History 202 Week 7 Notes
History 202 Week 7 Notes HIST 202
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Popular in History
This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chase Goodman on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 at Ball State University taught by Ed Krzemienski in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see History in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
HIST 202 1/13/2016 The Gilded Age 1877-1901 o The Gilded Ages were named after Mark Twain o Gilded Refers to a very thin layer of gold that you cover a cheaper object with to make it look like solid gold On the surface if you were to look at the years 1877- 1901 it would look amazing, like wood being gilded But beneath the surface it was not golden The gap becomes immense in the gilded ages; between people who have cash and people who don’t o Ulysses S. Grant (1822 – 1885) Serves as president from 1869 – 1877 Notorious general from the Civil War Leads army to victory over General Lee War Hero turns president (Happens often) Runs as a Republican The Republican began as the party of Lincoln o They were against Slavery Republican = $ They help the big businesses Went to West Point militarily academy Didn’t do well in School “cronies” Somebody that works for you and tells you what you want to hear o Political Corruption An unbelievable amount of Political Corruption. Whiskey Ring A scandal of unimaginable proportions Deals with Whiskey Distillers o St. Louis is the capital of Whiskey Distilleries are supposed to pay taxes General John McDonald o Comes up with a plan o He collects money from the Distilleries and says it is “Tax” when he is actually stealing it o He steals the government that he is collecting $2 m/year in taxes o He knows that president Grant is really lazy, and that he doesn’t do much unless his secretary warns him General Orville Babcock o He is Pres. Grants secretary o McDonald bribes him, because he is the only link between Grant and the Distilleries McDonald and Babcock are stealing tax money from the Government After Grant found out, he does something common o “If you prosecute Babcock or McDonald, there will be no immunity” o Which means that you will basically get the same punishment as Babcock and McDonald People lose faith in the government Secretary of War William Belknap involved in the Belknap Affair He notices what is going on in the Whiskey Ring He is involved in Indian Trading Post o Government trading post where an Indian would come and trade items o You could buy Indian artifacts and sell them for a lot of money He begins accepting money for the positions in the trading posts o The most he gets from any one trading posts is $6000 o Also there are hundreds of these trading posts Belknap was also a General in the Civil War The political corruption is the defining part of this era Only gets worse as more money is being made 1/15/16 Gilded Age o Ulysses S. Grant set the trend for political corruption, even though he wasn’t responsible, he let it happen Top 5 worst presidents of all-time o Political Corruption At this time it was known by the citizens of the United States o Elected in 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) He is the same as Grant in some ways, but the exact opposite in other ways Both were republicans, served as a general in the north of the Civil War He was born in Ohio in 1822, same as U.S. Grant He was pure, unlike Ulysses S. Grant He never swore, never drank, never served alcohol at the White House He is a devout Christian o His Secretary of War plays the piano while his cabinet sings songs Lucy Webb Hayes Became a symbol of purity for the US Government Nicknamed Lemonade Lucy The political corruption continues in his time of office (only serves 1 term) Post Office Scandal “Star Route Frauds” o People in charge of the post office in this region asked the US government an unordinary amount of money They would ask for more money than they need, claiming they were using it for Post Office Services, but they pocketed it Rutherford B. Hayes tries and convicts the people in this scandal o This shows that no matter who is in charge that scandals like these will happen Spoils Systems He put personal friends and people he knew into government jobs o Instead of the best qualified person for that job This system is a HUGE problem People are aware of what is going on o It is in the Newspapers and any media o 1883: Civil Service Act This was to combat the spoils system They had requirements that you had to be able to do You had to be literate o Was the first requirement This only applied to 10% of all of the government jobs There is still room for corruption, about 90% of it is wide open for corruption Started off as a small law, to pass