Psychology 202: Social Psychology 1
Psychology 202: Social Psychology 1
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This 3 page Reader was uploaded by Bryce Buser on Wednesday May 21, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.
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Date Created: 05/21/14
Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates None What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip use this material to make ash cards Use the bolded words for the front and their definitions and explanations for the back Study after lecture Going over notes right when you get home from a lecture helps you to remember it better Even if you just scan the newly taken notes for a few minutes it39s better than going home and promptly forgetting everything your professor just said This way as you go over the notes you may recall something that your professor was talking about that you didn39t make clear enough in your notes for you to return to it later and remember what it was Tuesday May 13 2014 Corresponding Readings 513565 Vocabulary Aril After WWII April 4 1945 the first concentration camp is found by US troops April 12 1945 Eisenhower visits the concentration camp April 16 1945 Eisenhower forces the people living in the surrounding town to go visit the concentration camp Obedience in relation to Milgram s experiment generally compliance decreased if the people who were doing the shocking became psychologically closer to their victims and shockers became psychologically further from the experimenter If a way out was provided such as examples of other shockers refusing to continue instructions given over the phone or disagreement between multiple experimenters the shockers were more likely to stop before reaching the full power of the shocks The Mob Mentality Deindividuation when in a group a person39s own accountability seemed to decrease There were also reductions in what a personal normally does and self awareness Illusion of Transparency We generally overestimate how much we are seen or known by others For example we think that people can tell when we are lying immediately although this is not always the case or when we teach we have to find a way to explain something in terms that other people can understand because they do not have the same knowledge as we do BetterThanAverage Effect we usually rate ourselves as above average in many things such as driving leadership getting along with others teaching abilities and study habits People focus on aspects of life they are good at and are usually told about their strengths and not their weaknesses The SelfServing Bias attributing success to internal dispositional factors and attributing failures to external situational factors Other people operate solely on internal factors For example When you do well on a test it39s because you39re smart and when you do bad it39s because the teacher is terrible or the test was ridiculous When someone else does well on a test they are smart but if they do bad it39s because they are stupid Fundamental Attribution Error using the internal factors excessively when explaining the behavior of others Experiments Mullen 1987 according to accounts in newspapers the more people that were present at a lynching the more violent the lynching was Rehm et al 1987 fifth graders could be made to act more aggressive just by putting them in matching orange t shirts than when they were just in street clothes Darley and Latane 1986 Student Seizure experiment Groups of students were allowed to communicate over intercoms when one student who was an actor in the experiment pretended to have a seizure and made the corresponding noises When students believed lots of other people were listening they were slow to respond When they believed it was just them or one or two others they were quick to call for help Ross et al 1977 Two students one was the quiz master and the other was the quiz respondent The quiz master was able to make up the questions and got to ask them to the respondent When the third party is asked who is smarter they say the quiz master ignoring the fact that the questions may not be fair People To Know Conformity Solomon Asch 19071996 The experiment conducted by Asch was one that included many actors and one research participant During the experiment the entire group was asked a question Each of the actors selected the incorrect answer on purpose This experiment introduced conformity when it was found that the research participant would select the incorrect answer as well even knowing that is was wrong in order to fit in with the group Obedience Stanley Milgram 19331983 Milgram conducted a study that involved research participants who believed that they were giving other human being in the room next door shocks by pressing a button They were not giving anyone shocks and the experiment strictly tested whether humans would just follow directions instead of following their own thoughts which is defined by obedience This experiment found that some of the research participants went all the way to pressing the button that would actually kill a person although some people would drop at different markers along the way This research experiment was conducted after WWII when it was still being questioned how people could blindly follow orders under Hitler Kitty Genovese was stabbed twice outside her NY apartment when on her way to work She screamed and anywhere from 1238 people heard her but none of them called the police The perpetrator left but returned ten minutes later proceeding to stab rape and rob Kitty before one of her neighbors finally called the police She died on the way to the hospital We would think that the more witnesses there are at a situation the more likely that someone would help Not true see The Bystander Effect above Tom Gilovich s The Spotlight Effect Enhancement of the Self asked students to show up late to class wearing an extremely embarrassing t shirt Students estimated that over half the class would notice them showing up late and the embarrassing t shirt when less 20 actually noticed We think that everyone notices us when really it39s just an overestimation