chapter 9 (i don't think it uploaded to the last week of notes) and the beginning of chap. 10
chapter 9 (i don't think it uploaded to the last week of notes) and the beginning of chap. 10 1300-03
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Kaufman on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1300-03 at Tulane University taught by John Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
21916 Chapter 9 Class notes Con ict Perspectives and Radical Perspectives Difference between them Con ict focus on the importance of people with power in terms of shaping particular behaviors as being deviant or criminal Radical blame capitalism for the problems that you see in crime Not everyone had the same ideas about what is right and wrong but some people have greater access to getting their ideas enforced M capacity to be able to get your way despite opposition Authority someone who has quotlegitimate powerquot agree that even though you don t like what someone is saying you still abide by the rules directs you in terms of your behaviors WITH YOUR CONSENT Focus on roles of power and authority in these perspectives Difference between these perspectives and chapter 7amp8 7and 8 focused on explaining why these people engage in criminal behaviors 0 chapter 9 there isn t an inherent right and wrong it depends on the people in the group that has authority there has to be an established de nition 0 the big thing comes from WHO de nes particular activities as being criminal 0 what are the consequences associated with rules regulation and laws 0 these are enforced by people who have authority 0 this theory reversed a lot of thought Labeling Social Reaction Theory from Lemert and Becker emphasis on deviance ampli cation self ful lling prophecy the relativity of labels and authority gures very in uential how the act of de ning something as deviant or criminal and being responded to by punitive sanctions drives people further and further into criminaldeviant behavior selfful lling prophecy if someone believes something about you then you start believing it about yourself When you react really harshly to people that are criminal you tell them that they are no longer one of us they incorporate that into their own self image They self de ne themselves as being deviant or criminals and live up to your expectations of being involved in criminaldeviant acts If people are responded to positively early on you learn that you can improve and develop If people are pushing you away your reason for caring about these people goes away because you can t join their group so you join groups that will accept you more deviant groups Severing ties with mainstream society leads people to go into more subordinate groups Federal expungement act if you re dealing with a rst time offender if they apply to have their arrest record erased they can do that shows up on record that the record has been expunged Problems with this theory 1 No emphasis on why people are engaging in deviantcriminal behavior 2 Can t be too severe with punishments in the beginning because otherwise people are forced into criminality over responding 3 Victimless crimes Vold DevinaceCrime as Culture Con ict Look at how laws tend to be charged against behaviors that are considered noncultural or totally countercultural according to people s immigration status The dominant cultures decides which rulesregulations are going to observed and carried out in the real world Deviancecrime came from contradictory view points of right and wrong 22216 Reintegrative shaming being more understanding and trying to help people get back on the right path much more lenient Disintegrative shaming arrested charged and convicted and given punitive sanctions you did us wrong we do you wrong more likely to become chronic offenders Con ict Views Turk looking at the legal system and how we respond to different people in our society which is a result of a culture ethnic con ict Looking at different geographic area Laws on the books re ect laws that the dominant culture white AngloSaxon Protestants Laws are differentially enforced on the subordinate groups Marx and Engels Class con ict socialism Bourgeoisie controlled resources vs Proletariat working class Capitalist Society during industrial revolution Believed that down the line that Capitalism wouldn t work Dominant social class that has the power Differential enforcement based on power Lumpenproletariat most likely to get involved in victimizing behaviors Connections between class and the law Laws are passed by the B s to favor and protect themselves from people who would try to arguego against them Instrumental Marxism laws used to repress dependent class system is being used to accomplish an end Structural Marxism laws used to reinforce Capitalist strati cation 0 Protect the capitalist system Bonger Capitalism fosters egoism selfinterest You get yourself up for victimization in Capitalist society People try to outdo each other and as a result people victimize other people to obtain status privilege material wealth etc The idea of competition in the US when they present that it is presented positively healthy and good for you Problem with competition you have winners and losers but in the game of economics people are dying there are limits of the bene ts of competition Left Realism conclusions led to policy options that Marxists do not support well aware that street crime is a result of socioeconomic strata talking about direct victimization no matter what your orientation to justice system is the people most likely to be effected are the people on the streets it needs to be controlled you need to address this crime factor by increasing support in neighborhoods where crime is more likely enforcing more in the communities that are more likely to be targeted in the rst place Peacemaking Criminolodv looks at criminal victimization in general the justice system takes too much of a role in terms of mediating what is happening between victims and offenders the two don t understand each other need to bring offenders into contact with those who have been victimized and each side states their case and then they TRY to intervene to nd a suggested punishment or retaliation against offender that the victim approvessees fair try