US History Since 1877 Test 2 Notes (week 1 &2)
US History Since 1877 Test 2 Notes (week 1 &2) HIST 10613
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Harris on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 10613 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Mary Wilson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see US Hist: Surv Since 1877 in History at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
US History Since 1877 T est 2 02/16/2016 ▯ Cyrus McCormick “the Farmer’s Movement” o farmers had moved from sustenance agriculture to commercial farming driven by the demand of the citied helped by the railroads machines were replacing workers o became most productive agriculture industry in history ▯ 1890s- farmers were becoming unhappy because prices were dropping ▯ ▯ Olive H. Kelly “The Grange” o farmers banding together o Purposes: 1. Social and cultural 2. Knowledge 3. Political o Supported laws to regulate railroads and storage facilities o Granger Last 1 time government broke away from laissez-faire Farmers Alliance tried to deal with soil exhaustion political- supported candidates that supported them efforts to create co-ops to fight commodity brokers produced the Populist movement/people’s party ▯ Populist Movement/People’s party Grew out of Farmer’s alliance 3 party: progressives had verystpecific party platforms and plans o 1 Major Platform- designed to help farmers federal ownership of railroads, telegraph, and telephones graduated income tax (there wasn’t an income tax at the time) more money made, more taxes flexible federal currency nd o 2 Major Platform- designed to attract industrial workers shorter work week (40 hours) restrictions on immigration aka less competition for workers rd o 3 Major Platform- designed to make gov’t more responsive Australian Ballot- secret ballot Right of initiative and referendum if people have an issue, they /?????? Popular election of senators Were currently being chosen by state legislature Wanted a bigger, more active gov’t Mary Ellen (Yellin’) o Speech “raise less corn and more hell” ▯ Election of 1892 Grover Cleveland (D) vs. Benjamin Harrison (R) vs. James B. Weaver (P) Interesting bc Weaver won 21 electoral votes ▯ Panic of 1893 – Recession Cleveland got blame He didn’t believe the government should get involved/help citizens financially ▯ Jacob S. Coxey Wealthy quary owner from Ohio Thought government should hire the unemployed workers to perform public work Thought government should print more money Coxey’s Army o Marched on Washington (approx. 400 men) o Lost support of American people because Americans don’t like chaos o Coxey arrested for trespassing o Demonstrated the power of the Populist party Election of 1896 William McKinley (R) v. William Jennings Bryan (D) William Jennings Bryan lost o Democrat but supported by populists The democrats had adopted populist party’s platforms o Gave “Cross of Gold” speech American farmer being crucified on golden cross First election where candidates campaigned for themselves ▯ William McKinley Last President that was a veteran of the Civil War Dingley Tariff Act o Raised tariffs 52% o Hurt agriculture section of US ▯ Imperialism- gaining control over another country with no intention of making it a country of your own ▯ Otto Von Bismark German Chancellor (greatest of all time) 1860- Germany became a country under Kaiser Wilhelm II ▯ Colonialism ▯ 1. provided raw materials ▯ 2. required customers to buy the materials ▯ Germany was late to the colony party Landlocked Berlin conference- Bismarck called meeting to dived up Africa o America didn’t participate ▯ Fredrick J. Turner historian 1890s he noticed that the census showed that there was no longer a difference in the population between the east and the west new frontier was gone ▯ American Economy on the Rise National exports o 1866: $434 million 1890: $1.5 billion nationalism developed o helped bring people together o America could start looking beyond its borders ▯ Expansionism advocates Senator Albert Beveridge Alfred Thayer Mahan o Wrote a book that inspired Kaiser Wilhelm II o Wrote about the Influence of naval power on history Said that great civilizations had bean sea powers If USA wanted to become great, they needed to develop sea power Merchant marine and navy Colonies were required to become a sea power Suggested the construction of panama canal o Inspired Theodore Roosevelt The Great White Fleet Went around the world as a good will gesture Dec. 1907-Feb 1909 William Seward Secretary of state (1860s) thought USA should be a dominant economic power in Asia jumped on opportunity to buy Alaska o $7.2 million o Russia had trading posts all up and down west coast & he wanted to prevent them from becoming too powerful o Provided ports for US ships o Natural resources: furs, gold, fish, oil ▯ Samoa Islands Shared with great Britain and Germany