BSC216 week of 2/22 notes
BSC216 week of 2/22 notes 216
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 216 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lecture in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Lymphatic system amp immunity What are innate and adaptive immunity Nonspeci c innate response 1St line surface barriers skin mucous membrane 2nOI line ces amp proteins of innate response Phagocytic ces Fever NK cells Antimicrobial proteins In ammation First response 12 hours Speci c adaptive response 3rOI line Cells and proteins of adaptive response Humoral immunity B cells Cellular immunity T cells Response to speci c antigens 35 days What role do surface barriers play in immunity Skin Too dry to support much microbial growth Constant exfoliation Impenetrable Keratin bers Sweat and sebum provide an acid mantle Mucous membranes Physically ensnares microbes Cilia move respiratory microbes to pharynx swallowed and destroyed by stomach acid MALT Areolar tissue Underlies epithelia Battleground for patrolling immune cells Hyaluronic acid matrix entraps pathogens Describe the proteins and cells that make up the immune system Surface barrier proteins Keratin Tough protein barrier in skin that few pathogens can penetrate Dermicidin Antibacterial peptide found in sweat Defensins amp cathelicidins Proteins that destroy bacteria viruses and fungi secreted by keratinocytes neutrophils and macrophages Lysozyme Enzyme in mucous tears and saliva that digests bacterial cell walls Hern ipie ic 2an stem nail furmiin units Fireuur r EEIiE Mature r ElllI Epsinuphil aatiphil Neutron hi I Monueyte Lymphocytes 39l39 Natural killer cells iendritii Elle L mgpihnytic EFLli 2nOI and 4th line defense proteins antibodies produced by B lymphocytes compliment system proteins cytokines How do the lymphatic and immune systems work together B cells T cells and macrophages often take up residence in lymphoid organs and tissue Lymphoid organs and tissues trap pathogens for the immune system Lymphoid organs activate cells of the immune system Describe the roles of phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells in innate immunity Monocytes Transform into macrophages in connective tissues Play multiple roles in immune system First responders ingest other cells and cellular debris Cytotoxic effects secrete toxic substances onto cells too large to ingest Antigen presenting cells Neutrophils Concentrated in connective tissues blood especially generally need to be recruited Target bacteria Phagocytosis amp digestion Respiratory bursts Detection of bacteria results in discharging lysosome enzymes that form a chemical killing cloud around the neutrophil kills large numbers of bacteria but can also damage tissue Eosinophils Concentrated in mucous membranes Target parasites amp allergens Tapeworms roundworms killed by producing superoxide hydrogen peroxide neurotoxins Phagocytose antigen antibody complexes Basoths Secrete chemicals that aid mobility of other leukocytes Mediate the in ammatory response Leukotrienes active and attract neutrophils and eosinophils Histamine vasodilator increases local blood ow Heparin prevents clot formation Mast cells are similar in action but nonmobile Lymphocytes Natural Killer cells The Granzyme kiss of death NK cells do not recognize antigens Bind to cells that appear irregular or are bound to antibodies I Hi will WEEQEEE in rm a halo in the enemy will i HailEf plhfa i s Whl l i mt mill 3an E315 mangle EuHE niymariman Wm mm a L i l I fflll l I Ef i fi 39 g mm l Enemy will tiles degrade enemy in ll unarmea membrane Describe compliment system and its role in immunity Group of 20 Globulin proteins synthesized in liver compliment both innate and adaptive immunity Activated from C form to smaller protein fragments eg C3 l C3a and C3b in presence of pathogen Activated forms enact their own cascade and enhance other pathogen destruction mechanisms Classical pathway Alternative pathway Emplimmnl protein simnrananusly clean res ii39i E33 and SEE Gram pliirrilent r pr tEli Eneym mammals ll I i nutmama l etimted l l l I II Membrane attach Enhanm emplait Inflammation i f quot if 11 H I Aquot an ll 39ll lJ E trample51quot lE lF l rl E I i 39 9511 Baenphils Compliment piratein Macrophage Macrophage What roles do cytokines play in immunity Cytokines proteins produce by several immune cells the enhance the immune response in some way Tumor necrosis factor TNF Secreted by activated macrophages Positive feedback loop 0 Attract more phagocytes Increase phagocytic activity 0 Cause release of more cytokines Interferons INF Secreted by macrophages dendritic cells NK cells and lymphocytes Inhibit intracellular pathogens from infecting other cells eg viruses Interleukins Secreted by various leukocytes Stimulate neutrophil production stimulate NK cells activate T cells What is fever Stadium body temperature oscillates EFWF F New BEL pram Infection stops pyrpgu EH secreticin stops l temperature goes dwn erature I3 I Te rn 39l 1 Fiaisecl tidy temperature Grimm A enhanpes antimicrobial homeostatic pr iein a iig n Whit35m Ueferuescen e tacitly LEmFlElEtUl E 53F bapterial reproduction 39E El39TIElfHailsIrE F39E LLlF FlE t normal Neutrophils 3 macrophages secrete pyr gE s pause hypothalamus it raise laud temperature Describe the in ammatory response Local defense response to tissue injury trauma or infection Suf x it is denotes in ammation of speci c organs General purposes of in ammation Limits spread of pathogens then destroy them Removes debris form damaged tissue Initiates tissue repair 3 major in ammatory processes Mobilization of body defenses Local hyperemia Increased local blood ow amp increased space between capillary wall cells hyperemia Histamines leukotrienes amp other cytokines secreted by basophils and mast cells Hyperemia also washes toxins away faster What arrives in blood Compliment antibodies amp clotting factors Neutrophils Margination selectin cytokines released by endothelium trap neutrophils on endothelium membrane Diapedesis neutrophils crawl between widened spaces between endothelial cells Chemotaxis neutrophils travel up concentration gradient of cytokines leukotrienes and bradykinis Containment amp destruction of pathogens Clotting factors brinogen clot in tissue uid adjacent to site of infection contain bacteria Heparin within local area prevents clotting Local macrophages activated Neutrophils o Phagocytose bacteria produce respiratory clouds attract monocytes and lymphocytes stimulate red bone marrow to produce more neutrophils neutrophilia Tissue clean up and repair 0 Arrival of monocytesmacrophages 0 812 hrs after injury 0 engulf and destroy remaining bacteria cellular debris and dying neutrophils 0 remains accumulate as pus either absorbed or accumulates in abscess under dermal layer how does adaptive immunity differ from innate immunity 2 characteristics distinguish the adaptive from the innate immune response speci city response is directed against a particular pathogen distinguished by its unique antigens memory when reexposed to the same pathogen the body often reacts so quickly that there is no noticeable iHness what are antigens epitopes immunogens and haptens antigen any molecule that is potentially capable of producing antibodies against it epitopes regions of the antigen that interact with antibodies ie 1 antigen can have more than 1 antibody recognize it because of multiple epitopes summarize the functions of the cells involved in adaptive immunity describe the roles of the various T cells involved in cell mediated adaptive immunity describe the roles of B cells and the various antibodies they produce in humoral adaptive immunity
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