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BIOL 2230 Unit 2 weeks 1-2

by: Allison Collins

BIOL 2230 Unit 2 weeks 1-2 BIOL 2230

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Biology > BIOL 2230 > BIOL 2230 Unit 2 weeks 1 2
Allison Collins
GPA 3.88

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These notes are from the first 3 classes and their info will be on the second test. Topics include microbial growth control, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. The notes are typed and...
Anthony L Newsome
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Collins on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2230 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Anthony L Newsome in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
2/16   Microbial  growth  control     Physical  means     •   Based  on:   o   Heat,  low  temperature,  desiccation  (dehydration),  osmotic   pressure,  filtration,  radiation   •   Microbial  control  doesn’t  necessarily  mean  killing  the  bacteria   o   For  example,  putting  food  in  the  freezer  doesn’t  kill  bacteria,  it   only  slows  its  growth   o   The  goal  of  microbial  control  may  just  be  to  sufficiently  inhibit   growth       •   Sterilization  -­‐  destruction  or  removal  of  all  forms  of  microbial  life,   including  spores  and  viruses   o   NOT  synonymous  with  disinfecting   Types  of  physical  microbial  growth  control     1.  Moist  heat   •   Autoclaves  (heat  under  pressure)     o   121C  for  15  min  at  15lb  of  pressure;  must  have  moisture  present   •   Boiling  water     o   Kills  most  vegetative  forms  of  bacteria  and  most  viruses  in  10   minutes   o   Spores  and  hepatitis  can  survive  several  minutes  or  more  in   these  conditions   o   Doesn’t  achieve  sterilization   •   Pasteurization  –  mild  heating  (72C)   o   Also  doesn’t  achieve  sterilization   2.  Dry  heat   •   170C  (340F)  for  2  hours   •   Moist  heat  is  more  effective  –  takes  10-­‐15  min  at  a  lower  temperature   o   Heat  in  fluid  transfers  heat  to  the  object  being  sterilized   §   Especially  cooking  oils   3.  Gas     •   Ethylene  oxide  for  4-­‐18  hours   •   Denatures  protein   •   Ideal  for  sterilizing  electronic  equipment  and  other  heat-­‐sensitive   materials   4.  Radiation   •   Ionizing  radiation  (irradiation)  –  use  of  high-­‐penetrating  gamma  rays     o   Gamma  rays  have  enough  energy  to  disrupt  molecules  –   damages  DNA  or  other  cellular  structures  –  kills  organism  or   makes  it  incapable  of  reproducing   o   Used  for  single  use  medical  supplies,  tissue-­‐based  products,  food   (i.e.  astronaut  food)   o   Kills  probiotics  too   •   Non-­‐ionizing  radiation   o   Less  penetrating  –  useful  for  sterilization  of  surfaces   o   Ex:  microwaves,  UV  rays       Disinfection  -­‐  the  process  of  destroying  vegetative  pathogens  but  not   necessarily  spores  or  viruses     •   Antiseptic  vs.  disinfectant     o   Antiseptics  are  applied  to  living  tissue  to  prevent  infection   o   Disinfectants  applied  to  inanimate  objects,  so  are  stronger   2   Chemical  means   1.  Phenols   •   First  used  by  Joseph  Lister  (Listerine)   •   Ex:  Chlorhexidine  (Hibiclens)   •   Phenolics  –  phenol  derivatives   o   Damage  cell  membranes,  denature  proteins   o   Ex:  hexachlorophene  (phisohex),  Lysol   2.  Halogens   •   Iodine     o   Combines  with  microbial  proteins  to  disable  their  function   o   Used  as  a  tincture  of  iodine  –  a  tincture  is  an  alcoholic  extraction   o   Iodophore  –  combinations  of  iodine  and  organic  molecules   §   Includes  Betadine  and  Isodyne   •   Contain  povidone,  a  surface  active  agent   •   Chlorine     o   Used  as  sodium  hypochlorite  –  AKA  bleach  –  most  commonly   used  halogen   o   Chlorine  is  used  as  a  gas  to  control  microbial  growth  in  drinking   water     3.  