to expose motives and circumstances doesn t happen with violent crimes Looking at Women as Offenders Why are women a lot less likely to be offenders Socialization and role modeling Men are socialized to be more dominant in terms of aggression and control Why are they more involved in property crime or victimless crimes Hagan s Power Control Theory tries to blame socialization from parentals and involvement with social activities Family structure Paternalistic Families quottraditional familyquot dad is the primary controller of household dad is the breadwinner from this family then your socialization process has different expectations for males and females enforce control over girls more than the boys girls are less likely to get involved in riskydelinquent behaviors Egalitarian Familv momampdad are relatively equal females have a more contemporary viewcauses more delinquent females 22416 Chapter 10 Different Types of Criminal Activity Violent Crime rst 4 offenses in part 1 UCR Homicide any time that somebody loses their life at the hands of someone else Murder deliberately decided to kill a person and carried it out Accidental homicide no culpability related to the offender accidently hitting someone with your car Selfdefense killed in a situation where a person was trying to protect himself or herself Problem for courts the jury has to buy the fact that you were really in some type of danger If they didn t have a weapon on them you can be severely charged Jury decides what you SHOULD have done NonNegligent Homicide you didn t think about it you just react spontaneous situation where there were precautions you should have but didn t take Criminal Homicides Murder 1 top charge you can have talking about a situation where it was premeditated and whether or not there was the intent to actually kill someone Murder 2 undermine idea that it was deliberated orand that the intent was to kill the deliberation was usually to harm not kill how much time is necessary to re ect deliberation jury has to decide this Negligent HomicideManslaughter Voluntary kiing result of an emotion reaction pissed off crimes of passion tend to emerge from people who are very close to each other assumed to be a spontaneous reaction no intent for murder Involuntary more common kind of crime someone acted out of recklessness and as a result of their behavior someone died usually motor vehicle accidents drunk driving Felony Murder when someone commits a felony and someone else dies in the course of it 22616 Data from Text Attributes of Offenders 1 Uquot39gt 0w 9 10 homicide rates largely intraracial white against white black against black 2 same with aggravated assaults and forcible rapes quot 3 90 of offenders who are charged with murder are males usually also killing other females when females murder they kill males the youth ages of 1524 commit a little under 50 of crime but this is a huge category region of US that murder is most common in south subculture of violence in the south people are more accepting of using violence to solve interpersonal disputes urban large environments have a high violent crime rate victimoffender relationships they usually know each other 13 of those people are people who are close to you family husband etc 13 are friends or acquaintances 13 is unknown random people weapon used in most murders guns 23 of the time second most used knife 1 in every 5 homicide has been dropping consistently over the past few decades like all the other offenses Why does the US have the highest homicide rate 1 largest income disparity between the wealthy and poor 2 large availability of more dangerous guns 3 large consumption of alcohol Disproportionate amount of blacks involved in homicide poorfrustration Murder is the least likely crime to be committed again from a previous murder offender Women less involved in homicide less likely to use guns Women mostly kill men abusive relationships selfdefense gang related Mass Murder Not considered until you kill 4 or more people at one time FBI Most likely to engage males People involved in this are in a subordinate position in society they feel they have been slighted by people Primary weapon rearms Number based not motive based Higher female causality rate not by a lot though Relatively well educated Serial killing behavior motivations 1 Hedonistic Lust killers sexual kick out of killing people sex with corpses 2 Thrill Killers excitement joy from killing 3 Comfort Killers killing for money or resources hitmen heritage or property material advancement 4 Mission Killers people who think they are on a mission don t like the quotbad guysquot certain groupscategories of people 5 Visionary Killers people who kill because they are responding to illusions or hallucinations think they are hearing from God or just any voice in their head psychotic schizophrenic Behaviors come before people receive labels Robbers when you take or threat to take something from someone else with force tend to be young under age of 25 90 men tend to be black 56 shows up in UCR part 1 offenses most likely to involves offenders and victims to be strangers 1 Professional well educatedtrained plan ahead for their stealing avoid getting caught typically bigger types of thefts 2 Opportunist most common found a circumstance where they could rob someone didn t really plan it out before 3 Addict stealing material resources from people in order to feed their own drug addiction 4 Alcoholic also addicts but robbers that are trying to get enough money to keep their alcohol supply going most people involved in robbery don t experience injury if you were involved in a gun robbery you are less likely to sustain an aggravated injury because people are more likely to just give up their stuff Hate Crimes motivated by hatred for a group of people race religion sexual orientation etc not always violent can be property these crimes are underreported not clearly documented if it determined to be motivated by hate you get treated more harshly by legal systems half of hate crimes are white on black crimes antigay offenses are documented more than religious offenses 2nCI and 3rd most common Types of Abuse Child Abuse taking advantage of the weak reports vary greatly 1 Physical 2 Sexual 3 Emotional 4 Neglect most common