by congress, hoping they could expand it later o 1884: Election Centers on the idea of the Civil Service Act Republican James G. Blaine (Maine) Old Ulysses S. Grant appointee Politically Corrupt o He was a part of the Whiskey Ring o He was a part of the Belknap Scandal Democrat Grover Cleveland (Buffalo, New York) Running on the platform that if he is elected he will expand Civil Service o As soon as he is elected he wants to make it 50% Eventually wants to make it that all governmental employees have to take the Civil Service exam This election is heated If they select James Blaine they are going to continue down the path of political corruption If they select Grover Cleveland he will try to make people in the Government responsible Grover Cleveland had an illegitimate child with a woman he wasn’t married to He was attacked by this politically If you were able to vote at this time, most often when you went to the voting booth they had a paper where it would just say Republican or Democrat You would have to ask for an individual paper with all of the people running separately Republicans throw their support to Grover Cleveland because they have seen enough of this Political Corruption Because they are in favor of Civil Service act These people are known as “Mugwumps” o They are just Republicans that vote for Cleveland It throws the election in favor of Grover Cleveland Grover Cleveland wins the election in 1884 o 1884: Grover Cleveland wins He expands civil service act to 50% to start off with o 1887: Interstate Commerce Act Deals with the Railroads At this time, the Railroads were everything Everything that had to move, traveled by railroad A large portion of the Railroads were owned by the family Vanderbilt They are one of the richest families in the history of the world They had a monopoly in the railroad system o Which means you have to pay whatever they charged John D. Rockefeller In order to help him out, if any small oil company wanted to transfer oil, he would raise the price a lot Vanderbilt’s would put other smaller oil companies out of Business and John D. Rockefeller would buy them out This is scary for the government because Rockefeller and the Vanderbilt’s could close down any business they want to Railroads are a private system now Interstate Commerce Commission They are supposed to make they are charging fair prices for everyone Political corruption o This also effected the interstate commerce commission o The Vanderbilt’s bribed the book keepers to make it “look” fair o 1890: Sherman Antitrust Act A trust is a monopoly This act is set up to try and eliminate Monopolies The purpose is to give the people of the United States some kind of recourse If they government doesn’t listen to the people, then no one will o STATUS QUO All of the presidents were stuck on this Status Quo = maintain the same o Benjamin Harrison (1889 – 1893) From Indiana He is referred to as cold and boring He is part of the Bearded President era He doesn’t want change the way things are ran, wants to maintain the Status Quo 1/20/16 Economic Development o After the Civil War (1865 – 1890) 35 thousand railroad track miles in 1865 to 115 thousand in 1890 In 1890 they finished the Trans-Continental railroad (From NY to SF) Which means Goods and Commodities can get anywhere they want to Railroads is the main way of travel from people to products Development of steel explodes Railroad tracks are made of steel, the train made of steel, everything made of steel Steel is the heaviest part in the economy You can make anything out of steel Lighter Industries Modern innovations o The typewriter o Telephone They also add for employment o Development of clerical services These modern innovations also lead to more woman in the workplace o Because woman don’t get paid as much as men George Eastman o Creates the first personal camera Kodak Student in Ohio finds a way to refine aluminum Gillette makes the first disposable razor Robert Johnson o Creates the modern Band-Aid People already came up with it, but he patented it o And also Johnson & Johnson company They are still a company Whitcomb Judson o Creates the modern zipper Thomas Edison o Greatest inventor & stealer of the Gilded Ages He would do the paperwork for other people’s inventions All of these little things bring in a ton of money for the economy No income tax at this time! Government doesn’t know how to handle the extremely rich people o “Robber Barons” Americas aristocracy Not born into, but “robbed” into Very wealthy people James “ Jubilee Jim” Fiske He did not invent anything or make an industry better, he made his money by taking people’s money on stock market deals o He makes his money by ripping people off He was very Ostentatious (He shows off) o He wears a huge cherry