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by: Cleve Anderson


Cleve Anderson
GPA 3.86

Marci Gleason

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Marci Gleason
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cleve Anderson on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDF 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Marci Gleason in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/181856/hdf-304-university-of-texas-at-austin in Human Dev And Family Sciences at University of Texas at Austin.




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Date Created: 09/07/15
Rejection Sensitivity To anxiously expect readily perceive and overreact to rejection Individual differences in RS Some ppl are high in RS HRS Some ppl are low in RS LRS Rejection sensitivity questionnaire RSQ You ask your boyfriend girlfriend to come home to meet your parents How concerned would you be about whether or not your bfgf would want to meet your parents I would expect heshe would want to meet them Daily experience study of dating couples Ppl who were dating High RS partners were more unhappy after con ict whereas dating LRS improved relationship con ict resolution and were more happy If you are HRS you maybe creating a cycle of rej ection for yourself selffulfilling prophecy Goals and Motivation in Relationships Self regulation The ways ppl control amp direct their actions how we work towards goal We can use our relationships to accomplish our goals but our relationships may also hinder out goal pursuit Self regulation and relationships 1 Study had 34 participants Primed with a goal of sociability go out and make friends vs a control condition Listed instrumental vs noninstrumental friends instrumental in reaching goal of sociability imore social amp party Instrumental friends more cognitively accessible when participants were primed with a goal of sociability the people who helped them achieve those goals were more cognitively accessible in their minds ie they could think of them quicker 2 Study had 56 participants assigned to depleted vs nondepleted condition focal goal condition wrote about partner helping them with fitness goals control goal condition wrote about partner helping them with career goals rated time and effort they were going to spend on health goals this week When we are overwhelmed exhausted depleted we tend to rely on our partner and outsource our emotions to them for some of our goals this can be helpful but for some can be detrimental Communication Communication is key Nonverbal comm Verbal comm Effects on relationships and physical health The Inteppersonal Gap A s intention actions Impact on B Privately known public privately only to A encoded observable decoded known only must be hferred by A by myone by B to B by B must be inferred by A The Interpersonal Gap Senders intentions often differ from listeners experience Nonverbal communication Facilitates interaction Chameleon Effect Participate in task w confederate Confederate randomly assigned to rub face or shake foot Measure paiticipants behaviors Participant is mimicking nonverbal behavior of confederate Imitation and liking Participate in task with confederate Confederate randomly assigned to mimic participant or not Participants liked imitators better and felt the interaction went more smoothly Provides valuable information Body language leaky can be a giveaway Facial expressions So important they are innate Even blind ppl have same facial expressions Nonverbal sensitivity Key predictor of relationship satisfaction Couples that are better at it last longer Encoding how we package a message Decoding how we unpackage a message Verbal communication About what do we tend to argue 1 Power issues finances amp equity 2 Intimacy affections amp sex 3 Being overly critical 4 driving style 5 household tasks How do we study con ict The methodology Identify problem areas Record conversations code for speci c behaviors etc Gottman39s Studies identified 7 signs of distressed couples highly like to divorce overplays how predictive the 7 signs of divorce aregt small number of couples possibly not entirely accurate thought he thinks he can predict divorce 96 of the time Sign 1 Harsh Startup couple has no problem getting the argument started starting out the argument quickly and negatively no leading up to it Sign 2 The 4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse these four things are a sign of the end of the marriage 2 Criticismnot complaint focuses of specific behavior complaint quotit bothers me when you leave the dishes in the sink criticism quotyou always leave the dishes in the sinkquot includes blame and character assassinationquottheres no gas in the car why didn39t you fill it up like you said you wouldquot quotwhy can you remember anythingidiotquot 3Contempt attitude of utter disgust or hatred fueed by long simmering negative thoughts about partner often done with tone and facial expression sarcasm nam calling eye rolling sneering mockery 4 Defensiveness way of blaming the partner quotits not meits youquot its hard to accept the complaint from your partner when you have complaints deal with their complaint without turning it around then later tell your problem 5 Stonewalling when one partner finally tunes out quoti don39t carequot disengaging from relationships avoidance of notjust