BIOL 304, Notes for Feb. 18th and 23rd
BIOL 304, Notes for Feb. 18th and 23rd BIO 304
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Casey on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 304 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Garrie Landry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see Economic Botany in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Key Box: th Feb. 18 ***: Know for test besides definitions ***: Definition Temperate Fruits o Rosaceae Family ** **: Word origin 1. Malus 2. Pyrus ***: Titles 3. Cydnia (Quince) 4. Prunus Prune family A. 3 most important a. All are drupes= have hard endocarps B. Ex: a. Cherry b. Peaches i. Freestone peaches= when a peach is opened the seed comes out freely ii. Cling, exact opposite, the seed does not come out freely c. Nectarine = a type of peach with no fuzz d. Apricots e. Almond i. Almonds are the pit of a specific peach ii. Some pits have cyanide, BUT not almonds! The ones with cyanide we don’t eat 5. Rubus a. Raspberries b. Blackberries i. Used as a source of purple dye 6. Fragaria comes from the word fragrant a. Strawberry; originates from South America, but the fruit we eat today was developed in Europe o Ericaceae Heath Family 1. Azalea- popular shrub, not edible 2. Vaccinium- genus name for the following: (all shrubs) a. Blueberry i. In order to cultivate blueberries, you have to build a mound (not a hole) – this is the ensure great drainage; the roots have to be above ground to flourish b. Huckleberry c. Cranberry i. Cranberry shrubs flourish in flooded areas; the plant/shrub gets agitated in water and the berries float to the top of the water ii. Ex: Recall the ocean spray commercials, father/ son in the water with cranberry’s floating around them o Oleaceae Family (Olea Europea) 1. Olives- has a tremendous amount of oil in each fruit a. It is estimated that 98% of today’s olives are cultivated for oil i. The first pressing of the fruit= creates extra virgin olive oil b. It wasn’t until 1900, that olives were used to eat i. How did they get rid of the bitter taste in olives and render it edible?: 1. Soak the olives in sodium hydroxide (don’t worry, there is no trace of it the sodium hydroxide afterward) 2. Then keep the olives in water afterward, they stay green! 3. But, if you are to expose the olives to air after the process, they turn black! o Juglandaceae Family– nut bearing, ALL have oily seeds ** Know common names** 1. Juglands = Walnuts a. English Walnuts b. Black Walnuts- popular here, in LA, we don’t eat black walnuts, they are too hard to crack. WE do however, use it for our furniture 2. Carya = Pecan a. Hickory Nuts b. Pecans are the most popular nut, it is exclusive to the New World; it is an American invention 3. Fagaea = a. Fagus = Beach Nut b. Castanea = Chestnut c. Quercus= Acorns 4. Carylaceae= Corylus=Filbat= Hazelnut Test question: Prior to the introduction of peanuts, in Europe, they would grind up hazelnuts to make something like peanut butter…. We now know it as Nutella (Chocolate mixed, crushed hazelnut) Tropical Fruits o Rutaceae Family 1. Citrus- generic term for this whole family A. Produce hesperidiums – unique to the citrus family B. 2 most important crop Oranges C. Barely grow this family from trees/seeds, grow from cuttings i. That is done by a process called grafting 1. Take seed and plant it/grow it 2. Then cut off top of another plant (same type of plant) and jam the cutting into the new grown stem ii. Do this to ensure the uniformity: attach a desirable plant to a healthier plant (the plant seeds grew strong healthy roots= hearty source for desirable plant) rd Feb. 23 Tropical Fruits Continued D. Most tropical fruit environments in US: FL, TX, CA E. No direct ancestor known for the citrus family (foliage and trees almost look identical) Test question: The spread of citrus cultivation was due to? o Early Explorers took citrus everywhere because in order to prevent scurvy (a Vitamin C defiency) they ate citrus fruits o Following the sea bearers, British sailors also ate citrus, in particular they drank rations of lime juice, thus became known as Limees F. Oranges: 3 prominent commercial types include: 1. Navel Oranges- no seeds/ sterile, triploid, 3N plant, cultivated from cuttings 2. Blood Oranges- produces seeds 3. Valencia- also