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Intro to Entomology; WEEK 5

by: Bethany

Intro to Entomology; WEEK 5 ENTO 2010

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Entomology > ENTO 2010 > Intro to Entomology WEEK 5
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About this Document

These notes cover the notes of this week's topics: Dragonflies & Damselflies; Cockroaches; Grasshoppers, Crickets, & Locusts.
Insects & the Environment
Class Notes
entomology, uga, week 5
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENTO 2010 at University of Georgia taught by Espelie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Insects & the Environment in Entomology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
Intro  to  Entomology  [ENTO  2010]   Spring  2016     v Order:    Odanata   Ø odous  =  “tooth”   Ø Common  Name:  dragonflies,  damselflies   § Species:  5,000   Ø Dragonflies  &  Damselflies   § Incomplete  metamorphosis     § Biting  mouthparts   § Two-­‐‑paired  wings   § Very  large  eyes   § Very  small  antennae   § Long  abdomen   § Nymphs  are  aquatic.   § Nymphs  and  Adults  are  predators.   § Considered  beneficial  insects   Ø Interesting  Fact:  In  flight,  dragonflies  and  damselflies’  front  and  back   wings  beat  independently.   Ø Damselflies  vs.  Dragonflies   § Damselflies  are  smaller  than  dragonflies.   § Damselflies  hold  wings  straight  back  at  rest;  whereas,  dragonflies  hold   wings  out  to  side.   § Damselflies  lay  eggs  in  plant  stems  under  water;  whereas,  dragonflies   lay  eggs  on  water  surface.   Ø Dragonflies  &  Damselflies   § Adults  regulate  their  temperature.   § Nymphs  are  predators.   § “Nymph”  stage  lasts  for  1  to  3  years.   Intro  to  Entomology  [ENTO  2010]   Spring  2016     § Nymph  to  Adult  stage  is  dangerous  because  they  are  vulnerable  to   aquatic  predators.   § Must  first  pump  hemolymph  into  its  wings.   Ø Damselflies  vs.  Dragonflies   § They  hunt  prey  by  sight   § Use  leg  hairs  to  catch  prey.   § Excellent  fliers.   § Muscles  are  attached  to  wings  like  birds  and  bats.   Ø Insect  Behavior:  reaction  of  insects  to  specific  conditions.   § Males  are  very  territorial.   § Mate  in  the  “wheel  position.”   § Male  first  removes  rival  sperm  from  female.   § Male  and  female  are  in  “tandem”  during  egg  laying  process.   § This  keeps  other  males  from  mating  with  female.   v Order:    Blattodea   Ø blatta  =  “cockroach”   Ø Common  Name:  cockroaches   § Species:  3,500   Ø Cockroaches   § Incomplete  metamorphosis     § Chewing  mouthparts   § Two-­‐‑paired  wings   § Nocturnal  Omnivores   § Has  a  flattened  body   § Eggs  laid  in  egg  case  =  “ootheca”   § Are  domestic  pests;  cockroaches  can  be  nuisances,  especially  in  the   kitchen  area.   Intro  to  Entomology  [ENTO  2010]   Spring  2016     Ø Omnivore:  eats  both  plant  and  animal  material.   Ø Cockroaches   § Cockroaches  have  adapted  to  living  with  humans.   § Only  20  cockroach  species  are  pests  to  humans.   § Have  excellent  peripheral  vision.   § Antennae  detect  food  and  water;  they  also  can  keep  antennae  clean.   § Tail  hairs  are  sensitive  to  movement.   Ø Cockroach  Defense  Against  Pest  Control  “Bait”   § Can  smell  bait  at  a  distance.   § They  touch  bait  with  their  antennae.   § They  also  touch  bait  with  hairs  on  mouthparts.   § Then,  they  chew  and  taste  bait.   § Cockroaches  spread  disease/bacteria  mechanically  on  the  surface  of   their  bodies,  which  can  cause  allergies.   Ø Termites  evolved  from  Cockroaches   § Cockroach  fossils  are  300  million  years  old.   § Some  roaches  eat  wood.   § Like  termites,  these  cockroaches  have  protozoans  to  digest  cellulose.   § Protozoans  are  passed  on  to  baby  cockroaches  via  feces.     § Female  cockroaches  “care  for  young”  by  carrying  around  the  ootheca.   Ø Cockroaches  Reproduction   § Male  strokes  female  antennae  to  identify  her.   § Male  offers  a  food  gift  to  her.   § They  mate  from  end-­‐‑to-­‐‑end.   § Female  mates  once  and  stores  sperm.   • She  can  have  7  broods.   § Ootheca  has  about  40  eggs  inside.   Intro  to  Entomology  [ENTO  2010]   Spring  2016     § Nymphs  burst  out  of  the  ootheca  by  gulping  air  to  increase  their  mass.   v Order:    Orthoptera   Ø orthos  =  “straight;”  ptera  =  “wings”   Ø Common  Name:  grasshoppers,  crickets,  locusts   § Species:  20,000   Ø Grasshoppers  &  Crickets   § Incomplete  metamorphosis   § Has  chewing  mouthparts   § Front  wings  are  narrow.   § Back  wings  are  fan-­‐‑like.   § Have  strong  hind  legs.   § Males  produce  sound.   § There  are  sound  receptors  on  leg  or  abdomen.   § Oviposit,  or  lay,  eggs  in  soil  or  plant.   § They  are  plant  eaters.   § They  are  agricultural  pests.   Ø Stridulation:  production  of  sound  to  attract  a  mate.   Ø Cricket  Songs   § Each  species  is  different.   § The  more  chirps  per  second  =  the  higher  temperature/warmer  the   insect.     § Used  to  establish  territory.   § Calls  females  for  mating.   § Warn  others  of  predators.   Ø Sound  Production   § Crickets  and  some  grasshoppers  rub  a  wing  against  a  wing  to  produce   sound.   Intro  to  Entomology  [ENTO  2010]   Spring  2016     § Grasshoppers  and  locusts  rub  a  leg  against  a  wing.   • Wings  and  legs  have  bumps  and  ridges  called  a  “file  and  scraper.”   § Wing  can  serve  as  an  amplifier.     Ø Crickets  and  Grasshoppers   § May  “call”  to  find  a  mate.   § Mate  at  night  to  reduce  danger  from  predators.   § Some  predators  and  parasites  are  attracted  to  the  call.   § However,  it  is  safer  to  be  a  strong,  “silent”  male.   Ø Cricket  Uses   § Court  cases  to  lower  rent.   § China:  raise  crickets  for  fights.   § Sell  crickets  for  fish  bait.   § A  cricket  genus  =  Gryllus   Ø Locusts   § Are  the  #1  Agricultural  Insect  in  the  World   § Two  phases:  solitary  stage  to  the  gregarious  stage   § Stimulation  of  hairs  on  back  legs  of  solitary  locusts  causes  swarming:   solitary  locusts  lead  to  gregarious  locusts.   • Locust  swarms  may  cover  500  square  miles  and  have  50  billion   insects.   § “Nymphs”  can  stay  in  soil  several  years  during  drought  conditions.   § They  “migrated,”  or  flew,  to  the  Americas  from  Africa.        


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