Week 7 Notes
Week 7 Notes History 225
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Sundberg on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 225 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Steven Reich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
2/22 The Civil War (Reich, Lecture Notes) Southern Secession o South Carolina Secession Convention o Alexander Stephens and the Cornerstone Speech Mobilizing for War o The South’s advantage: Defensive War o The South’s Disadvantage: Slave Society The North had a larger industrial capacity o Extensive railroads o Ability to manufacture goods quickly Black Soldiers o Given opportunity to enlist in black on troops o 1/8 of the whole population (localized over the south) were black slaves 2/24 Reconstruction (Reich, Lecture Notes) (Foner, Glossary) Some Terms to Know Black Codes: Laws passed in southern states to restrict the rights of freed slaves. 1856-1866. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the 14 Amendment to nullify the Black Codes Freedmen’s Bureau: Reconstruction agency established in 1865 to protect rights of former slaves and assisted with education, jobs, healthcare, and owning property Radical Republicans: Groups within the Republican Party in 1850s and 60s that advocated strong resistance to the expansion of slavery and opposed the compromise with the south over the Secession Crisis, supported emancipation and arming of black soldiers during the Civil War, wanted equal civil and political rights for blacks during Reconstruction 13 Amendment (1865): Constitutional amendment that abolished slavery throughout the U.S. Reconstruction Act (1867): Established temporary military governments in ten Confederate States, not including Tennessee. Required the states to ratify the 14 Amendment and allow freedmen to vote 14 Amendment (1868): Guaranteed rights of citizenship to former slaves 15 Amendment (1870): Constitutional Amendment which prohibited states from discriminating in voting privileges based on race Sharecropping: Type of tenancy developed after the Civil War that allowed landless workers to farm land in exchange for farm supplies and a share of the crop Carpetbaggers: Derisive term for northern emigrants who participated in the Republican governments of the Reconstruction South Ku Klux Klan: First organized in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1866. It’s purpose was to terrorize former slaves who voted and held public office during the Reconstruction; a revived organization appeared in the 1910s and 20s stressed white, Anglo-Saxon, fundamentalist, Protestant Supremacy; organization was revived a third time during the 1950s and 60s Redeemers: Conservative, white democrats. Many were planters or businessmen, reclaimed control of the South following Reconstruction Election of 1876: Even though Hayes had fewer popular votes, after a bitter political battle, Hayes won the election due to a compromise Compromise of 1877: Deal made between a Republican and Democratic special congressional commission to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876. Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, who had lost the popular vote, was declared the winner in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from involvement in politics in the south, which marked the end of Reconstruction 2/26 (Reich, Lecture Notes) Retreat from Reconstruction Events in the south pushed moderate Republicans to radical positions Congress fought to block Johnson’s policies The Freedmen’s Bureau was opposed in both the north and the south o Pennsylvania campaign poster portrayed the Bureau as a waste of taxpayer money Reconstruction led to a Constitutional Revolution o New Amendments o Changes of Balance of Power between the States and the Federal Government Chapter 15 (Foner, Give Me Liberty) Meaning of Freedom (Foner, 556-568) To black slaves, the idea of freedom meant physical freedom and emotional freedom o Escape from lashing o Escape from sexual exploitation o Escape from separation of family Freed slaves also wanted access to education Freed slaves were finally able to own dogs, guns, and drink liquor They congregated without white supervision Located separated family members Family life was central to the free black community Several black colleges were built during the Reconstruction Era o Fisk University in Tennessee o Hampton Institute in Virginia o Howard University in D.C. Free blacks quickly found their place in the public sphere and wanted equal voting rights as whites Freedmen also felt that landownership was an important part of freedom Some blacks felt that they had the right to the land they worked so they seized it from their former masters Southern plantation owners struggled after the fall of the Confederacy o Lost their slaves o Had invested their life savings into worthless Confederate