Chemistry 110 week 5
Chemistry 110 week 5 CHEM 110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at West Virginia University taught by Melissa G. Ely in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chemistry in Chemistry at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Chapter 3 Atoms, Compounds, and symbols Elements: Substances that can’t be broken down into simpler substances. They can be combined to make more complex chemical compounds. Figure 1. This is the elemental table and everything on it is an element, or substance that cannot be broken down any farther. (I’m waiting for the “no sh** Sherlock” comments on this one.) Chemical Symbols: Shorthand way of designating an element. Oxygen = O Nitrogen = N Chlorine = Cl Lithium = Li Atom: Smallest bit of an element possible that still retain the property of that element. Atoms consist of three different subatomic particles (these are particles that make up the atom): -28 Electrons (-) = 9.109 x 10 grams Protons (+) = 1.673 x 10 -24grams -24 Neutrons = 1.675 x 10 grams Figure 2. This is the atom with electrons on its outer shells and protons, and neutrons, making up the nucleus. 1. Protons and neutrons reside in the nucleus and make up most of the mass of an atom. 2. Electrons reside outside of the nucleus and orbit around the nucleus, takes up most of the volume. Nucleus: Small, dense, positively charged core in which resides the proton and neutrons. Relative size of the nucleus to atom is similar to that of a pea inside the astro dome. Note: In the neutral atom the number of electrons = the number of protons because the electrons number of negative charge = to the protons number of positive charge. Subatomic Numbers 1. Atomic number = number of protons. a. Given as an integer number above the element on table. (H = 1 proton) b. It is the number of protons that determines what element is present. c. Periodic table is arranged according to increasing atomic number. i. 79 protons = Au ii. 6 protons = C 2. Mass number = number protons + number of neutrons. a. Not given on table b. To obtain number of neutrons: number of neutrons = Mass – Atomic number Chemical symbol: 1. 6Ga (Isotope) a. Protons = 31 b. Neutrons = 69 – 31 = 38 c. Electrons = 31 (since there is no charge in the upper right hand corner) 2. 6Ga -2 a. Protons = 31 b. Neutrons = 69 – 31 = 38 c. Electrons = 31 + 2 = 33 (because it has a negative charge it has to have more electrons) 69 2 3. Ga a. Protons = 31 b. Neutrons = 69 – 31 = 38 c. Electrons = 31 - 2 = 29 (Because it has a positive charge it has to have less electrons) Isotope: One of two forms of the same element that contain equal number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in the nuclei. Group number = the number of electrons on the outer most shell of the atom. (Except He since it only has 2 electrons) Atoms present: 1. H 2 – H= 2, O = 1 2. Mg(OH) - Mg = 1, O = 2, H = 2 2
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