produces seeds; most popular commercially a. Although they produce seeds, we do not really grow them from the seeds because they revert back to wild roots and grow into something NOT like parent plant G. Lemons and Limes 1. Very high source of Vitamin C 2. Also way back when, concentrated lime juice was used to bleach the pigment in skin, thought to enhance a woman’s beauty because they would have a very pale, whitish face i. Lime juice is still used in cosmetics, but for other purposes H. Grapefruit 1. Originated exactly on the island of Barbados about 300 years ago a. Most citrus derive from South East Asia b. Parent fruits: Pumelo and Shaddock o Cucurbutaceae Family – entire family produces pepo; a cucumber is a member of this family Mostly melon (old world fruit) and squash (new world fruit) family Both of the above are very important to their worlds All of the plants produce vines: Monoecious vines vines produce male and female flowers; female flowers produce fruit, male flowers pollenate and fall off (male flowers can be eaten) 3 plants the native of the Americas (North, Central, & South) cultivated, through which they were provided with a well-balanced diet Corn Beans faithful wife of corn – attached to the corn crop and grew up with it Some Squash the unfaithful wife of corn – its vines spread and ran all over the ground A. Squash Ancestry is obscured The seeds are editable, the fruit is not very sweet Side note: It is not uncommon for archeologist to dig up seeds and bring plants back to life Gourd dried squash, if you leave a squash on its vine it becomes no longer edible and dries up i. Gourds can be cultivated to make utensils, instruments, strong storage containers, purse, elofa sponges, etc. 1. All different shapes and sizes ii. If one coats the gourd with animal fat or saturate it with oil, the gourd can become waterproof and could be used to store liquid All Cucurbutaceae produce many, many seeds! Except one, and only one squash that produces only one seed The name of this squash varies, but here in Lafayette, we call it Mirliton The English name for this squash is vegetable pear B. Melons Very sweet and filled with lots of water i. On long voyages/trips, explorers would carry melons with them because the explorers would use them as their source of water- reason why cultivation spread ii. The old world plant tiny melon that persists and continues to spread even though bigger/better melons now exists 1. Called something like muster melon, while it is green, it is bitter; once it turns a brilliant yellow, it is incredibly delicious How to get a seedless melon: cross two particular plants to produce a sterile hybrid; ex: seedless watermelon o Solanaceae Night Shade Family 1. Many members of the night shade family are deadly/toxic; night shade use to be the poison of choice in which the noble had taste/food testers in order to make sure they were not being poisoned 2. Non-toxic members of this family that we are familiar with include: A. Potato Found in South America, changed the course of history; was brought to England and thrived there Both potatoes and tobacco are not actually fruits, we will talk about that later B. Tobacco C. Tomato When introduced to Europe, the people feared it! A German said if you would eat it, you would turn into a werewolf So when Lemmius gave the tomato a scientific name, being a smartellic and remembering the werewolf folktale, named it Lycopersicon esculentum = edible wolf peach Wild tomatoes are self-incompatible; commercial tomatoes on the other hand are compatible They are all buzz pollenated flowers, insects vibrations when landing on the plant pollenate it D. Red Pepper- genus family= Capsicum (Not all peppers are red) Archeological sites show proof of cultivation dating back to 8,000 years ago, cultivated just as long as corn Historically, all peppers were hot due to oil in fruit and seeds Flavors vary, and now we have even hotter peppers as ever before Habanero example: originated in Cuba, popular in the Caribbean, grown for its beauty and made in hot sauce Use pepper oil in icy/hot medication/soothers E. Eggplant –genus family=Solanum Originated in South East Asia, perhaps India; important ingredient in Indian cuisine Only wild eggplants look like eggs, cultivated ones do no look like eggs at all!