage drains 2 Writing approximately 400 symbols in early civilization Tithes and donations for the temple 0 Tamil the language of southern India a form of Dravidian Rig Vedas indicates a substrate of Austroastatic Mundra 3 High tech bronze Architecture metallurgy people Agriculture was based on grain wheat barley millet and pulses lentils peas chickpeas Dwarka established at the end of the Indus era lasted for a couple of centuries before abandonment revived again in 8th century CE 0 Chapter 3 The Aryans and the IndoEuropean Languages 1500500 BCE 0 New civilization Arya new civilization created by indigenous fusion with descendants of cattleherding immigrants from beyond Hindu Kush Entered via Khyber Pass by 1500 BCE Entered Ganges Valley by 1000 BCE Mahabrata War 900 BCE Entered Bengal looking for iron in 6th century BCE o In uenced Mahabhrata and Mahayana o Writings and Language Sir William Jones 17461794 popularized the origin of Sanskrit IndoEuropean group of languages that dominated the northern Indian subcontinent 0 Latin Greek Gothic Celtic Persian Sanskrit 0 Success in the spread and rise of these Indo European languages was due to agriculture Sacred texts and beliefs Vedas sacri cial cult and epics Mahabhrata and Ramayana Georges Dumezil 18981986 studied texts to reconstruct a trifunctional social structure had parallels in Europe Greece and Rome 0 Priests represented by Varuna 0 Warriors represented by Indra 0 Workers represented by Ashvin Structure then expanded into four parts 0 Priests Brahmin l monksJupiter Odin 0 Warriors Kshatriya l knights Mars Thor o Agriculturalists Vaishya D peasants Quirinus Vamir Freya 0 Workers Shudra Zoroastrianism Persian religion founded by Zoroaster born 628 CE 0 Fire cult o Closest comparison of language and religion is the Vedas o Parsi Zoroasters in India 0 Avesta holy texts Early Aryans 0 Characteristics of civilization 0000 0 Civilization was based on cattle Organizational shift Brahmi alphabet literacy Taxila an important crossroad between the west and subcontinent There was more of a reliance on sacri ce led to rulers becoming absolute monarchs Only 16 great kingdoms Mahajanapada by 6th century BCE Ruled by monarchs raja Ex Magadha and Vrijji aristocratic assemblies Religious and social reaction Rejection of kings priests and sacri ces Developed a concept of ultimate reality brahma Creation of parallel society in the forest Creation of the Upanishads Development of Buddhism via Gautama Siddhartha 563483 Jainishm via Mahavira 599527 committed to ahimsa nonharm while in search of nirvana quotblowing out the light of sacri cial requot 0 Goal is to unify the soul atman with absolute brahmin which will lead to moksha deliverance from rebirth samsara through ritualsacri ce karma 0 Extreme asceticism o Kevalaabsolute knowledge Buddhism 0 Theravada represents the monastic schools that maintained the ability only of monks of high attainment to achieve deliverance moksha the Buddha and bodhisattvas o Mahayana Great the attainment of buddahood by even the laity and women salvation and society There are thousands of buddahs and each rules a cosmo clear of obstacles Contract between buddhas and bodhisattvas who vow to cause to be reborn in the Pure Lands Nenbutsu chanting Amida Buddha39s name 10 times 0 Buddhism doesn39t require asceticism 0 Four Noble Truths Hinduism 0 Last to emerge after new invaders o Developed in opposition to Buddhism and Jainism 0 Some parallels with Buddhism 0 Chapter 4 Alexander the Great 356323 BCE 0 Empire and Dynasties Achaemenid empire 550530 BCE of Persia Darius I 550486 BCE Incorporated Gandhara and Sindh into the Persian empire 0 Falls under Alexander the Great 0 Alexander the Great 327323 of Macedonia Entered Pakistan took Gandhara and Taxila 327 0 Met Chandragupta leader of Maurya dynasty Last major battle at Hydaspes River the Jhelum Chandragupta Along with advisor Kautilya Chanakya who wrote Arthashatra overthrew the Nanda dynasty Capital city was Pataliputra by 305 Megasthenes ambassador 350290 who wrote lndikalndica history 0 Chapter 5 Ashoka 273232 BCE 0 Authority Chandragupta39s grandson and the greatest of Mauryan kings Remembered for 3 things 0 Conversion to Buddhism 0 Widespread evidence of writing 0 Empire expansion 0 Catalyst for conversion campaign against Kalinga 0 Sent missionaries to communities 0 Raised stupas 0 Published edicts Changes and in uences o Palace layout and pillars similar to Persepolis 0 Ideas of world conquest and universal sovereignty Shuga 183738 Restored Vedic religion and Ashvamedha horse sacri ce to show authority Restored stupa at Sanchi Satavahand dynasty 15t3rCI century BCE Rivaled the Shuga Sixth King Satakarni l o Took Kalinga and fended off Shaka foreign invaders 0 One capital was near Amaravati Chapter 6 Taxila Gandhara and Ghandara Art 15t7th century BCE 0 International Trade Alaric leader of the Visigoths who demanded 3000 lbs of Indian Pepper as ransom when he besieged Rome for the rst time in 408 CE 0 Silk Road the overland route rst connected Han China 206 BCE 220 CE and Rome Shakas and Kushans funneled along with others into the Indian subcontinent 0 Three Kings Menander 150135 BCE made famous by Milinda Panha of the great Buddhist Nagasena lndoParthinian King Gondophernes 2048 CE Was king when the Apostle Thomas preached Kushan Kanishka assumed title devaputra and the maharajadhiraja on coins Sponsored a Fourth Buddhist Council in Kashmir Huns defeateddestroyed Taxila 5th century 0 Two imported documents describe Roman trade in the east 0 The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea Describes travel and trade 0 The Tabula Peutingeriana Map of highways of the Roman empire 0 Shows Muziris a port city that has temple to Augustus Bamiyan center for international learning and trade
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