the fight but the relationship itself some say its more common in males Sign 6 Flooding partners negativity is so overwhelming and sudden that you feel in shell shocked focus is on protecting the self nothing constructive comes from flooding Sign 7 Body Language heart rate hormones etc the use and receipt of bad problem solving skills are associated with physiological arousal in a bad way measured that the mortality rate was higher for less satisfactory people 20 of men passed away within 4 years those were dissatisfied Good marriageowmortality makes it very difficult to ay attention to partner fight or flight both have negative effects Health Effects of all this coupes with poor problem solving skills increased stress hormones poorer immune function so wer wound healing Other Classic forms of miscommunication Kitchen Sinking involves thrown all kinds of events or misdeeds of another at them all at once focuses on the pastcant control overwhelms person on the receiving end Mindreadingmakes assumptions about another39s goals mat ovations intentions etc quotyou just that to make me and and get back at me leave it dirtyquot Cross Complaining respond to a request or complaint with a novel request or complaint quothow about you organize the kitchen the way i like and ill clean the kitchen the way you like it quotyou never listen to me what and I39m going to well you never listen to me Whats the correct way to argue Statements specify and own your feelings quoti would like to speak to you abouti feel upset and i would like to work it outquot express how you feel about what happened Be careful with behavior description avoid use of words like always and never specify a particular event be direct avoid something that happened a long time ago avoid bringing up something over and over again Use Active Listening paraphrasing form of perception check quoti know i said i would and i know its frustrating buti didn39t because i was already latequot what is does for us respect and validation acknowledge them and their feelings acknowledge the legitimacy of oterhs opinions and communicate for couples or marital therapy reationship counseling can improve relationship satisfaction however many couples are not helped by treatment Traditional Behavior Couples Therapy TBCT improve exchange of positive behaviors focus on communication skills and problem solving lntegreative Behavioral Couple Therapy reatively new also called Acceptance and Commitment Therapy ACT accepting flaws rather than focusing on how to communicate and solve it says you chose them and they are flawed and if you can39t accept it its over change to accommodate partner Gender Terminology Sex vs Gender Sexbiological gender Gender what we construct to believe socialy constructed roles regarding what it means to be masculine or feminine in our society the attitudes behaviors beliefs and values associated with and expected of males and females Gender Schema info that an individual has learned about gender cognitive organization culturally influences gender scriptthe way we expect men and women to behave where occupations dating emotions etc attention memory easier encoding amp retrieval Gender Identity degree to which an individual sees herself or himself as feminine or masculine based on societys definition of appropriate gender roles Identification Theory Sigmunds Freud39s theory of gender was not testable and very biased recognized importance of biological and social environment and was a developmental model his idea developed over time How do boysgirls learn gender Tied to development of conscience or desire to do right children39s awareness of external genitals Cognitive Development Theory Learn gender by categorizing objects little boy thinking all doctors are boys Gender is a very visible category people have a natural tendency to categorize Social Learning Theory Children learn appropriate gender behavior through reinforcement punishment and modelingimitating lets talk pink in 1918 pink was strong decided and masculine blue was dainty delicate and for girls advertising was one of the main reasons that boys and girls got standard colors for clothing they HAD to buy certain clothes for women theres a lot of derision about sex Gender Differences how much is due to assumptions or actual differences Are they accurate hall and carter found that stereo types were to some degree accurate but this accuracy varied based on both the stereotype and the persona making the judgement stereotypes emphasize differences and minimize similarities selffulfilling prophecy skrypneck and snyder experiment assigned tasks to a man or woman and found that if the boss thought that they were assigning a task to man they assigned more masculine tasks when male bosses were less negotiable with women and women negotiated less empathy curves 0 if there are no differences if like 20 like height then the curves are separating big effect height is one of the biggest gender differences and since heigh is a pretty large range it shows that the other differences shown are really not that effectual Metanalysis shows the differences in a bunch of things women are much more tender minded Nurturesocial structural theory malefemale differences are of paramount importance and highly noticeable given that they exist they are selfreinforcing creates a hierarchy Naturebiologyevolutionary