Anth 101, Week 6 Notes
Anth 101, Week 6 Notes ANTH 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Breionna Real on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 101 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Kellen Gilbert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Southeastern Louisiana University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Cultural Anthropology SELU ANTH 101 Week Six Lecture Notes Human vs NonHuman Communication Language is symbolic – attached meanings. Symbolic communication can discuss the past, present, and future Nonsymbolic communication only communicates what happens in the present time Language Factors include Large brain Cranial capacity of 1200 – 1400 Throat structure Studies with chimpanzees [500 cc] show that language developed largely due to our cranial capacity and throat structure. During the 1950s there was a study where people tried to raise an infant chimp with a human infant. There wasn’t a difference until the 12/13 month mark where the human began vocalizing more. Washoe the Chimp – taught ASL and was able to create words for things she has not be taught. She called a watermelon ‘water candy,’ and a duck ‘water bird’ Koko the Gorilla – taught ASL, once broke a lamp and told trainers she did not know what happened (evidence of a lie possible). When attempting to bring out her maternal side, trainers gave her a litter of kittens to watch. One kitten died after getting loose and when trainers told her this, she told them she was sad. The Four Functions of Language As humans we… Conceptualize Categorize, use binary opposition, name things Perceive relationships Think abstractly Humans are typically exposed to language first by their mothers. Language acquisition continues until about the age of 12/13. This is also why it is easier for children to learn a second language as opposed to adults who may only develop a passive fluency in a second language. Passive fluency – a person can fluently read and audibly understand a language whilst not having the ability to fluently speak or write the language Grammar and Syntax All language consists of approximately 50 to 100 sounds Phoneme – the smallest unit of language, sound that changes meaning. Example – pin vs pen Morpheme – collection of phonemes, the smallest word. Example – dog. Individuals with fluency in two languages may code switch. Codeswitching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation. Dialects are alternate versions of the same language (e.g. Cajun French). Accents refer to different pronunciations, usually along geographic lines, though they can also sometimes be connected to social class. In a NY study, shoppers at 3 locations were asked for directions to the fourth floor. A typical NY accent will have a dropped ‘r’ sound. Saks Fifth Avenue Highest social class, little to no accent Macys Middle class, accent apparent Kleins Lower class, heavy accent Typically, those of higher social class or who do international work will attempt to wash out their accent and speak Standard American English. Body Language AKA Kinesics, can be related to culture and include hand gestures and use of space. There are four levels of space that vary from culture to culture. In North America – Intimate space 0’ ½’ Personal space ½’ 1’ Social space 1 ½’ – 4’ Public space 7’ or more Language and Gender There are language descriptors, including paralanguage, that divide the genders Paralanguage the nonlexical component of communication by speech, for example intonation, pitch and speed of speaking, hesitation noises, gesture, and facial expression. Enculturation The gradual acquisition of the characteristics and norms of a culture or group by a person, another culture, etc. Stems from two types of awareness Selfawareness, which begins very early in NA culture Environmental awareness, includes play and exploration Anthropology used to think in terms of cultural personalities or stereotypes, but now thinks in terms of cultural values. Culture Bound Disorders A culturespecific syndrome or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture. Artic hysteria Found in Inughuit societies living within the Arctic Circle (Piblokto) Hysterical reaction in Inuit, especially women, who may perform irrational or dangerous acts, followed by amnesia for the event May be linked to repression of the personality of Inuit women. The condition appears most commonly in winter Wendigo Found in Native American cultures of the north (Windigo Psychosis) occurs when a person becomes filled with anxiety that they are becoming a Windigo (a flesheating creature of Native American mythology) , and may increasingly view those around them as edible The person also complains of poor appetite, nausea and vomiting, and may become suicidal or homicidal. Kuru/Koro Found in (Southeast) Asian Cultures (Shrinking Penis An individual has an overpowering belief that his or her genitalia are Syndrome/Genital retracting and will disappear, despite the lack of any true Retraction Syndrome) longstanding changes to the genitals May even cut off their own genitalia Anorexia An eating disorder characterized by a low weight, fear of gaining (Anorexia Nervosa) weight, a strong desire to be thin, and food restriction Food for Thought Do you consider ADHD to be a culture bound disorder?
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