Strategically located for refueling 1889 civil War on Samoa o Germany established a self- governing protectorate Germany kicked out after WWI Today there are two parts of Samoa o American Samoa Constitution Freely elected, independent legislature Self-governing People there are US nationals o Free Samoa ▯ Virgin Islands Caribbean 1916 US bought them from Denmark strategic place to protect Panama canal 1927- became US citizens Hawaii started with missionaries mid 1800s – sugar industry growing agreement between US and Hawaii o we exempted their sugar & goods from tariffs o they agreed to not make deals with any other countries by 1887, sugar plantations taking over Thousands of Hawaiians died from smallpox & measles US had to write them a constitution Queen Liliouo Kalani o Monarchy o Lots of incest= insanity o US disposed of her because she wanted her people to have more say in gov’t US Navy entered Pearl Harbor o Protected US embassy Grover Cleveland (not an expansionist) sent a commissioner to investigate o Pulled marines out Americans set up an American Republic British and Japanese started to move into Hawaii Pres. McKinley decided to annex in 1898 to keep Japanese out o Became a state in 1959 ▯ ▯ Spanish- American War st 1 time US used its military power outside its own borders to help other people ▯ Cuba Dictatorship 76% of jobs were controlled by the government 1868 war for independence began 1878 Cuba could have partial freedom if they freed their slaves Americans invested a lot in Cuban sugar o Biggest exporter Jose Marti y Perez o Poet in America o Voice of independence movement o Went to Cuba to fight—killed within 3 days Became a martyr ▯ Spanish General Valeriamo Weyler “The Butcher” put Cubans in concentration camps nasty conflict- guerilla warfare Spain was a weak country ▯ Yellow Journalism Journalism that is based on sensationalism Newspaper owners willing to make things up to sell more o William Randolf Hearst – New York Journal o Joseph Pulitzer - New York World Cuban rebels started to appeal to Newspapers to get sympathy/support of Americans o Stories upset Americans o Gov’t stance = do nothing, it’s not our business ▯ 1898- Rioters in Havana USS Maine sent to be a presence so riots would stop Letter from Cuba to Spain intercepted and published insulting America and Pres. McKinley 8 days after letter published, USS Maine blew up Spain was assumed to be responsible Congress authorized millions to prepare for was ▯ Mysterious miscommunication Spain sent a letter of surrender to US o Cease fire o Cuba could be free o Countries should meet and talk it out Letter did not reach McKinley McKinley sent letter o Spanish must abandon concentration camps o Cuba must be free o Us would blockade ports until compliance Blockade = act of war Spain declared war April 25 Us Declared War on Spain – April 21 (retroactive) ▯ Teller Amendment Senator Henry Teller Promised US wouldn’t take Cuban territory as a result of war US would leave after Cuban gov’t settled down ▯ “Splendid Little War” – John Hay ▯ Army- Only people who had fought before (civil war veterans) were old You can’t fight with old people and strategies Spanish had 80,000 in Cuba Us had 29,000 in standing army o Had to train and ship soldiers quickly Navy secretary out of town o Roosevelt ordered US fleet to trap Spanish fleet in Philippines o Commanded by George H. Dewey ▯ Battle of San Juan Hill Roosevelt had always wanted to go to war Rough Riders- cavalry unit raised by Teddy o All kinds of people joined his squadron o Assisted by 9 and 10 cavalry US defeated Spanish ▯ War lasted 113 days 5,462 men died only 379 were combat related o Many died from heat stroke & botulism (bacteria in stale food) Treaty of Paris 1898 Ended the Spanish American War US paid Spain $20 million for Philippines o Why did winner pay loser? The US only occupied Manilla, the rest was controlled by Spain McKinley didn’t want Spanish to sell to another power Cuba gained independence; US maintained right to interfere Cuba agreed to US presence in Guantanamo Bay o US paid rent US gained Guam & Puerto Rico ▯ Long term Consequences US was seen as a world power o Gained status and prestige US became a colonial power US had interests and territory in Asia ▯ Post War US set up temporary government in Cuba Asked by Cuba to help set up bureaucracies and infrastructures o Roads, sewers, schools, etc. 1901- Cubans wrote a constitution & US left o Platt Amendment Cuba agreed it would never come under the influence of a world power other than the US Must maintain a balanced budget US could intervene to keep other powers out Cuba had to sell/lease Guantanamo Bay US never took any land from Cuba ▯ ▯ US Expands its Empire ▯ Philippine Islands Bill came to Congress to grant them independence o Didn’t pass- McKinley didn’t think Filipinos were ready to be independent Emilio Aquinaldo led Filipino Revolt