theory gender differences are cute to mens larger size and physical capabilities as compared to women gender differences stem from our desire to pass on our genes and the strategies we developed to do so Other differences 50 of men think about sex daily women les than 20 men report more arousal and fantasia men cause more fights about not enough lesbians report less frequent sex and sex thought women39s fantasies more with familiar men with strangersmultiple partners The Hookup Culture sex is cheap today because of spread of pornography birth control few social constraints Men on college campuses are outnumbered by women sexual power driven by minority men report 30 of their sexual encounter do not involve romance some indication that women wish for more commitment Women in Paid Labor Women earn less money than men women make an avg 77 cents per each dollar men make accounting forjob differences and experience women still earn less why interruption of pregnancy and childbirth ower rates of hiring and promotion choice of careerwomen choose different careers than men and those make less wiingness to ask for more discrimination Divison of Household Labor October 25th gender gap in household laboramount of gap varies depending on reporter and method of data collection but husbands and wives agree that wives spend more time both h and w have simlar reports for w time h and w have different reports for h39s time 5hr difference h report more time difference in gap between h amp w39s labor form reports hs report 72 hrsweek w39s report 132 80 both agree on how much wife works but how much less the hubby works is in dispute difference in gap from beeper data591 hrs Women experience second shiftcoined because when women work outside the home they come home to their second shift of house work eisure gap between men and women more women work less household work they do husbands do not increase hrs spent males tasks more discretionary females task more constant ex paying bills cooking for the family women39s are just more likely to be on a daily basis Abuse and Violence Predictors of Violence low socioeconomic status stressful events family background growing up around a violent family Types of Abusequotall family violence is abhorrent but not all family violence is the samequot patriarchal terrorism intimate terrorism common couple violence Patriarchal terrorsm beatings happen more than once a wek and escalate in seriousness over time most ofthe time victims do not fight back can involve other types of abuse besides physical minimizing denying and blaming coercion and threats intimidation emotional abuse isolation using children economic abuse Common Couple Violence typical family conflicts that occasionally get out of control at least as likely to be enacted by women as by men occurs about once ever two months doesnt usually escalate over time unike patriarchal terrorism its not usually related to generalized control issues Gender asymmetry in partnerviolence it depends on the sample community suney samples women are at least as likely if not more to use violence against men shelter and police samples nearly all victims are women and perpetrators men It depends on the type of violence common couple violence women are at least as likely if not more to use violence against men patriarchal terrorismnearly all victims are women all perps men have a lot to do with control while common couple is more a breakdown of skills Why differentiate between types of violence develop better theories about causes and consequences Public Policy knowing where and how to direct economic resources Education and therapy knowing what kind of info and advice to give Abused spouses don39t always leave study of 51 battered women over 25 yrs 33 still in abusive 23 remained with partner but no violence 43 left abusive partner Reasons People Stay more likely to leave when violence causes injury and is escalating characteristics that are related to being less likely to leave an abusive relationships being older viewing violence as more normative depressionanxietylack of efficacy religion financial dependence embarrassment investment model satisfaction level gt quality of alternatives gt Commitment Level gt Persistance investment size gt Jealousy Jealousy is the unhappy combination of hurt anger and fear that occurs when people face the potential loss of a valued relationship to a real or imagined rival this can be in friendship or among siblings etc universa feeling that affects all ages and cultures and even other animals Perceptions of Jealousy have changed over time 195039s and 196039s proof of love 197039s and 1908039s improper state born of insecurity and personality defects 21st centurydouble edged swordexpression of love but also perceived paranoia to consider how would feel if you couldn39t make you partnerjealous but its not so good to test your relationship people want their partnerto be a littttllejealous but not creepy and controlling 2 types ofjealousy 1 Reactive Jealousy occurs in response to an actual threat to a valued relationship can occur with physical acts or flighting or fantasies with another most feel if partner unfaithful some justifications forjealous survey of 700 american college student most reported having done a litttle something with another while in a serious relationship Men report