Intro to Entomology; WEEK 5
Intro to Entomology; WEEK 5 ENTO 2010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 v Order: Odanata Ø odous = “tooth” Ø Common Name: dragonflies, damselflies § Species: 5,000 Ø Dragonflies & Damselflies § Incomplete metamorphosis § Biting mouthparts § Two-‐‑paired wings § Very large eyes § Very small antennae § Long abdomen § Nymphs are aquatic. § Nymphs and Adults are predators. § Considered beneficial insects Ø Interesting Fact: In flight, dragonflies and damselflies’ front and back wings beat independently. Ø Damselflies vs. Dragonflies § Damselflies are smaller than dragonflies. § Damselflies hold wings straight back at rest; whereas, dragonflies hold wings out to side. § Damselflies lay eggs in plant stems under water; whereas, dragonflies lay eggs on water surface. Ø Dragonflies & Damselflies § Adults regulate their temperature. § Nymphs are predators. § “Nymph” stage lasts for 1 to 3 years. Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 § Nymph to Adult stage is dangerous because they are vulnerable to aquatic predators. § Must first pump hemolymph into its wings. Ø Damselflies vs. Dragonflies § They hunt prey by sight § Use leg hairs to catch prey. § Excellent fliers. § Muscles are attached to wings like birds and bats. Ø Insect Behavior: reaction of insects to specific conditions. § Males are very territorial. § Mate in the “wheel position.” § Male first removes rival sperm from female. § Male and female are in “tandem” during egg laying process. § This keeps other males from mating with female. v Order: Blattodea Ø blatta = “cockroach” Ø Common Name: cockroaches § Species: 3,500 Ø Cockroaches § Incomplete metamorphosis § Chewing mouthparts § Two-‐‑paired wings § Nocturnal Omnivores § Has a flattened body § Eggs laid in egg case = “ootheca” § Are domestic pests; cockroaches can be nuisances, especially in the kitchen area. Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 Ø Omnivore: eats both plant and animal material. Ø Cockroaches § Cockroaches have adapted to living with humans. § Only 20 cockroach species are pests to humans. § Have excellent peripheral vision. § Antennae detect food and water; they also can keep antennae clean. § Tail hairs are sensitive to movement. Ø Cockroach Defense Against Pest Control “Bait” § Can smell bait at a distance. § They touch bait with their antennae. § They also touch bait with hairs on mouthparts. § Then, they chew and taste bait. § Cockroaches spread disease/bacteria mechanically on the surface of their bodies, which can cause allergies. Ø Termites evolved from Cockroaches § Cockroach fossils are 300 million years old. § Some roaches eat wood. § Like termites, these cockroaches have protozoans to digest cellulose. § Protozoans are passed on to baby cockroaches via feces. § Female cockroaches “care for young” by carrying around the ootheca. Ø Cockroaches Reproduction § Male strokes female antennae to identify her. § Male offers a food gift to her. § They mate from end-‐‑to-‐‑end. § Female mates once and stores sperm. • She can have 7 broods. § Ootheca has about 40 eggs inside. Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 § Nymphs burst out of the ootheca by gulping air to increase their mass. v Order: Orthoptera Ø orthos = “straight;” ptera = “wings” Ø Common Name: grasshoppers, crickets, locusts § Species: 20,000 Ø Grasshoppers & Crickets § Incomplete metamorphosis § Has chewing mouthparts § Front wings are narrow. § Back wings are fan-‐‑like. § Have strong hind legs. § Males produce sound. § There are sound receptors on leg or abdomen. § Oviposit, or lay, eggs in soil or plant. § They are plant eaters. § They are agricultural pests. Ø Stridulation: production of sound to attract a mate. Ø Cricket Songs § Each species is different. § The more chirps per second = the higher temperature/warmer the insect. § Used to establish territory. § Calls females for mating. § Warn others of predators. Ø Sound Production § Crickets and some grasshoppers rub a wing against a wing to produce sound. Intro to Entomology [ENTO 2010] Spring 2016 § Grasshoppers and locusts rub a leg against a wing. • Wings and legs have bumps and ridges called a “file and scraper.” § Wing can serve as an amplifier. Ø Crickets and Grasshoppers § May “call” to find a mate. § Mate at night to reduce danger from predators. § Some predators and parasites are attracted to the call. § However, it is safer to be a strong, “silent” male. Ø Cricket Uses § Court cases to lower rent. § China: raise crickets for fights. § Sell crickets for fish bait. § A cricket genus = Gryllus Ø Locusts § Are the #1 Agricultural Insect in the World § Two phases: solitary stage to the gregarious stage § Stimulation of hairs on back legs of solitary locusts causes swarming: solitary locusts lead to gregarious locusts. • Locust swarms may cover 500 square miles and have 50 billion insects. § “Nymphs” can stay in soil several years during drought conditions. § They “migrated,” or flew, to the Americas from Africa.
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