from 1899-1902 o Fought for two years for their independence o US send 126,000 men to subdue them 4,320 US men died >6,000 Filipinos died 1901- Philippines became unorganized territory 1916- independence was promised o never carried through because the Japanese interfered/ occupied islands 1946- After WWII, gained independence NOW- China threatens Philippines and they want the US to come keep them safe ▯ Guam WWII- Japanese were cruel to Guam 1899 became Americans Movement to become a commonwealth Ruled by elected governor and 15 people legislature ▯ Insular Supreme Court Cases (1900-1904) Addressed the rights of all US territories Court said it wasn’t responsible; it was up to congress to decide statehood/commonwealth/territory & the status of citizenship Issue resolved itself in time Puerto Rico continuously votes to remain a US territory ▯ Election of 1900 William McKinley v. William Jennings Bryan (anti-imperialism McKinley assassinated 1901 Roosevelt sworn into office ▯ John Hay Secretary of state o Started out as Abe Lincoln’s private secretary China has been defeated in a war against Japan o Left a weak country o Europe and Japanese move in to colonize John Hay promoted free trade o Didn’t want the country divided up 1899- sent a letter to European leaders asking for free trade in China o asked to allow Chinese to collect port duties American Open Door Policy in China o All countries will treat each other equally o Worked well because no one wanted to do anything to fight it for fear of retaliation o Huge (maybe 1 ) diplomatic victory for US o Didn’t last long bc China was on the verge of collapse Starving people Empress Dowager Cixi (Chang Dynasty) Convinced Chinese people that the foreigners were responsible for China’s terrible state Boxer Rebellion Killed any westerner they came across o blamed their poor standard of living on the foreigners that were colonizing China ▯ Panama Canal Panama was part of Colombia 1876- French started planning a canal o had built Suez canal that was flat though o gave up after 20,000 US bought rights to build canal from French US agreed to pay panama upfront & every year Colombia wanted more money o US said no and proceeded to do some sketchy stuff Philippe Bunau- Vasilla o Had worked with French on the canal o Came to Panama to stir up a revolution o Revolution occurred but Colombia didn’t notice o When they did notice, Columbians sent a boat of soldiers o USS Nashville was their waiting—Columbia backed down o Panama proclaimed Independence ▯ Hay- Bunau- Varilla Treaty 1903 Gave US right to dig canal 1904-1914 digging 75,000 men President Teddy Roosevelt visited construction o First sitting president to leave country ▯ Roosevelt Corollary 1823 Monroe Doctrine kept European power out of Western civilization corollary said that US would not tolerate debt collection o US would take over debt collection for European countries o Europe needed to stay out Long term: o Strengthened US as a world power o Kept Europeans out o Turned Latin America against US Saw US as a bully meddling in their internal/foreign affairs Gunboat diplomacy- US would go in with marines to enforce their rules ▯ William Howard Taft Tried to befriend Latin America by sending US businesses there Dollar diplomacy- encouraged trade to gain their friendship ▯ 1934- FDR established “good neighbor policy” – US stays out of Latin America’s business ▯ ▯ Progressive Era ▯ Goals Revitalize democratic institutions o Get rid of bosses and political machines o Make public officials more responsive to voters Create some public control over monopolies and trusts o Protect the interests of farmers and small businesses ▯ Reasons for era 1. caused by promises made by populists 2. horrible working conditions 3. politics were extremely corrupt 4. Americans were aware of socialism and communism in Europe and they were afraid of that infiltrating America 5. cost of living started to rise a. American dollar’s value stopped increasing 6. churches were inactive a. social Darwinism- it was your fault if you were poor b. not as much charity 7. Progressive thinkers and writers a. How to make life better ▯ ▯ Leaders of the Progressive Movement William Jennings Bryan Robert M. LaFollette Woodrow Wilson Teddy Roosevelt Mostly middlclass young people Believed in a pluralistic (no clear majority; no one has >50% of the voters) approach Believed in social justice o Min wage o Max work week o Old age pension All reformers were optimistic o Believed in the goodness of the American people ▯ Muckrakers- people devoted to exposing the bad Wrote about racial problems, child labor, stock manipulation Examples: o McClure’s Magazine o Everybody’s Magazine Anti-capitalism ▯ Ida Tarbell Muckraker Born in Pennsylvania; father was owner of an oil company Gifted writer Exposed avarice (greed) and corruption in big business Most famous expose about Standard Oil