infidelity more 2 Suspicious Jealousy occurs when one39s partner has not misbehaved and ones suspicions do not fit the facts at hand results in mistrust and snooping and other negative behaviors people vary in thisjealousy in absence of any real threat Who39s more prone to jelaousy men and women to not differ on avg individual differences exist dependence on relationship more alternative lt jealous feeling of inadequacy in a relationship when you think your partners alternatives are high you are more likely to be jealous attachment styles preoccupiedgtjealousy preoccupied people have morejealous they don39t feel they39re good enough dismissingltjealousy they always have an attractive alt personality trates high neuroticism morejealousy high agreeableness lessjealousy traditional gender rolesmacho men and feminine women experience more jealousy than androgynous people Previous Experiences if you39ve had a bad experience previously you39re more likely to be suspicious Who makes us jealous Not all rivals are created equal rivals who make us look bad are particularly worrisome by achieving things we had or by being more attractive to our partners jealous over emotional or sexual infidelity synonymous with evolutionary theoryperspective because men would be threatened with paternity uncertainty so they are more concerned with sexual women risk that a mate will withdraw his protective resources so she is more concerned with emotional both are upsetting itsjust what generally the sexes pick which is more important Responses to Jealous responses may be helpful or harmful Attachment styles matter those who are comfortable with closeness tend to express concurs trying to repair relationship those who are dismissing or fearful tend to avoid issue and pretend they don39t care thereby kinda saying you don39t care and that its fine Coping Constructiver with Jealous jealousy is natural but often awful feeling that results in destructive behavior need to do away with the notion that jealous is a sign ofquottrue lovequot sign of dependency and reflection of own desires and selfinterest work toward maintaining selfworth self reliance staying cool and selfbolstering doing something for you therapy goals reduce irrational thinking enhance self esteem improve communication fewer misunderstandings ncrease satisfaction and fairness in relationship Which Behaviors are a unfaithful b jealousy provoking going to lunch alone with a person ofthe other gender dinner a group dinner dancing in a group holding hands or kissing Infidelity a violation of norms regulating the level of emotional and physical intimacy partners should have with people outside the relationship what percentage of people report being unfaithful to a romantic partner 1030 4055 All of the above itjust depends Why do people cheat Low Commitment investment model approach dissatisfaction with current relationship availabity of attractive alternatives low investment in current relationship Desire for Sex evolutionary approach people cheat because it increases their ability to pass on their genes states that men and women do not have the same motivation to cheat RevengeAnger Retaliation Approach people cheat in response to their partners unfaithfulness view cheating as a socially acceptable way to even the score in the relationship Cheating Prone Personalities individual difference approach emphasized the personal readiness to cheat personality correlates sociosexual orientation Sociosexuality restricted less likely to engage and unrestricted more likely More people lean towards not forgiving your unfaithful spouse Discovering lnfidelity a unsolicited partner discovery you partner tells you they cheated on you b solicited discovery when you have suspicions and you ask and they admit to it cunsoicited third part discoversomeone tells you your partner is cheating dred handed discoveryyou catch your partner cheating Relationship Quality goes down less if unsolicited redhanded is the worst third part is close behind then solicited then finally unsolicited forgiveness goes the same way unsolicited third party is the lowest though least likely to be forgive next is red handed then solicited and finally unsolicited partner Cues to lnfidelity angry critical argumentative changes in normal routine and sexual behavior apathetic toward partner increased sexual interest exaggerated displays of affection sexual disinterestboredom expresses relationhip dissatisfaction enituibak disengagement physical signs of infidelity spending increased time with there acts guilty and anxious Divorce Theories on what underlies divorce enduring dynamics model people bring problems to the marriage thus weak from the start disillusionment model people are initially blind to each other faults in time reality erodes fictions and people are less charming emergent distress model couples start out fine but quickly fall into ruts of negative behavior patterns Support for Theories support for enduring dynamics differences in newlywed happiness predicted ultimate levels of happiness more negativity initially and less responsiveness predicted unhappiness Support for disillusionment sharp declines in affection love and perceived responsiveness predicted divorce more likely to divorce faster than the enduring dynamics theory Support for emergent distress none Any hints on whether you are