COMM 415 Nonverbal Notes 2/25
COMM 415 Nonverbal Notes 2/25 COMM 415
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Cracchiolo on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 415 at University of Arizona taught by Chris Segrin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Comm 415 Notes Module 2 2/28/16 9:47 PM 2/25 Space Functions of space: • Regulate conversation • Attitude towards others • Status Skorjanc Study • Subjects introduced to Scott, who was introduced as: o Just finished jail sentence or grad student o Average distance (in seats) § Violent offender (3.7) § Non-violent offender (3.3) § Student (2.5) 3 Categories of Space • fixed-feature space: location of physical unmovable structures (bathtub, sink, toilet) • semi-fixed feature space: location of moveable objects (chairs/furniture) • informal/personal space: interpersonal space Sociopetal vs. Sociofugal Space • Sociopetal: space is organized so it is conducive to communication between people- bring together • Sociofugal: space arranged so it produced solitude, inhibits interaction between people- separate 4 Regions of Proxemics • intimate: 0-18 inches • personal: 1.5-4 feet (same in blind people)- lose some sensory info- smell/heat perception o left with hearing, sound and sight • social: 4-12 feet- lose available sensory cues- strangers (mailman) • public: beyond 12 feet- mass communication o sound & hearing- adjust vocals Encoding Age and Space Use • Unclear under age 5 • Space increases over age 5-17 yrs • Initially less space for same sex pairs • Later, less space for opposite sex pairs • Sex diffs. Evident as early as age 7 Sex differences in the encoding of space • Females maintain closer interpersonal distance than males • Females approach others, especially other females, closer than males will • Males approach other males and other females at same distance • Females will allow other to approach more closely than males o *size could determine personal space- bigger people=bigger distance, smaller people=smaller distance Culture and Space • No universals in space (not the same) • Crowding (perceptual) vs. density (physical) o In Mexico, it takes a higher density to make people feel crowded than in U.S. • Contact vs. noncontact cultures Personality and use of personal space • Preferences for closer space increases with increasing degrees of extraversion • People who are high in social anxiety tend to use longer interacting distance • People high in need for affiliation use closer interacting distances Decoding Decoding Space: Distance and Arousal • Changes in skin conductance • Too close=arousal • For females, too far can also cause arousal • The closer the invasion, the sooner the evacuation *study Decoding Space: Crowding and Performance • Correlated with density curvilinear relationship between crowding and performance (happy medium) • Close space with strangers is more “crowding” than with friends • Most “crowding” with male strangers, least with female friends Restaurant Tipping • Waitresses approached customers seated by themselves in a restaurant in France at either .5, 1.5, or 2.5 ft away • 478 customers • greater % of customers in close condition left a tip • customers in close condition left higher tips than further conditions Threats of Violence • Imagine scenario where there was a heated argument • What cues would you consider suggestive of imminent violence? o #1: assuming boxer stance o #2: invasion of personal space** o #3: clenched hands Interactive Space Intimacy Equilibrium Theory • People are subject to 2 motivations in interpersonal interactions: o 1. Being intimate (approach) o stay separate (avoid) • the balance between these 2 motivations is a point of equilibrium • if one person’s behavior upsets this equilibrium, the other will compensate (ex: back up if someone is too close) Arousal Labeling Theory • Close distance creates arousal in decoder • Arousal is labeled positively, decoder will approach (reciprocate) • Arousal is labeled negatively, decoder will avoid (compensate) 2/28/16 9:47 PM 2/28/16 9:47 PM
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