sized diamond in all of his ties Josie Mansfield o James Fiske’s girlfriend Erie War o Railroad line leading from Buffalo, NY to NYC, NY o Buffalo is a great steel making city at this time o Jim Fiske owns a Railroad from Buffalo to NY o The other one is owned by Commodore Vanderbilt Vanderbilt wants to buy up Jim Fiske’s railroad so he can create a monopoly Vanderbilt starts to buy stock from Jim Fiske’s company Jim Fiske creates more stock to rob Vanderbilt Vanderbilt didn’t notice until he spent 8 million dollars o Jim Fiske’s goes to New Jersey to hide from Commodore Vanderbilt He sets up at a New Jersey hotel and puts canons on the peer of the hotel o The government gets involved o Jim Fiske now goes to Albany, NY Albany is perhaps the most corrupt city- capital of the history of man kind He bribes members of the state to about $500,000 They change the law that made Jim Fiske’s fake stocks actually legal o Come to an agreement where Fiske returns 4.7 million dollars to Commodore Vanderbilt Which means Fiske made 3.3 million o Dies by getting shot by his ex-girlfriends boyfriend when trying to get back to her John D. Rockefeller (1839 – 1937) He was not very interesting Rockefeller original job was a bookkeeper He made his fortune through oil o He and a chemist friend made a better way to extract kerosene than his opponents He creates a Monopoly (Horizontal) o He buys up other companies John D. Rockefeller is actually making oil better and cheaper o This monopoly is working wonders He is America’s first billionaire! o He is making so much money that no one can fathom it He is one of America’s greatest philanthropist o He endows the University of Chicago (Which means he buys it) But he kept the name o He created a medical group to study cures Andrew Carnegie (1835 – 1919) Greatest philanthropist in American history Made his money from steel He was 5’4 and weighed 130 lbs and wore size 5 shoe He accumulates $380 million dollars during his lifetime o He gives away $350 million o He built Libraries 155 community libraries in Indiana alone Absolute cut-throat when it came to business 1/22/16 Discontent o Looking Backward is a book that hits the nail on the head about what people are upset about It tries to solve the problem of Political Corruption and Economic Inequality o A major problem of this time was an existence of Monopoly At this time they are called TRUSTS At this time we are seeing products that we need to use in day to day life in the hands of one organization There is no competition You can charge whatever you want if you are the sole company making/distributing that product John D Rockefellers company makes/distributes 90% of the country’s Oil and Kerosene Swift & Armor had combined with other meat companies and created a Beef TRUST o Owned about 90% of the market in meat o Nothing is more important that the railroad industry at this time Distribute and move everyone/everything William Vanderbilt Leader of the Vanderbilt’s at one point in time “The public be damned” o What he said about his company favoring big money over small businesses o LABOR A large influx of immigrants at this time coming to this country to work Series of strikes come up because of unfair workplaces 1877: Great Railroad Strike Begins in West Virginia They go on strike because they are asked to take a 10% pay cut The federal government dislikes this strike. They call in various National Guards o To fire upon the Strikers and put the strike down 1886: Haymarket Riot In Chicago Police and Strikers meet with force 1892: Homestead Strike Occurs in Andrew Carnegie’s most import steel mill This one is the epitome of how far out of hand the economy has gotten He hires a group of Pinkerton Guards o They were spies in the civil war o They became thugs for hire o They come in armed to Homestead and engage in a battle against the strikers o At one point it becomes a Naval battle Beginning of Unions Unions = Specific abilities o Railroad Engineer union o Railroad Conductor union If you could unite all of these job specific unions into company specific unions then they would be a lot stronger Knights of Labor (1868) o 1879: Terence C. Powderly He is Idealistic His idea is that we could all create a giant union and work together Arbitration If there is a problem, all they have to do is meet and work together. Everything will work out o It is a wonderful idea, but he is completely out of his element o They allowed everybody in the union except for Bankers, Lawyers, & Stock Brookers o 1886: 700,000 members Knights of Labor break apart 1886: American Federation of Labor (AFL) o REALISTIC We want shorter work days More money Can’t survive on these slave wages Safer conditions in the workplace o Samuel Gompers leader of the AFL from 1904 – 1924 He was Jewish and grew up in the slums of London At the age of 13 he moves from the slums of London to the slums of New York He is against immigrants He doesn’t like Asians Specifically Chinese 1904: 1.67 million members While he is the leader, we are going to see results But results for a limited few Idealism vs Realism o Ideal Knights of labor Literature Radicalism Liberal o Real AFL Literature Radicalism Wild Week 3 1/25/16 Discontent o Political corruption Giving the little guy no voice o Labor Unions began to develop Began to give the little guys a voice Radicals o Vs. Capitalism Anarchists Justice can only be achieved by any type of government They describe Christianity is a superstition used to create slaves MOST IMPORTANT o They are willing and able to use violence Nothing short of a domestic terror organization They are rather small Emma Goldman (1869 – 1940) was the most famous Anarchists o Born in Rochester, NY o She works in the clothing factory working a nice Jewish life o She gets married as a young girl and goes on a proper honeymoon She discovers that her new husband was impotent She comes back from the honeymoon and gets the divorce Divorce is seen as sacrilegious in the Jewish religion o She moves to NYC and becomes affiliated with a communes People just live in a little apartment house and share what they have She meets a man who will become her lifelong lover o Alexander Berkman They are lovers for life but they never get married o In 1892: Homestead Strike This strike is involving the entire community Trying to get fair wages Unites States is on the workers side this time Andrew Carnegie leaves Henry Clay Frick Becomes the new leader He is the one that orders the Pinkertons Anarchist decide that Henry Clay Frick is all that is wrong with Capitalism o So they want to kill him They first decide to blow him up with a device o Alexander Berkman and Emma Goldman can’t figure out how to get the bomb working o So they decide to shoot, but they can’t find the money She decides to be a prostitute to get money, she can’t do it She borrows money from her sister o Alexander Berkman shoots Henry Clay Frick twice and stabs him twice and he it doesn’t kill him Socialist Much more likeable group of people Eugene Debs (1855 – 1926) from Indiana It is on the Railroads o Eugene Debs starts working on the Railroads at age 14 o By 16 years old, he became a Railroad fireman Shovels coal into fire He began to see how rough life is for a railroad worker The companies wouldn’t keep up on maintenance or create sufficient things Brotherhood of Fireman o Just have fireman together, not the rest of the Railroad company o James Whitcomb Riley Great poet of Indiana o Debs and Riley travel together through Indiana 1893: American Railway Union o Eugene Debs helps create this 1894: Strike at the Pullman Car Works in Illinois o “Sympathy Strike” o Eugene Debs is against it because the Strike isn’t related to their union o They would not service a train with a Pullman car on it Most trains had Pullman cars on them 1894: Federal Judge o Orders the Railroad strikers back to work o Federal offense because the mail wasn’t getting delivered o Debs says no to the Judge Because if they go to work, then the Federal judge could order strikes over from here on out o Debs gets 6 months in prison for misbehavior o When he comes out of prison he believes that capitalism is wrong He becomes a full blown socialist Debs is against violence unlike the anarchists o He is also pro-Democracy Wants to maintain Democracy 1897: Socialist Party in America o Debs creates that group to run for office o Debs runs for president 5 times, from 1900 – 1920 o In 1900 he gets 60,000 votes o In 1912 he gets 900,000 votes 6% pop. Vote He is the 4 party running for president 1910: Milwaukee, WI becomes socialist o The major is Socialist and 21 of 35 in the city council are Socialist 1/27/16 Literature + Status Quo o Literature is all forms of entertainment o Looking Backward Not a great novel, more of a document that is meant to educate and inspire About someone who sleeps until the year 2000 o He describes to the people of 2000 what life was like in 1887 UTOPIAN novel A novel that tries to present a perfect society Two Halves First half describes the world in 1887 2nd half describes the world in 2000 Author: Edward Bellamy (1850 – 1898) Born in a small town in Massachusetts Becomes the editor of the Springfield Massachusetts paper Gets married to his foster sister Begins to question the Status Quo In the book… o 1887: Insecurity Competition Inequality o 2000: Security Cooperation Equality Utopia Government o No private ownership o Communism This is what his future was like in described rd This book was the 3 biggest seller of Novels of all-time by 