the kind of person who will get divorced neurticism extroversion lack of impulse control overal womens personality predicts more than men these personality effects may explain why studies show that genetics play a role twin studies don39t know but your twin gets a divorce Couple Factors Leading to Divorce conflict syle disagreements about sex disagreements about finance Consequences of Divice for Adults both men and women see themselves more positively and each other more negatively partners rated themselves more positively less responsible more victimless villain more willing to reconcile than spouse does women seen by both as having more control over breakup the more you see the spouse as in control the less adjusted happy and at ease with breakup How Adults Cope with Divorce oss of spouse is painful many divorced people feel great sadness and confusion when thinking about their exspouse the more people think of exspouse the less happy the more people think about their exspouse in a positive light the less happy Divorce consequences for adults Negative Effects forwomen economic problems for men and women shortterm locus of control switch short term lowered happiness psychological distress poorer self concepts health problems mortality female patient 4 times more likely to divorce than men the men were more likely to leave in which the woman has cancer and women are less likely to leave when men are diagnosed but overall divorce rate was the same autonomy and personal growth improvements in women39s career opportunities and social lives women greater self confidence and stronger sense of control Mengreater interpersonal skills and greater willingness to selfdisclose Sexual Minority Relationships overview myths relationships effects on children Myth 1 same sex relationships are short lived longer than 10 years 821 lesbian 1828 gay couples Gay and lesbian couples equally likely to lastend as heterosexual couples dissoution rates similar to hetero cohabitating couples but higherthan married couple marriage makes it harderto leave the relationships and children Myth 2 they revolve around sex difference in sexual frequency gay couples have more sex than hetero sexual and heterodox have more sex than lesbian incidence of nonmonogamy gay couples are more likely to be non monogamous but their partner knows about it Myth 3 involve tightly scripted malefemale role playing do not assign roles for household labor such that one partner is quothusbandquot and other is quotwifequot more egalitarian housework work even with kids do specialize in tasks but by preference not by masculinity or femininity Myth 4 they are different than heterosexual relationships except forthe gender of the partner homosexual romances and partnerships are very much like Blmstein and schwartz american couples Similarities attachment preference for expressive partner falling in love commitmet etc differences distinctiveness in areas influenced by gender communication women are better speak openly self reported desire for sexual contactmen Conflict gays disagree over same issues as straight couples argue more effectively better at sensing problems more positive less demandwithdraw more compromise Why because same sex couples are more egalitarian more likely to work to reach agreements but one difference is issues likejealousy gaylesbian is a smaller community more likely to have exe39s close by Relationship Quality factors that predict quality what the partners brings personality how each partnerviews the relationship trust how partners behave towards each other communication perceived support all same effect on quality APA says its unfair and discriminator to deny marriage to same sex couples we don39t see the difference between same sex couples Perceived Support we find the strongest difference between sexual minority and heterosexual couples ess likely to have approval from family members viewed as unique stressor that they have to face it is balanced some by the support of their friends usually involved in close knit community Influence of Stigma influence on mental and physical health marriagelooked at mental healthcare before marriage was allowed and found that gays were less stressed and thus healthier when marriage was allowed transitiion to parenthood ifthey were in a more supportive environment they were less despressed and anxious Growing up in a Gay or Lesbian household estimate of of children varies to 14 million to 14 million laws vary by state sexual orientation is fundamentally irrelevant to be being a good parent Effects on Kids No differences on emotional functioning sexual preference gender role behavior behavioral adjustment gender identity and cognitive functioning Lesbian parents greater child social competence ess spanking more tolerant of others more expressive play ess depression and anxiety Recent Controversy having lesbian mother or gay gather he thinkthey fared worse education marijuana use and such Same Sex Marriange Trends 11 countries allow it beginning in 2001 same sex are not federally recognized but legal in some states Nov 8 What is fertility fertiity refers to actual reproduction fertility rate fecundity refers to ability to reproduce infecunditysterility why do we have children biological predispositions strong sex drive experience kin relations as rewarding status we are socially and