Company- John D. Rockafeller o Held grudge against him because he put her father out of business Stalker ▯ Lincoln Steffens Wrote the “Shame of Cities” o About St. Louis’s bosses Schooled in France Had a brief love of communism By 1931 completely disillusioned about communism ▯ Ray Stannard Baker “Following the Color Blind” racial exposes ▯ Upton Sinclair “The Jungle” o about the meat packing industry in Chicago brought ills of meat packing industry Roosevelt appointed a committee to investigate o Meat Inspection Act o Clean Food and Drug Act ▯ Goals of Progressives in Cities Break up political machines and make public officials more responsive to voters Reorganize city governments- hire experts Use reformed city governments to curb corruption, lessen influence of special interest groups, and lower taxes ▯ Hurricane in Galveston, TX 1900 6,000 people died only one weather guy predicted it but no one believed him resulted in a new form of government Commissioner system ▯ Commissioner System of Government Commission of people- elected Each person has a job o Civil engineers- sewer o Roads o Budget o Fire & police o Etc Spread across USA ▯ City Manager Form of Government Developed in Virginia Elected mayor and city council hires a city manager City manager hires people to run city ▯ Progressives at state level 2 steps o give voters more control over government o use state government as an instrument of reform Initiative and referendum o Allows voters to put state issues on ballots By 1914, 12 states allowed women to vote o Mostly in west ▯ Reasoning for 19 Amendment Women are morally superior to men Thought that theystould help clean up politics o Failed- 1 election after amendment = Warren G. Harding Corrupt!!! ▯ 1912- 37 states had direct election of senators ▯ 1918- TX had a specific law against women voters ▯ 1920s- most states had workers compensation ▯ ▯ Robert M. LaFollette “Fighting Bob” Epitomy of progressive leader Governor of Wisconson senator Wisconsin Plan o Workers comp o Women and children max hours o Invome and inheritance taxes o Direct primary laws ▯ Moral Reform Carne Nation, prohibitionist Women’s Temperance Movement Prohibition Movement 1916- 19 states had made laws against alcohol consumption 1919- 18 Amendment: Prohibition ▯ National Level Reform ▯ Election of 1900 William McKinley won Teddy was on the ticket as VP o Incorruptible politician o Progressive, patriotic o Governor of NY o Didn’t play the game- no bribes, etc. o NYC politicians got rid of him by placing him on ticket as vp McKinley Shot Sept, 1901 Roosevelt o Progressive expansionist & reformer st o 1 media president o commander of Rough Riders o youngest Pres o 1 to fly in plane and ride in automobile o named the “White House” o had asthma as a child o wife- Alice died after giving birth mom died days later moved west with baby girl (Alice) became a cowboy 1884-1887 built his character o Confident president thrived o Called president’s office “bully pulpit” o Ran for reelection- won o Very loved president o Created a national forest o Wanted to return politics to voters ▯ New Nationalism Developed by Teddy st 1 president to name is program based his ideas on book “The promise of American Life” by Herbert Croly o called for stronger, more active federal government o social welfare the gov’t should pursue workman’s compensation o national factory safety laws o minimum wage o max work hours o child labor banned in favor of monopolies and trusts o thought they were inevitable; a natural outgrowth of capitalism o they could conduct/afford research development o economy of scale- the more you make, the cheaper it is nationalists wanted gov’t to regulate the monopolies and trusts o because of low wages and poor quality ▯ Miner’s strike Teddy called strikers and owners to talk it out Forced a settlement ▯ William Howard Taft Appointed by Roosevelt to succeed him Had been secretary of War Not a politician Became supreme court justice later Caused a divide to form in the Republican party Taft became more and more conservative Roosevelt Campaigned again o Republican convention chose Taft ▯ Bull Moose Party Progressive party started by Roosevelt Teddy shot on campaign tour o Gave 45 minute speech before going to the hospital ▯ Woodrow Wilson Democratic candidate Born in VA, raised in GA- southern roots/morals Environment, states rights, laissez-faire Taught at Princeton before becoming president o Attended UVA and Johns Hopkins o Internationally known scholar Moral certitude- belief in right and wrong, no in between o Same values as teddy Eugene Debs Socialist candidate Soo.. Election of 1912 Winner = Woodrow Wilson st o 1 democrat since cleveland o dyslexic o dignified, reserved o completely changed platforms when reelected ▯ “New Freedom” thought up by Louis Brandeis supported states rights and Laissez-faire government 1. Large companies are bad for