1890 Bellamy Clubs or “Nationalist” Clubs To see that the future follows what the book has to say 10,000 people nationwide join the clubs o Most of them are middle class Doctors, Lawyers They wanted to Nationalize certain industries o Argue that the Railroad, Power companies, and Oil be nationalized They are going to be vastly important because they are going to put a point on the idea o They are a loud group (non-violently) Bellamy breaks the mold and there are all types of Utopia’s coming out o William Dean Howells A Traveler from Altruria A guy doesn’t come from the future, he comes from a different nation that is more cooperative and equal Utopian novel o Idealistic Utopias An idealistic approach to changing the system o Realistic Authors trying to prevent the problems of society in a realistic manner Stephen Crane (1871 – 1900) Most famous for realistic novels Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893) o She describes life in/of NYC o She tells a story of the family Johnsons They live in the tenement family The father is never at home and the mother is an alcoholic Maggie is a flower that emerges from the filth of the tenement She has to find a job She finds one making collars and cuffs for shirts She works 12-14 hours a day Maggie takes a chance with a boy that her brother sets her up with She falls in love with him, her brother is a thief who steals from people His friend seduces and uses Maggie When her mother finds out that Maggie has been deflowered her mother kicks her out of the house She becomes a prostitute because she lost her job, and house Easiest way to make money The last thing she does is walk into the Hudson river and she kills herself 1/29/16 Farmers & Western Miners o They are suffering some economic problems at this time o During the 1880’s into the 90’s they are on the verge of losing everything they own o 1882-1893: Farm prices drop 43% They find it hard to pay for their mortgage Hits especially hard in Kansas 11k farms are foreclosed upon In some counties nearly 90% is turned over to the banks (Owned by them) o The Railroad Makes them pay a higher wage to get their foods to market Which runs them out of money more Some farmers aren’t making money anymore o Miners They are suffering because the price of silver drops near 50% Most western states are engaging in mining of Silver at this time o Both Miners and farmers have no money or recourse for action o They do what Eugene Debs does They create a politicalparty, same thing Debs does (American Socialist Party) They are known as the Populists They are going to be a very radical group of people (not violent) They want to maintain the Capitalist system, just improve upon it for the common person They have a series of speakers speaking behalf of farmers Most famous Mary Elizabeth Leise Spectacular speaker o Went to Law school She travels around the country side trying to get Farmers to get behind this political movement o “Raise less corn, and more hell” o If they can control the food supply and unite against them then maybe they will listen o Mary Elizabeth Leise is like Bernie Sanders about Wall Street Congressman “Sockless” Jerry Simpson He was a Kansas rancher He is also going to be criticized for being a home spun character o He periodically misspells medicine He speaks for the masses o Against Wall Street and Banks o Great Plains The South Led by the populous leader Tom Watson From Georgia He is a vibrant speaker o Racist Regional aspect to this movement 1892: Populist creates their own political party Called The Peoples Party o A political party representing Farmers and Miners General. James Weaver o Presidential candidate of the Peoples Party o They gain support of the Bellamy “Nationalist” clubs People’s Platform o Call for unlimited coinage of Silver They request that the US Government make a ton of Silver coins Which means they will need a demand for Silver You create a system of Inflation They are trying to cause inflation o Graduated income tax The more money you have, the more you pay o Government ownership Of certain important places Most importantly the Railroads If the government owns the Railroads then it will be secure and fair They do okay in some places o He didn’t do so will in the south o Because the Democrats are from the south o They are going to have success in the Mid-West and some of the south o They get 22 Electoral votes! rd Usually 3 parties do not get any votes 1893: Panic o The economic depression from the farmers and miners hit everyone else o The rest of the nation endures a smaller portion that the Miners and Farmers hit o Democrats adopt People’s party ideals 1896: Election nd o 2 most important election of all time, behind Lincoln o
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