sexually competitive social coercion normative behavior and sanctions quotif you never want to open a door ever again get pregnant doors will open for youquot rational choice costs and benefits of having children decision making social economic and environment factorsgt proximate determinants gt Fertility Social economic and Environmental factors Womens status education traditional age at first marriage labor force participation poitical climate and social availability of childcare access to contraception and abortion need for family labor Cultural practices preference for sons family size norms Health Mortality rate breastfeeding norms Proximate determinants Biological constraints time lost during and after delivery postpartum infecundability about 15 months waiting time to conception 75 months time lost due to naturally occurring intrauterine mortality 2 months time lost due to sterility arising naturally with age or induced by pathological condition variable 35 kids if reproduced continuously from age 1845 only taking 9 months into account only 15 if you take these time constraints and stuff into account extent of exposure to possibility of conception ex time having sex breastfeeding prolongs postpartum infecundability proactin suppresses ovulation contraceptive behaviormethod induced abortion together with biological constraints the behavioral constraints lower fertility total fertility between 27 kids Contraception greatest role in limiting fertility Birth control How does pregnancy happen spermegg pregnant When is pregnancy possible pregnany is possible 10 days per month sperm can live 37 days egg can live 13 days did you know a woman who has intercourse without using contraception has a 90 chance of becoming pregnant in a year Preventing pregnancy sperm barriers egg hormones Effectiveness quotperfect usequot means quotused consistently and correctlyquot typical use means noooot perfect use 52 intended pregnacies 48 unintended pregnancies approx 63 million births annually Unintended Pregnancy rates are highest among women 1524 unmarried women women below 200 of the federal poverty level more common for african american and hispanic women The small proportion of women who do not use contraceptives account for nearly half of all unintended pregnancies women at risk of unintended pregnancy 93 using 7 women experiences unintended pregnancies 53using 47 not using November 13th 2012 Family Planning deciding whether and when to marry and have children conscious choice rational choice Assumes freedom and the ability to chi eve preferences Birth preferences and birth control History of Legal Birth Control 4916 First US Birth Control Clinic opened Brooklyn NY Margaret Sanger Wanted women to have equal footing in society 4964 Oral contraceptives availible in US 4965 griswold v connecticut legalized birth control by MARRIED couple 1972 eisenstadt v braid legalized birth control by UNMARRIED couples 4973 Roe v Wade legalized abortion Todaystill controversial abortions account for almost half of unintended pregnancies 40 percent are born 10 percent miscarriages Incidence of Abortion one of the most common surgical procedures in 2002 131 million us rates have decreased due to attitudes contraceptives changing laws and policies Childbirth in 2010 almost 4 million births were reported to US 3 less than 2009 Avg age at first birth for women 254 years slight increase Preterm birth rate less than 37 wks was 12 declining early preterm prior to 32 weeks was 35 not meeting replacement levels of birth 324 births are csection 12 of births at home Vaginal Birth Three Stages 1contractions begins around 3 cm dilation 2 Birth dilation about 10 cm 3Placenta Pain Control Nonmedical home birth water birth mediation etc Medical epidural analgesia personal decision Business of Being Borndocumentary about how birth has become polymedicalized Cesarean Section CSection lncisions made through mothers abdomen and uterus to deliver one or more babies Recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to a woman Major abdominal surgery surgical complications maternal rehospitalization more common costs are double Reasons for Csection birth complications large baby previous csetion breech retrieving early inducing labor doctor convenience parental convenience Infant Mortality Rate death before age of 1 decline in rate since 1990 overall in 2010 was 614 mississippi has highest state rate of 94 black women of non hispanic decent have highest rate in us 83 nfance Mortality Possible Reasons health of mother drugs smoking drinking obesity access to health care education preterm delivery sudden infant death syndrome sids SIDS unexplained cause of death problems with the baby39s ability to wake studies that when we are on the brink of sleep we are falling asleep to fast and not getting enough oxygen so our bodes natural defenses wakes us up inabiity to detect carbon dioxide in blood 3rd leading cause of infract death 54 1st cause after 1 month before 12 most common at 24 months Sleep environment important baby put to sleep on back firm surface no pillows blankets toys bumpers bumpers are illegal in canada no smoking near baby November 15th Feeding no solid foods before 4 months of age 6 months if possible breastfeeding formua Breastfeeding recommended for ist year of baby39s life its free is it healthier immunity boost 