economy 2. Monopolies and trusts are not outgrowth of capitalism o only reason why they exist is because of government protection o examples: railroads, steel o wanted to break up all monopolies Underwood Simmons Tariff o Reduced tariffs by 15% Federal Reserve Act o Created board and banking system o Still around today o Decentralized banking systems All over the country o Government could now control how much money in circulation o Control interest rates o Government bonds 16 Amendment (1913) o First graduated income tax law o (45% of people in the US don’t pay income taxes today) ▯ Clayton Act 1914 Created a five man federal trade commission ▯ Election of 1914 Democrats lost 61 seats in the House of Representatives Woodrow Wilson realized the American people didn’t like what he was doing o Adopted Teddy Roosevelt’s ideas ▯ Federal Looaning Act ▯ Child Labor Law ▯ Adamson Act- 8 hour work day ▯ Adopted Women’s movement ▯ ▯ Conclusion: Progressive era proved that the federal government was more powerful than big business The government learned how to control monopolies Reforms made to insure no social revolution ▯ Woodrow Wilson believed USA should apply its standards all over the world Mexico ▯ Porfilio Diaz Dictator of Mexico In his old age convinced himself that everyone loved him Decided to have an election Francisco Madero ran against him o Had an enormous following Diaz put Madero in jail Diaz won election Madero went to TX and declared himself leader of Mexico Other revolutionists o Emilio Zapata o Pancho Villa Diaz named Madero his successor Madero = weak leader Victoriano Huerto led a revolution Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize Huerto as leader because he didn’t like how Huerto came to power Venustiano Garranzo- another revolutionist Germans sent a boat Americans sent Marines America kept Germans out Pancho Villa rode into Columbus, NM o Killed a bunch of people General John Joseph “Blackjack” Pershing Sent to find Villa o 1 time airpower used for reconnaissance o USA eventually gave up – WWI ▯ ▯ World War I ▯ Pre-World War I Europe: Bound/divided by language, race, and customs All the great powers were relatively equal Only small scale wars Industrial age o Everyone wanted colonies: Customers Raw materials ▯ Germany A collection of small states Dominated by Prussia Very militaristic society Ruled by Kaiser Wilhelm I & Otto Von Bismark Autocratic No middle class Bismark made many secret treaties with surrounding countries o Triple Alliance Germany, Austria, & Italy Austria and Hungary were enemies Kaiser Wilhelm II o Became emperor at 29 years old o Crazy; believed god made him the emperor o Grandson of Queen Victoria o Raised in privileged and extremely disciplined environment o Had withered left arm and balance problems Had trouble riding horses- had to be tied on Main mode of transportation back then o Fascinated by the military o Decided that he wanted Germany to be a sea power o Prince Bernhard von Bulow o Huge military expansion o Read Alfred Thayer Mahan’s book (just like Teddy Roosevelt) Wanted to be a world power o Great Britain saw this naval growth as a threat o Land neighbors felt threatened by army growth ▯ Great Britain Queen Victoria Modernized its navy Biggest empire in the world 9 ruling houses in Europe related to Victoria problem: must import food o reason they had to have a powerful navy England and France have always been enemies, same with England and Russia Germany and England = allies historically Czar Nicolas, King George V, Kaiser Wilhelm II = first cousins HMS dreadnaught o First dreadnaught o British had 14 o Germany had 13 with 7 under construction ▯ France The Third Republic Republican Parliammentary Democracy Lost all saints laurant region between France and Germany in the Franco Prussian War General Joseph Joffre- leader of military o Only plan they had – Plan 17 Purpose was to gain territory back o No plan of defense o “if you want to win badly enough, you will win” ▯ Austro- Hundarian Empire- created 1867 Emperor Franz Joseph- constitutional monarchy Filled with minority groups that wanted their own countries Hated, resented, and feared Russia ▯ Russia No middle class Czar Nicolas II became Czar at 26 Trying to reform o Still targeted Jews, protestants, & catholics o Reforms might have worked Bolshevik revolution o Bolsheviks/communists took over ▯ Ottoman Empire Falling apart Sultan Abdul Hamid overturned Young Turks took over Lost territory A lot of people wanted Turkish sea access o Russia Countries within the empire wanted their freedom Great Britain used the empire for access to India Armenian massacre o Christians trying to escape oppression were slaughtered o Queen Victoria ignored it o Turkey still refuses to acknowledge that this was a genocide which is why they are not a part of the European Union ▯ ▯
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