Alcohols   •   Proof  –  measure  of  amount  of  ethanol  –  twice  the  percent  of  ABV   (alcohol  by  volume);  ex  100  proof  =  50%  alcohol     •   Most  widely  used  kind  is  70  percent  ethyl  alcohol  (ethanol  -­‐  EtOH)   •   Isopropyl  alcohol  (rubbing  alcohol)     o   Useful  in  disinfecting  skin  before  injections  because  it   evaporates  quickly  and  leaves  no  residue   3   4.  Heavy  metals   •   Silver  –  used  as  silver  nitrate  to  guard  against  infection  and  cauterize   wounds   •   Copper  –  used  as  copper  sulfate  to  slow  growth  of  algae,  also  is   antifungal  agent  in  paint   •   Zinc  –  used  as  zinc  chloride  in  mouthwash     5.  Soaps  and  detergents   •   Emulsification  agents  –  break  down  and  suspend  fat  molecules  in  the  oily   film  on  a  surface  –  easier  to  wash  away  oil,  debris,  and  MO   5.  Aldehydes   •   Formaldehyde  –  used  as  formalin,  a  solution  of  formaldehyde  gas   o   Used  for  embalming   •   Glutaraldehyde  –  used  as  a  liquid  for  cold  sterilization  of  hospital   equipment   6.  Oxidizing  agents   •   Kill  MO  by  releasing  large  amounts  of  oxygen  –  alters  microbial  enzymes   •   Hydrogen  peroxide  (H2O2)  –  wounds,  contact  lenses   •   Benzoyl  peroxide  –  treats  acne  by  inhibiting  anaerobic  growth   7.  Quaternary  ammonic  compounds   •   Cationic  detergents   •   Break  down  cell  membranes  of  MO   •   Ex:  Cepacol  (mouth  wash),  Virex128,  D.O.C.  64   •   Tuberculosis  and  Hepatitis  are  top  infectious  concerns  at  hospitals  –  not   protected  against  by  quaternary  ammonic  compounds   o   EndBac  II  –  does  protect  against  tuberculosis       4   2/23   Nucleic  acid  recap   •   Nucleic  acids  –  long  polymers  of  nucleotides   o   DNA  –  double  stranded     o   RNA  –  single  stranded   •   Nucleic  acid  principles   o   2  information  storing  molecules  –  primary  function   o   RNA  –  80  to  200,000  nucleotide  units  long   o   DNA  –  several  million  nucleotide  units  long   •   Each  nucleotide  has:  phosphate  group,  pentose  sugar,  nitrogenous  base   o   In  RNA  –  ribose  sugar   o   In  DNA  –  deoxyribose  sugar   •   Why  called  deoxyribonucleic  acid/2-­‐deoxyribonucleic  acid?   o   The  nitrogenous  bases  of  nucleic  acids  belong  to  2  chemical   classes:   §   Pyrimidine  –  1  ring   •   RNA:  uracil  and  cytosine   •   DNA:  thymine  and  cytosine   §   Purine:  2  fused  rings   •   RNA  and  DNA:  adenine,  guanine   o   **only  need  to  memorize  names,  not  exact  chemical  structure**   DNA  details   •   Important  concept:  in  order  to  convey  info,  you  must  have  VARIABILITY   o   Ex:  bar  code,  alphabet,  binary  code     5   •   What  varies  in  nucleotides?   o   Nitrogenous  bases  (A,  C,  U/T,  G)   •   DNA  is  double  stranded  –  strands  are  COMPLEMENTARY  &  ANTI-­‐ PARALLEL   o   (i.e.  not  identical)   o   Pairs:  A-­‐T,  T-­‐A,  C-­‐G,  G-­‐C   o   Nucleotides  associated  via  nitrogenous  bases   o   Nitrogenous  bases  are  always  at  1’  carbon   o   Remember  –  purines  (adenine  and  guanine)  only  go  with   pyrimidines  (thymine  and  cytosine)  and  vice  versa   •   True  of  all  pentose  sugars  in  nucleotides   o   1’  Carbon  –  top  right  of  pentose  sugar  -­‐  connected  to   nitrogenous  base   o   2’  Carbon  –  bottom  right  of  pentose  sugar  -­‐  H  (OH  in  RNA)   o   3’  Carbon  –  bottom  left  of  pentose  sugar  -­‐  shares  O  with  the   phosphate  group   o   4’  Carbon  –  forms  straight  line  with  3’  and  5’  carbon,  top  left  of   pentose  sugar   o   5’  Carbon  –  connects  to  O  of  phosphate  group,  not  part  of  the   pentagon   o   1’  à  5’  is  clockwise   DNA  Replication   •   DNA  unzips  –    forms  a  replication  fork  (handout)   o   As  bases  join  the  “unzipped”  strands,  