Psych100 Week 3 Notes
Psych100 Week 3 Notes PSYC100010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Burtha on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC100010 at University of Delaware taught by Ly,Agnes Ruan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
PSYCH100 Week 3: 2/22, 2/24, 2/26 Chapter 3 Neural Networks Neurons that form a circuit Neurons – basic unites of the nervous system; cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system Central nervous system – the brain and the spinal cord Peripheral nervous system – nerve cells in the body that are not part of the CNS Includes somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (involuntary) nervous system Types of Neurons Sensory neurons – detects information from the physical world and pass that information along in the brain, usually through the spinal cord o Somatosensory neuron – sensory nerves that provide information from the skin and muscles Motor neurons – direct muscles to contract or relax, thereby producing movement Interneurons – communicate within local or short-distance circuits (local area) Neuron Structure Cell body (soma) – the site in the neuron where info form thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated Dendrites – branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect info from other neurons Axon – a long, narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which info is transmitted to other neurons Terminal buttons – small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse Synapse – the gap between the sending and receiving neurons (the place where chemical reactions take place and communicate) Resting membrane potential – the electrical charge of a neuron when its not active Polarized – when a neuron has more negative inside than outside (which creates the electrical energy necessary to power the firing of the neuron) Sodium and Potassium Sodium channels allow sodium ions but not potassium Potassium channels allow potassium ion but not sodium Usually more potassium than sodium is inside the neuron Sodium-potassium pump – increases potassium and decreases sodium inside the neuron to help maintain resting membrane potential Action potential – the electrical signal that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons (aka neural firing) Changes in electrical potential lead to action Neuron receives chemical signals from nearby neurons through dendrites Chemicals tell the neurons whether to fire or not Excitatory signals – Depolarize the cell membrane, increase likelihood of the neuron firing Inhibitory signals – Hyperpolarize the cell, decreasing the likelihood of the neuron firing Myelin sheath – a fatty material, made up of glial cells, the insulates some axons to allow for faster movement of electrical impulses along the axon Between the myelin sheaths are nodes of Ranvier Nodes of Ranvier – small gaps of exposed axon, between the segments of myelin sheath All-or-none principle – the principle that when a neuron fires, it fires with the same potency each time Presynaptic neuron – the neuron that sends the signal Postsynaptic neuron – the neuron that receives the signal Inside the terminal buttons are neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters – chemical substances that transmit signals from one neuron to another Neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron Receptors – in neurons, specialized molecules on the postsynaptic membrane Three major events that stop the neurotransmitters influence: o Reuptake – the process whereby a neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons thereby stopping its activity o Enzyme deactivation – occurs when an enzyme destroys the neurotransmitter in the synapse o Autoreceptors – monitor how much neurotransmitter has been released into the synapse, so when excess is detected, the Autoreceptors signal to stop releasing neurotransmitters Types of neurotransmitters 1. Acetylcholine – the neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at the junction between nerves and muscles; it is also involved in mental processes such as learning, memory, sleeping, and dreaming 2. Epinephrine – a monoamine neurotransmitter responsible for bursts of energy after an event that is exciting or threatening 3. Norepinephrine – a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in states of arousal and attention 4. Serotonin – a monoamine neurotransmitter important for a wide range of psychological activity, including emotional states, impulse control, and dreaming 5. Dopamine – a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in motivation, reward, and motor control over voluntary movement 6. GABA – gamma-aminobutyric acid; the primary inhibitory transmitter in the nervous system 7. Glutamate – the primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system 8. Endorphins – neurotransmitters involved in natural pain reduction and reward Broca’s area – a small portion of the left frontal region of the brain, crucial for the production of language Electroencephalograph – (EEG) measures the brain’s electrical activity Brain’s electrical activity changes in the flow of blood carrying oxygen and nutrients to the active brain regions Positron emission tomography – a method of brain imaging that assesses metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream Magnetic resonance imaging – a method of brain imagine that uses a powerful magnetic field to produce high-quality images of the brain Functional magnetic resonance imaging – an imaging technique used to examine changes in the activity of the working human brain by measuring changes in the blood’s oxygen levels Transcranial magnetic stimulation – the use of strong magnets to briefly interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study brain regions Brain stem – an extension of the spinal cord; houses structures that control functions associated with survival, such as heart rate, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, urination, and orgasm Cerebellum – a large, convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem; it is essential for coordinated movement and balance Thalamus – the gateway to the brain; it receives almost all incoming sensory information before the information reaches the cortex Hypothalamus – a brain structure that is involved in the regulation of bodily functions, including body temperature, body rhythms, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels; it also influences our basic motivated behaviors Hippocampus – a brain structure that is associated with the formation of memories Important for navigating our surroundings (ex. taxi drivers have larger hippocampus than regular drivers) Amygdala – a brain structure that serves a vital role in learning to associate things with emotional responses and in processing emotional information Basal ganglia – a system of subcortical structures that are important for the planning and production of movement Cerebral cortex – the outer layer of brain tissue, which forms the convoluted surface of the brain; the site of all thoughts, perceptions, and complex behaviors Corpus callosum – a massive bridge of millions of axons that connects the hemispheres and allows information to flow between them Four lobes of the cerebral hemisphere: occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal o Occipital lobes – regions of the cerebral cortex at the back of the brain important for vision (includes primary visual cortex) o Parietal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex in the front of the occipital loves and behind the frontal lobes, important for the senses of touch and for attention to the environment Left hemisphere receives touch from the right side of the body Right hemisphere receives touch information from the left side of the body Info directed to primary somatosensory cortex o Temporal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex below the parietal lobes and in front of the occipital lobes, important for processing auditory information, for memory, and for object and face perception o Frontal lobes - regions of the cerebral cortex at the front of the brain, important for movement and higher-level psychological processes associated with the prefrontal cortex Prefrontal cortex – the front most portion of the frontal lobes, especially prominent in humans; important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behavior, and personality Split brain – a condition that occurs when the corpus callosum is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each other Peripheral Nervous System is made up of 2 primary components Somatic nervous system – transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the skin, muscles, and joints Autonomic nervous system – transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the body’s glands and internal organs Two types of signals travel from CNS to organs/glands Sympathetic division – part of the ANS, prepares the body for action Parasympathetic division – part of the ANS, returns the body to its resting state Endocrine system – a communication system that uses hormones to influence thoughts, behaviors, and actions Works hand-in-hand with the nervous system The main difference between the two is the speed and mode of communication Hormones – chemical substances, released from endocrine glands that travel through the bloodstream to targeting tissues’ the tissues are subsequently influences by the hormones Gene expression – whether a particular gene is turned on or off Polygenic – traits that display a wide range of variability (height and intelligence) influenced by genes and environment February 22, 2016 Independent variable is manipulated by the researcher Dependent variable is the outcome Biology and Behavior Dendrites – receive chemical neurotransmitters from neighboring neurons Cell body – processes all the information received from the multiple dendrites February 24, 2016 Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine – motor control over muscles, learning memory, sleeping , and dreaming Epinephrine – energy Norepinephrine – arousal, vigilance, and attention Serotonin – emotional states and impulsiveness, dreaming Dopamine – reward and motivation, motor control over voluntary movement iClicker question: When the brain grows, the dendrites branch out further. Areas of the brain From back to front: basic processes to evolutionary newer luxuries Brain stem Cerebellum Connected to brain stem Related to motor control and movement Subcortical structures Basal Ganglia – movement, reward Thalamus – sensory gateway *Hippocampus – memory (coordinates every part of a memory) *Amygdala – emotion Hypothalamus – regulates body function (ex. temperature, hormones) Cerebral cortex – outermost layer of brain and most evolutionarily new Made of lobes: Parietal – touch Occipital– vision Temporal – hearing/memory Frontal – (abstract) thought, planning iClicker: Conclusion that can be made form Phineas Gage: Brain plasticity Stimulation in environment that fire neurons February 26, 2016 Brain plasticity Brain development is lifelong but there are critical periods How the brain changes We know what we know from case studies and animal studies Genetics and the Role of Twins Studies Most characteristics that we care about are polygenic (multiple genes have an influence) Genetics are a system: changing one thing will create a ripple effect Warrior gene = MAOA gene
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