bonds o Were forced to do the work of their former slaves to maintain the plantation o Many still felt that freedom was a privilege and not a right Believed in the continuance of social hierarchy and racism The North felt it was important to alter the structure of the South to resemble their own o Free public schools were built o Small towns were constructed o Many independent farmers The Freedmen’s Bureau was directed by O.O. Howard o Agents were in charge of: Establishing schools Providing aid Settling disputes between whites and blacks Assumed control of hospitals Provided medical care to blacks and whites Sharecropping was a compromise between blacks’ demand for land and white planters’ need for labor discipline o Each family rented a portion of the plantation o Once the crop was harvested, it would be split between the worker and plantation owner New social classes emerged in the postwar south o Landowning employers o Sharecroppers o Cotton-producing white farmers o Wage-earning black laborers o Urban entrepreneurs The Making of Radical Reconstruction (Foner, 568-578) Andrew Johnson assumed the presidency after Lincoln’s death Johnson lacked Lincoln’s presidential skills and was unsuited and unprepared for the tasks of reunification following the Civil War Following the surrender at Appomattox, Johnson outlined his plans for reunification; this time is known as the period of Presidential Reconstruction Johnson offered a pardon to nearly all southerners who took an oath of allegiance Confederate leaders and wealthy plantation owners were excluded from this pardon Black Codes were passed by southern governments to control the lives of the newly freed slaves These new laws legalized marriage, ownership of property, and allowed limited access to courts These laws also made testifying against whites, joining militia or juries, and voting illegal The Fourteenth Amendment prohibited states from prohibiting certain rights or denying equal protection under the law based on race o This did not grant all black men the right to vote The Reconstruction Act split the South into 5 military districts and forced each to state to create a new state government in which black men would have the right to vote The Fifteenth Amendment prohibited the state and federal governments from barring any citizen from voting due specifically to race The amendments made to the constitution and the emancipation of slavery did not allow women the same rights and opportunities, but did allow for women’s suffrage to begin The Fourteenth Amendment introduce the word “male” into the Constitution for the first time Radical Reconstruction of the South (Foner, 579-582) The Reconstruction Act sparked mass political organization Political meetings were well attended by men, women, children, and African-Americans Meetings inspired direct-action During Reconstruction, African-Americans began holding office o In South Carolina blacks held the majority of legislature Carpetbaggers: northerners who moved south for no apparent reason after the war except to hold political office in the broken South Scalawags: non-slaveholding white farmers from the southern upcountry, many supported the Union during the war, continued to cooperate with the Republicans in order to prevent rebels from becoming powerful again The Overthrow of Reconstruction (Foner, 583-590) Democrats, planters, and merchants of the south opposed the new governments that were set up The largest reason for opposition was the fact that southern whites did not agree with the idea of blacks enjoying the same freedoms that they enjoyed Racial violence in the south was prevalent following the war The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) was formed as a military arm of the Democratic Party o The KKK was a terrorist organization o Starting in Tennessee, it quickly spread throughout the southern states Liberal attack on reconstruction led to some resurgence of racism in the northern states Northern support for Reconstruction also began to falter due to an economic depression that hit the country in 1873 A result of this lack of continued support led to the disputed presidential election and bargain of 1877: see definitions above The civil rights era of the 1950s and 60s would come to be recognized as the Second Reconstruction Works Cited Foner, Eric. "15." Give Me Liberty!. an American History. New York: W.W. Norton, 2011. N. pag. Print. Reich, Steven. “The Civil War.” James Madison University. Harrison Hall, Harrisonburg, VA. 22 February 2016. Lecture. Reich, Steven. “Reconstruction and the Rebirth of American Democracy.” James Madison University. Harrison Hall, Harrisonburg, VA. 24 February 2016. Lecture. Reich, Steven. “Retreat from Reconstruction.” James Madison University. Harrison Hall, Harrisonburg, VA. 26 February 2016. Lecture.
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