1st 6 weeks may be key correlation does not equal causation jump start weight loss helps shrink uterus back to size may lower risk of breast cancer it can be emotionally and physical exhausting 1840 ozday birth 6 months take a class partner should be involved your work situation will greatly affect your ability to breastfeed Formula its convenient much more expensive 1000 to 2400 dollars per year ots of options Staying at home vs working not an easy decision daycares are expensive the best ones have long wait lists not working is expensive pros and cons you get less injuries but more illness from daycares What to expect in the first 6 weeks varies dramatically baby has to eat every couple of hours eat every 3 hrs tend to sleepa lot potentially easiest part of transition coich is often developed by babies unsoothable crying baby particularly in the evening become obsessed with bodily functions Sleep you should take it when you get it newborns sleep 1618 hrsday you nap when the baby naps by 2 4 months 1516 hrsday 46 months 1415 hrsday 6 hr stretch is counted as sleeping through the night 6 12 months 1214 hrsday 1012 hours sleeping through the night may have regular by 4 6 months Ferber Method do not let your baby fall asleep feeding rocking or being stroked by you provide identical ritual at nap and bedtime baby sleeps in same place at nap and bedtime avid crutches like pacifiers put your baby down relaxed not asleep if protests make brief appearance at increasing intervals do not soothe A SHORT ANSWER QUESTION WILL BE FROM TODAYS NOTES November 20th Parenting Paradigms sleep training ferber method is one parent directed attachment parenting completely different from attachment styles not much evidence behind it a child directed orientation they co sleep breast feed on demand carry their babies more physical contact babies are directing when they eat and sleep and you respond to it know about but do not obsess about appropriate developmental milestones Developmental Checklist gross motor skills large muscle groups Fine Motor skills small muscle groups Language all forms of communication personaity and intellectual development gross holding head walking finepincer grasp is indication of being able to eat by themselves Iangrespond to loud noise happy noises personalitylook for hidden object stranger anxiety watched the cultures in the babies documentary What do you need when you have a baby lots but all cultures definitely didn39t39 have all of those How not to damage your kids youre going to damage them but lets minimize it the first few years sets the stage for later on THe Great Parenting Paradox Conformity vs Autonomy foow the rules be independerthink for the self avoid saying no OKFine lt gt Issues Outstanding we know more about issues smoking is bad Tuesday November 27th 2012 What do the experts say raising children is and should be an emotionally absorbing experience characterized by affectionate nurtue chid guides the prices educate yourslef know your kid Parenting Styles Diana Baumrind development of social competence social responsibility independence achievement friendliness and cooperativeness with others Utilizing Typologies balance of responsiveness and demandingness or warmthinvolvement vs control can be high vs low high in controlling demandingness authoritairian l authoritative low l high in responsiveness supportiveness and warmth uninvolved l permissive low Authoritatian use punitive means of controlling highly demanding punishment low levels of nurturance communication and support More demanding than responsive Permissive ndulgent or nondirective very nurturing and supportive lack control over behavior more responsive than demanding Authoritative use communication that involves reasoning influence is rational not coercive provide guidance and set limits balance of responsiveness and demandingness WHich style is most successful Authoritative promotes social competence better school performance high self esteem less deviance better peer relations Authoritarian negative affects children39s school performance Problems with Typologies not exhaustive not mutually exclusive parents can fall into more than one style may treat kids differently must consider culture Nov 29 2012 Parenting Practices behaviors parents engage in to influence their children Parental Support encouraging children to get involved in activities that enable independent decision making and enhance social competence being physically affectionate particularly for very youngsmiles and hugs being verbally affectionate particularly for older children praise their accomplishmentsverbal contact showing acceptance promotes positive social development encouraes children to develop independent decisions Parental Control two types parental induction and monitoring Parental Induction parents actively communicate with their children using reason why rules why violationg is bad effect behavior has on others how to make behaviors more acceptable Psychological method of control children being able to mentally work through what taught and see how it apples to them children develop a sense of right and wrong balance between conformity and autonomy Monitoring supervising children39s behavior observation andor management of children39s activities schedules and friends most effective when parents set rules and make sure