eventually  4  strands  total   are  involved  (i.e.  2  DNA  strands)   o   Nitrogenous  bases  are  floating  loosely  and  join  complementary   base  on  strands   6   •   DNA  synthesis:  1  chromosome  à  2  chromosomes   o   Is  SEMICONSERVATIVE  –  each  chromosome  contains  1  of  the   original  DNA  strands  plus  one  newly  synthesized  complemen tary   strand   •   Replication  fork   o   Moves  forward  due  to  action  of  DNA  polymera se  (enzyme)   o   DNA  grows  only  in  the  5’  à  3’  direction     §   Nucleotides  only  added  to  the  3’  end   •   2  new  strands   o   Continuous  strand:  fast  and  efficient   o   Discontinuous  strand:  not  as  efficient   §   Has  to  wait  for  fork  to  open  because  bases  can  only  be   added  to  3’  end  and  is  opposite  of  leading  strand   §   This  creates  discontinuous  fragments  that  are  later  joined   together  by  DNA  ligase   §   Discontinuous  fragments  of  lagging  strand   –  called  Okazaki   fragments   §   DNA  polymerase  –  other  major  enzyme  involved   •   Joins  the  nitrogenous  bases   •   Antibiotics  inhibit  these  enzymes  in  bacteria     •   DNA  gyrase  –  only  in  bacteria     o   Bacterial  DNA  is  supercoiled  –  gyrase  uncoils  it   o   Antibiotics  selectively  inhibit  it   •   Eukaryotic  cell  –  large  chromosomes  allow  for  multiple  replication  forks   •   Prokaryotic  cell  –  circular  DNA  (single  circular  chromosome)     o   Only  2  replication  forks  (vs.  multiple  in  DNA)     7   2/25   Flow  of  genetic  info   •   DNA  (replicates  itself)  à  transcription  à  RNA  (m,  t,  r)  à  translation  à   protein  (AA  sequence)  à  start  over   •   AA  sequence  in  protein  has  direct  relationship  to  nitrogenous  bases  in   DNA   RNA  synthesis   •   Type  of  nucleic  acid  synthesis   •   Uses  DNA  as  a  template   •   Transcription  –  synthesis  of  a  complementary  strand  of  RNA  from  a  DNA   template   •   RNA  is  synthesized  in  the  5’  à  3’  direction   o   Only  add  nucleotides  to  the  3’  end  (same  as  DNA)   o   At  any  particular  point,  only  ONE  strand  is  transcribed   §   This  strand  is  called  the  “sense  strand”   §   Other  strand  is  the  “nonsense  strand”     §   Transcription  will  not  occur  in  same  spot  on  opposite  DNA   strand   •   The  RNA  transcript  from  DNA  is  complementary     o   DNA  to  RNA   o   A  à  U   o   T  à  A   o   C  à  G   o   G  à  C                     •   Transcription  generates  3  types  of  RNA   o   Messenger  RNA  (mRNA)   8   §   Bears  message  for  protein  synthesis   o   Transfer  RNA  (tRNA)   §   Carries  AA  to  site  of  protein  synthesis   o   Ribosomal  RNA  (rRNA)   §   Are  components  of  ribosomes   Gene  –  DNA  segment  that  codes  for  polypeptides  via  mRNA,  tRNA,  and  rRNA   •   Genes  occur  on  chromosomes   •   Same  in  prokaryotes  and  eukaryotes   Transcription  differences  in  bacteria   •   Occurs  in  cytoplasm  alongside  translation     o   Eukaryotic  cells:  DNA  synthesis  in  nucleus,  protein  synthesis  in   cytoplasm   •   RNA  polymerase  binds  to  specific  promoter  region  on  DNA  –  called  the   Pribnow  box  –  consists  of  TATAAT  sequence  of  nucleotides     •   RNA  arises  from  post-­‐transcription  modification   o   After  RNA  is  synthesized,  certain  segments  are  removed  before   it  becomes  functional   o   Removed  segments:  introns   o   Exons:  regions  coding  for  RNA  that  end  up  in  the  final  RNA   product  –  i.e.  regions  of  DNA  that  are  transcribed   o   90%  of  our  DNA  is  contained  in  introns   •   Translation  –  the  process  in  which  the  genetic  message  carried  by  mRNA   directs  the  synthesis  of  polypeptide  chains  with  the  aid  of  ribosomes     SO:     Translation  =  RNA  à  protein     Transcription  =  DNA  à  RNA   9  


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