consistently monitor gets tougher as children age lack of supervisionproblems higher rates of antisocial behavior delinquency and deviant peer association sexual risk taking drug use discipline goals of parent discipline decrease some behaviors tantrums taking balk running with scissors develop and promote other behaviors problem solving playing cooperatively completing homework As a rule physical punishment is not the best means to achieve these goals Positive Reinforcement is Effective rewarding good or appropriate behaviors Positive Guidance is Effective positively guide to make appropriate decisions initially redirection later appropriate options limit or avoid quotnoquot quotstopquot etc reward alternate behaviors process vs product not a freefor all NonPhysical Means of quotShapingquot ignoring the wanted behavior token economies predictable schedules and routines time outs redefined beware conditional approval good and bad December 4th Spanking Why doshould people spank Corporal physical punishment the use of physical force no matter how light with the intention of causing the child to experience bodily pain so as to correct or punish the child39s behavior hitting children with hand hitting children with object washing child39s mouth out with soap making child kneel on sharp or painful objects forcing child to engage in excessive exercisephysical exertion Spanking Defined A quotmildquot form of physical punishment Hitting a child with an open hand on the buttocks or extremities with the intent to discipline without leaving a bruise or causing physical pain Prevalence amp Trends 196039s 94 viewed spanking as acceptable 2000 61 viewed it the same 65 of parents use spanking 1 2 yr olds By 5th grade 80 of children physical punished by parents 50 hit with a belt or similar object quotwe see problems today because parents don39t spank their kids enoughquot corp punishment has decreased over time though some states have laws reminding parents of right to spank legal in all 50 states average 25 times in 2448 hour time period legal in public school in 22 states used frequently in 13 2006 2007 school year 223 190 children administered corporal disproportionally applied to black student has been banned in 25 countries human rights issue Outcomes Gershoff 2002 reviewed 88 studies spanking associated with immediate compliance 3 of 5 studies stopping behavior targeting in that instance only quotpositivequot outcome from spanking decreased long term compliance 13 of 15 studies more aggression 27 of 27 studies both towards parents and peers more antisocial behavior in children 12 of 13 increased risk of child abuse being victims of abuse or of abusing one39s own child or spouse violence begets violence diminished quality of parentchild relations poorer child and adult mental health Counter explanations child effect its aggressive children who are more likely to be punished in a similar way genetic effectcome from family who believe in spanking they39re more likely to spank American Academy of Pediatrics quotcorporal punishment is of limited effectiveness and has potential deleterious side effectsquot December 6th Why Ineffective does not teach children why behavior inappropriate or effects on others doesn39t teach how to make appropriate behavior choice next time serves as a model for children than aggression is ok allows children to think they complied only because forced to do so by parents does not internalize reasons for behaving appropriately teaches desirability of not getting caught Take Home Message Why take the chance not much evidence it will help but plenty evidence that it could be negative does escalate when do you spank if you do it once you39ve set the bar just not necessary think about why people cling to the idea that spanking is necessary teaches quotrespectquot quotmy parents did it and i turned out findquotgt defense of self and parents fa ulty logic 0k issues outstanding Consequences of Divorce on Kids Critical Thinking twice as many children of divorce have serious psychological and social problem than children in continuously married families TRUE but MISLEADING 43 of young adults from divorced families haVe wellbeing scores above the average of young adults frOm non divorced families Consequences for kids compared with children from two parent families academic success behaviorconduct psychologi cal adjustment self concept Soc ial competence long term health and well being And Lifespan children of div0rced parents die younger economic hardship stress loss of parent family conflict Alternative reasons children39s pre existing personalities ses childhood health status death of parent Why would divorce produce such negative results divorce Changes behavioral patterns in such a way as to lead to lng term effects on physical health and mortality risk men who had experienced parental divorce were more likely to divorce obtained less education women who ahd experienced parental divorce more and were What leads to these changes in patterns m odels of marriage unhealthier habits both smoking and drinking more depression stress anxiety ess attentive parents achievement missing fathers poorer parent child relationships more structural change Consequences for later relationships colege aged student not different in depression or


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